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Book Review: Roots by Alex Haley | The Art of an Improbable Life
book report moby Seven Creative Book Report Ideas (D5) from Idea Exchanges at NCTE Conventions. Telegram Book Report (6 th -9 th grade) (Ms. Book Report On Roots. Iris Sweig, Rocco Laurie I.S. 72, 33 Ferndale Ave., Staten Island, NY 10314) In a series of unusual book report assignments, one which is popular and different is the one written as a telegraph. The class is assigned any science fiction book to of romeo, read over a four week period. Students are then given a formal Western Union telegraph form which I have altered slightly. They must write their book report in 35 words or less, giving the book report on roots basics of the on etre persan dissertation story, an opinion and a recommendation. Report On Roots. They can't go over of romeo and juliet, the word limit, since the first fifteen words are billed at a flat rate, and each additional word is charged separately. No punctuation is needed, and simple phrases can be used. Report On Roots. The word STOP stands for a pause and is not counted in the 35 word limit. Western Union Telegram.
Address: Rocco Laurie I.S. 72. City, State , Zip: Staten Island, NY 10314. Of Women In Indian. Fire in far off land STOP Natives afraid of flames STOP Never rains here STOP Suddenly big cloud covers country STOP Good book STOP Recommended for book report, teenagers STOP 180 pages STOP. 2. Book Report Placemat (JH/MS) ( Richard W. Halle, Marshfield Jr. Tragedy Of Romeo. High, Marshfield, WI 54449-4595) Materials: Plain white placemats or 11/14 white paper, markers/crayons/colored pencils, colored paper, laminating machine Students are directed to use half of the report on roots area for artwork or a collage that illustrates part of the book they read. The other half is used for a brief summary or account of one major scene in the book. Because the public is the intended audience, special attention is given to that, the written portion by the students as the mat copy goes through the writing process. Most mats are perfect.
The positive nature of the product gives the book on roots public a good feeling about what students are doing. At the bottom of the mat, I have the students put: Produced by the red, ___________in Mr. Halle's 7 th grade English class, Marshfield Jr. High, Marshfield, WI 54449-4595. The mats are displayed in class, where the book report top six are picked by secret ballot. The top six get small prizes. A ballot is comment persan, again cast and the top winner receives a pizza donated by Real Pizza or Marshfield. Most businesses are happy to book on roots, cooperate with this type of search essay education promotion. All mats are graded for originality, writing content, visual display, and neatness. After the contest, the mats are used at convention luncheons or given to local restaurants to use.
The comments the mats receive are always positive. Few are left on the tables as people take them along to share with others. Book Report On Roots. The Book Talk Sandwich/Delicatessen (Middle School) (Nancy Stuart, Fuquay-Varina Middle, Fuquay-Varina, NC) In my class, an oral book report is called a book talk. This was one book talk that all students, regardless of search essay ability, participated in successfully. The initial assignment told students to build a sandwich using components of a book report: o Bread-- introduction. o Meat--opinion of book. When assembled, they could thumb through and have all the book elements of on role of women in indian society a successful oral book report. Book. Students immediately asked if they had to use my patterns and if they could make other foods.
I dragged in more colors of construction paper, and we wound up with a whole delicatessen of book reports. Everyone tried to outdo the comment on etre other. Celery characters floated in a tomato soup with setting crackers on book report, the side. Mushroom characters made up a slice of peut on etre pizza topped with cheese plot. Book On Roots. There was a taco, and French fry characters in a plot box. The Red Book Report. We even had a whole Mac Meal, including soft drink with the book title on book, the straw. I was able actually to watch students go from How could I do this? to drawing and planning. The fact that they had something to essays society, show during their talk seemed to make everyone at ease. The finished product made an eye-catching bulletin board.
We could even set up a whole table. This has made me realize how important it is for students, especially those reluctant to book report, speak before groups, to essay, have something to show in a book talk. It seems to relax them and make them less aware of all those eyes on book report, them. This lesson was brought to essay, me by my student teacher, who picked it up in book a methods class as a way to introduce elements of of romeo and juliet fiction. Neither of us anticipated how excited our students would be and what they would produce for us. English 1-H Fiction Book Report --TV Commercial ( High School) (Carolyn Beck, Civic Memorial H.S., 200 School St., Bethalto, IL 62010) Present to report on roots, the class a two to three minute television-type commercial for your book. o Identify the inter search major characters. Book Report On Roots. o Describe their major conflicts. o Hint at how those conflicts are resolved. Show the book plus one other visual aid such as a poster, picture, Prop (e.g. toy whale for Moby Dick ), costume (cowboy hat for The Red Pony ), etc. Decide how you want to stage your commercial, within the limitations of what is available in our classroom (desks, chairs) that can be set up quickly. If you use notes, they must be on comment peut, one 3/5 card. Practice at home.
Example: Speaker is seated on the edge of a table, holding a copy of Huckleberry Finn , with a shoebox diorama (of a river scene with a raft) sitting beside him on report on roots, the table. He says: If you enjoy adventure, yen for escape, have always dreamed of a Mississippi River cruise, this book is for comment on etre persan dissertation, you. Join young Huckleberry Finn and his friend Jim, a runaway slave, as they travel down the book river on a raft. They get caught in a family feud that leaves nine people dead, team up with traveling actors who try to bild some orphans, and trade identities with Huck's best friend, Tom Sawyer. They battle rattlesnakes, smallpox, robbers and peut on etre dissertation, murderers, and slave bounty hunters, but all turns out for the best. Don't miss this Mark Twain classic, available at your local library. Book. (Note: A PowerPoint presentation could provide visuals--even with animated effects.) (Linda Miller, Westminster Christian Academy, 10900 Ladue Road, Creve Coeur, Missouri 63141) You (and your partner, if you have one) are an advertising executive who is going to appear on Oprah or another TV show which does book interviews. Oprah or the host is going to ask you about the newest book you are promoting. You are going to show him/her the following: o A poster of your book--must have title and author on the red pyramid book, front (and your name(s)) o A bumper sticker similar to poster. o A button (must be worn during presentation) o A brief radio or TV commercial (30 sec. - 1 minute long). You can do this on on roots, tape (VCR or cassette) or with PowerPoint or just do one orally. Both partners must participate. o A magazine, newspaper ad, or webpage advertisement. Total for entire presentation--3-4 minutes.
Your book does not really have to be a new book! Just be sure you really like your book. If using partners, both must share equally in the work. Both should wear a button; both should be in custom essay the radio or TV commercial. Both must help draw the poster, etc. If you would like to dress up as one of the characters, you will receive extra points. You may also be asked to write a 1/2 page summary of report on roots your book the day before the oral report, as well as sign an honor statement.
6. The Red Report. Talking into Writing, Using Collaborative Writing to Make a Book Report (S,C,JH/MS) (Rose Lee Davis, 912 Cherry St., Chillicoth, MO 64601) This approach utilizes the strategies of sharing with partners, listening and taking notes, writing rough drafts, revising with the collaboration of a partner, editing, and peer evaluation. Brainstorming : Before grouping in pairs, instruct each student to brainstorm on a piece of paper, listing details that Call to mind the report on roots most memorable character (major or minor) and Call to mind the pyramid most memorable incident (not necessarily the high point or climax, but maybe one that was frightening, humorous, sensitive), one to which the student relates in some way . (5 minutes) Sharing Ideas and Taking Notes: As partners, one student tells the other about his character and his incident. The listener takes notes. Reverse roles (15-20 minutes total time) Write Description: Then, each listener writes a description and the narrative from his notes. (10 minutes) Share Descriptions: Writing is handed to partner who underlines in each section the book report on roots sentence that best captures what was told. Partner writes two details in the margin to be included. Tragedy Of Romeo And Juliet Essay. Papers are returned. Revision: Assign revision or do the book next day in class. Partner reads revision and concurs. Writer now edits. Evaluation: Next day, partner reads revision and evaluates with comment: e.g. Inter Search. This is report on roots, exactly how I pictured the tragedy character or This is fairly close or not quite or not at all and why.
7. Book Report On Roots. Book Report Project (HS) (Bobbie Coleman, Searcy High School, Searcy, Arkansas) This book report project is based on the American novel which you are to read this nine weeks. This project is of romeo, due on Friday, November 3 (the week after nine weeks' tests). Twenty points will be deducted from your grade if this is turned in book late (unless you have an excused absence). The project will not be accepted after Monday, November 6. This project must be in a folder. The items should be in the order that I have given them below. Custom Essay Writing Toronto. This project will be graded on neatness. The summary and the character sketch should be typed or printed by computer. I will keep these projects. Requirements In Order: You must make a book jacket for the book.
This must be a colorful picture which pertains to book report, the book. On the back of the jacket, you must include the custom essay writing toronto section about the author of the report book. Georgia Essays Worked. The report must have a title page giving the name of the book and the author. Book Report On Roots. It should also have your name, period, and date. The report must have a table of contents. The pages in the report should be numbered. There must be a 200-word summary of the book in manuscript form. This must include the comment peut persan dissertation ending of the book. There must be a picture of the main character(s). This can be drawn or cut from a magazine. There must be a 100-word character sketch of the main character.
You should concentrate on one main personality trait of his/hers, giving examples from the book to substantiate this trait. This must be in manuscript form. Write a letter to the author of the on roots book, telling him/her why you did/did not like the book. Be specific. Write a letter to a friend of yours giving three specific reasons why you would/would not recommend this book to him/her. Make a list of 20 vocabulary words from the custom writing book. Book. Doublespace between each word and give the inter essay page number the book on roots word is on and its definition. Make out a 25 question test on the book. This may be fill-in-the-blank, multiple choice, short answer, true or false, or matching. Include the answers to the questions.
You may have as many as two essay questions, also.
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ROOTS by Alex Haley | Kirkus Reviews
pe homework This is the PERFECT winter break homework for on roots encouraging activity, and not the video game kind :-) This freebie includes: * two choices for winter break homework if you live in a SUNNY area (one sheet requires a parent signature) * two choices for winter break homework if you live in a SNOWY area (one sheet requires a parent signature) * print on white paper or colored paper If you enjoy this freebie, please take 10 seconds to give feedback after you download and explore. I love hearing. Spring Break Workout: Encouraging Physical Activity over Spring Break. This is the PERFECT spring break homework for encouraging activity, and not the video game kind :-) This freebie includes: * two choices for spring break homework (each version requires a parent signature option) *print back-to-back and custom writing double the fun :-) * print on on roots white paper or colored paper If you enjoy this freebie, please take 10 seconds to give feedback after you download and explore. I love hearing your ideas and comments! Check out this products that are perfect for spring! St. This book will be a lovely addition to your Field Day fun. It will allow students to describe and illustrate all the fun they have just experienced. **Just added new covers personalized for on role of women in indian Kindergarten Field Day, First Grade Field Day, Second Grade Field Day** If you have already downloaded this, re-download for the new covers!
This is a series of book diagrams and a test or review sheets over the basics of soccer. Page 1: Cover Page 2: Blank Soccer Field Page 3: Soccer Field Positions Page 4: Soccer Field Diagram Page 5: Soccer Rules Page 6-8: Review or Test over Soccer field, positions, and rules 8 page pdf download. I also have basic soccer drills available at: http://beta.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Early-Elementary-Soccer-Drills. Sports Science Article - Bungee Jumping. This assignment is of women in indian society, perfect for homework when teaching a science unit on book forces energy (laws of motion) or for dissertation a language arts reading selection. Report On Roots? Included with this purchase are: 1) a 2-page article on the extreme sport of bungee jumping 2) a question sheet with 13 questions 3) a 21-question crossword puzzle connecting to the article The assignment is custom essay toronto, provided as MS-Word so you can modify both the article and questions as needed to fit your classroom. The crossword is a static image. Freebie Physical Activity Reading Comprehension Passage.
Teach students about physical activity and its benefits with this physical activity reading comprehension FREEBIE! Use it along side your nutrition and healthy eating unit, physical activity unit, and during Heart Health Month in February. Book Report On Roots? This freebie is part of 2 larger sets: • 4 Physical Activity Reading Comprehension Passages and Bingo Game • The Great Physical Activity Bundle (3-5) which includes 20 exercise picture cards, 4 Reading Comprehension Passages, Bingo Game, Move Around the. Mr. Jones Nutrition Fun Packet • There is a worksheet that is attached that the comment peut, students must fill out for a three day food intake of what they eat for breakfast, lunch, snack and dinner. (If you like this - download the Nutrition FUN Package) http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Mr-Jones-Nutrition-Fun-Packet Check out my new children's book that goes with this project http://www.mascotbooks.com/mysteryrecipe. This exercise log is a great way to encourage students to be physically active.
There is space to book log 10 activities. When students turn in and juliet, a completed log I reward them with extra time in the reading corner, a special job, or getting to use a balance ball as their seat for the day. Enjoy! *Please take a moment to rate this product. We all need some TPT love. Also, come back to Cozy Creative Class anytime! My goal is to provide products that encourage students to be comfortable in their. This is a one page reproducible. Monitor student activity in the classroom and/or at on roots, home for one week. The document provides step-by-step instructions, a week long calendar AND a 4 point rubric scale for custom toronto grading.
Flag Football: An Academic Learning Packet. Flag Football: An Academic Learning Packet. This 10 page packet provides an intro to the sport of flag football. Students read about the book on roots, history of the writing toronto, sport, how to perform the activities, how to score and a description of the important skills required for successful participation. Book? A news notes section is included for current events in peut persan, the sport. 5 pages of reading, all new crossword puzzle wordsearch puzzle, ten questions a teacher answers section are included. Updated June.
Grab a Bag and Go! Practically Perfect P.E. Packets Book 5. The activities in this book can be used in a number of different ways. Book On Roots? First, they can be put into essay, Ziploc bags and used as homework packets just like all of the book, other Grab a Bag Go Homework Packets. You may consider using one activity as a whole class assignment or as part of tragedy of romeo your own weekly homework. Another option is to make of two or three packets of each of these activities, and allow your students to choose from a variety of report packets. Regardless of how you use them they are proven.
Sports Science Article - Rock Climbing. This assignment is perfect for essays on role of women in indian homework when teaching a science unit on forces energy (laws of motion) or for a language arts reading selection. Included with this purchase are: 1) a 2-page article on the extreme sport of rock climbing 2) a question sheet with 17 questions (stressing key vocabulary) 3) a vocabulary wordsearch connecting to book report the article The assignment is search, provided as MS-Word so you can modify both the book report, article and questions as needed to custom essay writing toronto fit your classroom. The wordsearch is. Baseball: An Academic Learning Packet. Baseball: An Academic Learning Packet. This 13 page packet provides an introduction to the sport of baseball. Students read about the history of the book report, game, how it is played, how to score and a description of the important skills required for successful play.
A news and notes section is the red pyramid, included for current events in book report, the sport. 8 pages of reading, all new crossword puzzle wordsearch puzzle, ten questions a teacher answers section are included. Updated June 2013. The Impact of Exercise on the Brain. Motivation to inter search essay exercise is book, most commonly expressed as improving one's looks or improving one's health status. This handout can spring discussions among students regarding the most important reason to the red pyramid exercise as it relates to book on roots school. Students will think about activity from a historical perspective, learn some important brain vocabulary, and learn to use exercise to pyramid gain control of other areas of their life besides learning.
PE Argumentative Writing Assignment and Rubric. I know many physical education/health teachers struggling to find ways to on roots include the common core standards into their classes. This is of romeo and juliet, a homework assignment for middle school students that reinforces what we are going over in class that incorporates the Common Core Writing Standards for on roots English Language Arts. Physical Education: Exercise Bucket. Download this free exercise bucket packet to encourage your students to exercise at home! It's a FUN way to inspire students to take responsibility to exercise on persan their own by using items they have at home. Students can use items they have at book report on roots, home to fill their exercise bucket. This packet includes bucket label sheet with directions, and essays on role in indian society ideas to fill your bucket. This idea was created during our Bucket Filling Lessons and kick off our school wide fitness challenge.
Students return their. Health General Questions, Introduce Health and Gain Prior Knowledge. Worksheet includes 20 health questions that are designed to test the book report, prior knowledge of students in regards to a range of inter essay health concepts. I have included 2 sets of the questions on report on roots one page to reduce printing, simple cut in half to give one set to each student. The questions are designed to be completed with minimal teacher assistance and require students to tech essays think about book, their relationship with health and report what health means to them.
This is book report on roots, a great way to gauge where the students are at with. Students can keep weekly logs of the physical activity that they participate in outside of school. Great to use in elementary school. Active Kids: 24 Menus - home activities / HW that gets kids moving! Are you looking for a way to inter essay get your students up and moving at home?
Are you looking for an alternative to traditional homework or just a supplemental activity to encourage a healthy lifestyle? Active Kids includes 24 fit-tac-toe menus with 6 choices each. Book Report? There are two options: Menus labeled by month (2 per month) Menus without monthly labels (allows flexibility) If you are not a year-round school, there are 4 additional menus (July and August) that you can use! Send a new menu. Physical Education Fitness Handouts Series 1-8.
For those of of romeo essay you who like the book, first series of my Physical Education Fitness Handouts, this gives you the ability to purchase all 8 series at essay writing services, a discounted rate! These are handouts that I give out to my 6th grade classes to book on roots enhance the objectives that I am targeting in that weeks lessons. These worksheets can also be used with 7th and 8th grade classes as well. These are handouts that I give out to my 6th grade classes to enhance the objectives that I am targeting in that weeks lessons. These. Heart Worksheet - Parts and Flow, Organs, Body Systems, Cardiovascular System.
INCLUDES: Student Worksheet, Answer Sheet, Word Bank Students label parts of the tech essays that worked, heart using Word Bank (given), then draw arrows to show how the blood moves through the heart. Physical Activity Reading Comprehension Passages and Bingo Game. Teach students about physical activity and its benefits with our 4 reading comprehension passages. Then use the Bingo game to have fun reinforcing the content from the passages. This product is great to support your health curriculum during your nutrition and healthy eating unit, physical activity unit, and to use during Heart Health Month in February.
Included: • 4 Reading Passages with Comprehension Questions ? What is Physical Activity? ? How Hard Should Physical Activity Be? ? Team Handball: An Academic Learning Packet. Team Handball: An Academic Learning Packet. This 11 page packet provides an introduction to the sport of handball. Students read about the report, history of the sport, how to perform the search, activities, how to score and a description of the important skills required for successful participation. Book? A news and notes section is included for custom writing current events in the sport. 6 pages of reading, all new crossword puzzle wordsearch puzzle, ten questions a teacher answers section are included. Updated.
Get parents involved in book, your school or classroom writing program with Parent Writing Homework! I send different topics home throughout the year (once or twice a quarter) as an optional activity for parental involvement. This topic is share with us how you keep your body healthy. After they are returned, I post the inter, writings on a big bulletin board in the hallway. Students LOVE reading what their parents have written - what an amazing motivation for book improving their own writing! This product. This printable PowerPoint contains three months of essays society activities for students to book report on roots do at home with parents over georgia worked, the summer. It includes rhyming practice, math, opposites, physical activities, calendar questions, self-awareness questions, etc. I have attached 10 weeks worth of report on roots lesson plans for writing services PE. They are crossfit style workouts. On Roots? I am not Crossfit Kids certified, but I am a Level 1 Trainer.
I designed these workouts to help prepare my 5th graders for the PE testing they have at the end of the year. In the custom essay writing, lessons, there are also challenges (I made 15 weekly challenges). These were designed as PE homework for the kids. They could complete the challenges at on roots, recess or at search, home, and receive a sticker. When they had 5 stickers they got. Physical Education - PE weekly reflection. We fill this out so we can see what the students learned throughout the week and also a way for them to chart activity they do outside of school.
Go way to see if they are getting 60 min. of activity 5 days a week. It is good to see what they are doing and for us to promote them being active and talking about it in our physical education classes. 3 aspects of health self-assessment. student self-assessment to book report see where there health is currently at File is editable. A quick 15 question quiz on MyPlate content. Includes labeling the food groups on MyPlate and deciding whether foods are fruits, vegetables, proteins, grains, or dairy products.
Word document so it may be edited. Enjoy! Science Article - Newton#039;s Laws of Motion (article, questions, photos, puzzle) Teaching about Newton's Laws of inter Motion? Then this purchase is a perfect addition for your classroom! This purchase includes: 1) 2-page informational article on Newton's Laws of book Motion and how they connect to various sports. 2) 2-page sports picture page where students identify and explain the law of motion taking place in each of the sports as shown. 3) 2-page question and vocabulary puzzle sheet to accompany the article. This is a great addition to custom essay services toronto any unit on book report Forces and tragedy of romeo and juliet essay Motion and. Weight Management Body Image Homework. This Homework assignment has one page of critical thinking questions on book on roots the topic of peut on etre dissertation Weight Management Body Image.
A free product preview of the entire homework assignment is available below. A PowerPoint Presentation and Notes Outline on this topic can be purchased separately. On Roots? Weight Management Body Image PowerPoint Presentation Weight Management Body Image PP Notebook for Smartboard Weight Management Body Image Notes Outline Weight Management Body Image Homework © Lisa. Muscles, Agonist/Antagonist, Movement Patterns. This is tragedy of romeo essay, a colour coded handout with all the on roots, muscle pairs (angonist and antagonist) and their appropriate movement patterns This was produced to meet all the major muscles identified in the OCR AS PE specification. This chart is used as a tool for students to inter essay track how they are staying active as a family. Book Report On Roots? It can be done for a week, month, or any time period that is chosen. Essay Writing Services Toronto? I have used this tool to give a visual to students how they can be active in report on roots, their daily lives outside of school. At the upper elementary age levels it was encouraging the search, opportunity to work with family members while being active. Entire project based on winter Olympics, but it can be modified to summer Olympics.
The rubric is also in the package. I am also uploading the TV viewing log. On Roots? Check it out!! Physical Education Fitness Packet Series 3. This is the third series of handouts that I give out to my 6th grade classes to enhance the objectives that I am targeting in that weeks lessons. These worksheets can also be used with 7th and 8th grade classes as well. The third set of inter search handouts in this section revolve around the following: How Exercise Can Extend Life, Balance, Coordination, Speed and report on roots Motivation.
Each handout comes with review questions, and if applicable, an answer key. This is the tragedy of romeo, third series, in book report, a total of eight. Following. This is on role in indian society, an at book on roots, home assignment were students log there fitness or movement activities over a 6 week period (suggest 2 entries per week). Once they have completed the fitness log they then answer the two reflection questions. This also incorporates math (percentiles) and Common Core Writing Standards for Language Arts. Physical Education Fitness Packet Series 8. This is the eigth, and final, series of handouts that I give out to the red book my 6th grade classes to enhance the objectives that I am targeting in report on roots, that weeks lessons. These worksheets can also be used with 7th and 8th grade classes as well. The eighth set of essay handouts in this section revolve around the following: Exercise, Acrostic Poem and Discovering Life Time Fitness. Each handout comes with review questions, and if applicable, an answer key.
This is the book on roots, final series, in a total of georgia tech essays that eight. Tennis: An Academic Learning Packet. Tennis: An Academic Learning Packet. This 11 page packet provides an introduction to the sport of tennis. Students read about the history of the game, how it is played, how to score and a description of the important skills required for book report on roots successful play. Georgia Tech That? A news and book on roots notes section is included for current events in the sport. 9 pages of inter search essay reading, all new crossword puzzle wordsearch puzzle, ten questions a teacher answers section are included. Updated June 2013. Cardovascular System Study Guide and answer key.
This double column study guide can be used in conjunction with the Cardiovascular system PowerPoint, cardiovascular system foldable and heart disease notes pages. I typically add a page to book this study guide to include a heart diagram so students can identify the major anatomical structures of the heart. Due to copyright, I could not include this diagram as it is from our textbook! Overall, a great review of the subject matter of this unit! A log used to keep track of students activity just as you would reading minutes or math facts. The log can be differentiated for students who have different levels of activity. A free instruction letter is available as well as a donation letter for tragedy and juliet local businesses. Prizes are giving once per month for filled logs. Great incentive to reward children for being active.
Students can add minutes for great computation practice! This is a template for students to use if they have a writing assignment reporting on a professional or school sporting event. This assignment can be done in class or for homework. Report? Students are encouraged to use the of romeo, internet or a soccer resource to find answers. This is a complete list of report basic rules that pertain to outdoor soccer. This is a short assessment that children in grades 1st-3rd can complete.
This assessment can be used as a post assessment for 1st graders who have learned about different sports for the first time, or as a pre-assessment for essays on role in indian 2nd and book on roots 3rd graders who have had P.E. before. The first page has two sets of the test, so it can be cut in half in on role of women society, order to report preserve paper and copy limits. Elementary Fitness Testing Student Goal Template. The template is used for services toronto elementary physical education students to create goals for book report on roots their next round of fitness testing. Physical Education Medical Packet. Physical Education Medical Packet -For students who are out on medical for a long time -PowerPoint project -Assessment criteria included -Teacher/student agreement of inter search when the project is due (weekly, monthly etc. you decide) -Easy to grade point system included.
Nutrition, Hydration, Health-Science of NFL QR Code Video Worksheet. This QR code video worksheet introduces the on roots, concepts of Nutrition, Hydration, and Calories to comment students while connecting it to American football. The video is four minutes long and really connects with students who learn visually or enjoy sports, especially football. Considering football is the most popular sport in the United States most students will find the report, video engaging. The Nutrition, Hydration, Health-Science of the NFL Video Worksheet is 1 of 10 video worksheets that connect with the. Engage your students to participate in of women society, a healthy and report active lifestyle with these simple, and easy to use fitness calendars.
Each calendar has fitness codes, a place holder for parent and student signatures, and due date, and some wonderful inspirational quotes from athletes, coaches, writers and philosophers. The document is in Microsoft Word Format and can be edited with your own wording or your own dates that are specific to pyramid your school district. Fitness Calendars 2017-2087 School Year. Save money and buy the complete set (10 months: Sept-June) of Fitness Calendars for the 2017-2018 School Year. Engage your students to participate in a healthy and active lifestyle with these simple, and easy to book on roots use fitness calendars.
Each calendar has fitness codes, a place holder for georgia that parent and student signatures, and due date, and report on roots some inspirational sayings. This bundle is in both Microsoft Word Format and Adobe PDF, The Microsoft Word Version can be edited with your own wording or. This booklet is meant to be used in accordance with the custom essay toronto, free online resources found on the site: A Drug Free World. The online resource has an Ad, Documentary and Information booklet so I made corresponding worksheets to book on roots solidify content. 2016 Rio Olympics - Map the Medal Count! Students will expand their geographic knowledge during the Rio Games by labeling (on a map) the countries that are winning medals. Additionally, students will creatively and clearly depict the number of medals that these countries are winning directly on these maps. Prior to the mapping activity, students will read a short website passage about the history of Olympic medals and answer subsequent questions.
This is a great companion activity to help you incorporate the Olympics into your. American Heart Association 2015 Basic Life Suport (BLS) Exam Study Guide. The following study guide has been created to assist students with preparing for the American Heart Association’s (AHA) Basic Life Support (BLS) exam. The answers to this study guide can be found in the red pyramid, the American Heart Association’s 2016 BLS Provider Manual. Report? The page numbers are noted for each section of the study guide. Custom Toronto? An answer key IS included in the Zip file. This Homework assignment has one page of critical thinking questions on the topic of Nutrition.
A free product preview of the entire homework assignment is available below. Book Report? A PowerPoint Presentation, Notes Outline and other resources on this topic can be purchased separately. Nutrition PowerPoint Presentation Nutrition PP Notebook for Smartboard Nutrition Notes Outline Nutrition Homework Human Digestion PowerPoint Presentation Human Digestion PP Notebook for Smartboard. Please note that you're heading to a part of of women in indian society our site that's not yet optimized for mobile.
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Roots by Alex Haley - Summary Guide - Book Club Discussion
What’s so great about the report, welfare state? ESSAY: The origins of state welfare were far from progressive, and in its new therapeutic form it is actually a barrier to georgia essays that human solidarity. I n the run-up to the UK General Election, spiked will publish a series of essays reposing political issues. The aim of the ‘Question Everything’ essays is to encourage people to rethink the past, the present and the future. In this fifth essay, James Panton argues that the social benefits of the welfare state are now more than outweighed by its social costs: diminished subjectivity, corroded communities, and increased state power. With all the ‘tough talking’ in on roots the General Election campaign about which party is most capable of making drastic public spending cuts, there appears to be at least one piece of good news: the welfare state – that alleged crowning achievement of Britain’s postwar political consensus, which guaranteed citizens ‘protection from peut want’ from cradle to grave for more than 60 years – is safe. Whatever minimal and technical disagreements exist between the three main parties about how and book on roots when spending should be cut, there is one thing on which they are agreed: savings will be made and public expenditure will be cut without any deleterious effects on the provision of essays on role of women in indian society frontline welfare services in healthcare, education, support for children and families, and benefits for the needy. Thus New Labour pledges to ‘protect vital frontline services in health and education’ while bringing ‘borrowing down to on roots meet our commitments on halving the deficit’. The Conservatives promise to ‘cut the deficit, not the NHS’.
The Liberal Democrats promise not only to reduce class sizes in schools but to provide more funds ‘for things like one-to-one tuition and classes in the evenings’ while ‘protecting and improving the tech that, NHS’. On the report on roots, New Labour government’s Sure Start initiative for families and young children, the only discussion seems to be about who will do most to expand it. Labour minister Ed Balls promises to defend Sure Start against Tory cuts, while the pyramid, Tories deny the cuts accusation and actually promise to ‘strengthen Sure Start by recruiting thousands of book new Sure Start health visitors’. Even on the question of welfare benefits, where there is at on etre dissertation least the appearance of a disagreement, none of the report, parties is essays on role in indian proposing reducing service provision in any way. Some people will be pleased that the welfare state will pretty much remain intact – but there are many reasons why this apparent consensus on the immediate future of the welfare state should concern us. For a start, it is disingenuous to believe that welfare provisions can be maintained at current levels while at the same time making significant public-spending cuts.
There is also the book on roots, profoundly conservative assumption that cuts are essential in the first place, which assumes a future of essays worked austerity and low rates of economic growth (see, for example, The austerity auction, by Rob Lyons and There is an alternative to book austerity, by Daniel Ben-Ami). Guns aren’t to blame for the horror in Vegas. Social policy and the welfare state. But most troubling of all is the fact that the leaders of all parties are united in tragedy essay their refusal even to consider the possibility of significantly reorganising, much less reducing, society’s reliance upon state welfare provision. The twin influences of economic recession and the exhaustion of political and state institutions give us the possibility of asking a number of hugely important questions about the welfare state: What kinds of social provisions do we want in society? How might they be (re)organised? What sort of new social institutions could guard individuals against the inevitable failings of book report on roots twenty-first century capitalist society? Given the lack of vision in British politics today, it is no great surprise that these questions are not on the election agenda. But there is deeper reason why real analysis of the role of the welfare state is absent. To raise any critical questions about the welfare state would require the political class to question the role it has played in a fundamental reorganisation of the relationship between state and citizens, radically transforming assumptions about what citizens are capable of and what role the state can and should play in our lives.
Over the past couple of decades, a new understanding of welfare has been put at the centre of the report, elite’s project to connect with, engage with and remould the citizenry. Where the old welfare state was largely about providing citizens with the material things they needed to survive, the new welfare state is a far more therapeutic institution and is about redefining what it means to report be a citizen and how citizens relate to the state. The old notion of the welfare state as a ‘safety net’ to help citizens cope with hardship assumed that individuals, families and communities were generally able to run their own lives most of the time. Social assistance, therefore, was designed to return people to a situation where they could get on with their lives unaided, as autonomous, capable human beings. But the model of welfare that has developed over the past two decades entirely rejects the idea that individuals have the capacity to run their lives.
Welfare provision now starts from the tragedy essay, assumption that individuals and on roots communities are incapable of managing their own health and lifestyles, family life, child-rearing and pyramid book report informal community relations without the constant intervention of the book, state and its institutions to advise, train, counsel and that (re)educate them. The change has been so profound that it is really no longer appropriate to report talk about a ‘welfare’ state at all. Essay! In its place there has developed what former New Labour prime minister Tony Blair described in 2006 as an ‘enabling state’. Book On Roots! This new ‘enabling state’ might promote itself through the rhetoric of responsibility and empowerment, but in fact its impact on individuals and communities has been extremely disabling. Inter Essay! Virtually every welfare-state intervention is now premised on the assumption that individuals are vulnerable, physically and psychologically incapacitated, and in book need of constant therapeutic intervention. Questioning the role of the welfare state in our lives has never been more urgent. And to do this effectively, we must first understand what the welfare state was really all about in the past, and then consider the more recent transformation of state institutions from providers of discrete assistance and writing services toronto material resources into vehicles for therapeutic guidance. Of course, the welfare state, even in its traditional form, was always more than a mere safety net.
Its interventions and provisions were often deeply problematic and were about more than providing material resources to the less well-off. The welfare state has been romanticised a great deal in recent decades and has become bound up in Britain’s postwar understanding of itself as decent and caring. Many on the left in particular considered the welfare project to be the first step on the road to socialism. However, it is important to recognise that the real motivation for on roots, building the welfare state had little to do with moral concerns about ensuring greater material equality or social justice, and certainly had nothing to do with creating a socialist Britain. In reality, the welfare state developed as an attempt to mitigate the failures of market society and to contain the threat of class conflict – it was driven by the interests of the society, state , not the interests of the citizenry. In the latter decades of the nineteenth century, certain sections of the liberal intelligentsia became concerned with the apparent injustices of book laissez faire capitalism. The social liberal TH Green called on the state to ‘remove all obstacles’ to the individual development of ‘social capacity’, such as those caused by lack of education, ill health and housing (see Thomas Hill Green, Lectures on the Principle of Political Obligation , 1885).
Research into poverty and housing conducted by the social reformer Charles Booth and the young socialist Beatrice Webb, and Seebohm Rowntree’s study of poverty in York, in which he developed the argument that poverty was the result of low pay rather than the moral failings of the poor, all provided the statistical evidence and normative arguments for a developing moral, if paternalistic, concern with poverty. However, these concerns, put forward by various Quakers and liberal reformers, were not sufficient to motivate a fundamental reconceptualisation of the role of the state based on providing welfare and health to all. On their own these arguments did not give rise to tech essays that worked a new welfare state. Instead, the welfare state emerged from some far more hard-nosed political concerns. In 1899, the political class was appalled to discover that, despite the apparent willingness of the British working man to enlist to fight in the Second Boer War, almost 25 per cent of volunteers were unfit for military service. In Manchester alone, 8,000 of the 10,000 men who volunteered were rejected on the grounds of ill-health and physical incapacity.
Worse still, the difficulties experienced by those working men who did pass the basic fitness test and then struggled to report defeat the on etre dissertation, less-experienced Boers made the elite worry that this might be the beginning of the book on roots, end of Britain’s military greatness. How could Britain be great if its fighting men were so physically weak? There emerged a heated elite discussion about the degeneration of the British race, and of women in indian how this might be turned around by improving the basic conditions of the working man. Equally important to the emergence of the idea of state-provided welfare was elite concern about the various challenges to Britain’s economic dominance in the world, especially from Germany. The growing economic might of the recently unified German state was, at least in part, a result of its commitment to ‘national efficiency’. In the 1880s, motivated both by an attempt to create the conditions for maximum productivity and to report contain social conflict, Bismarck introduced a range of state measures to provide health, accident, old-age and search essay invalidity insurance for the working classes. These German welfare measures were the model for the Liberal reforms made by governments under Herbert Asquith and David Lloyd George: the introduction of free school meals in 1906, the introduction of a means-tested pension in 1908, the book report, establishment of labour exchanges in 1909, and the National Insurance Act of 1911, which introduced a basic level of health insurance and unemployment benefit.
Just as for Bismarck, the acceptance by the British ruling class that the state should intervene in society to create the conditions for a more efficient capitalist economy went hand-in-hand with their increasing concern about the growing strength and radicalisation of the society, labour movement. On Roots! For Britain’s rulers, a state-run social insurance system was far preferable to the possible alternative: that the working classes might seek to transform their conditions by and for themselves. The project of transforming these early twentieth-century systems of social security and insurance into the institutions of inter state welfare that we recognise today began with the publication of the Beveridge Report in 1942. Almost immediately, the promise of a society of fully employed, healthy, educated and materially secure citizens – a society that had defeated the ‘giant evils of squalor, ignorance, idleness, want and disease’, as social reformer William Beveridge put it – became central to the ideological drive to keep British troops fighting in the Second World War. They were now seen as fighting towards a new kind of society. The principles and institutions of the report, welfare state were finally established with the on role of women in indian, Education Act of 1944, which created free secondary education and the basis for comprehensive schools; the Family Allowance Act of 1945; the National Insurance Act of 1946; and then the National Health Service, which was launched in 1948.
Most of book report on roots these provisions were enacted by the red pyramid book report the first-ever Labour majority government, but it was the Tory reformer RA ‘Rab’ Butler who introduced the education reforms. Butler and his fellow ‘One Nation’ Tories, who entered government in 1951, had no problem with the welfare model. On the contrary, their project of social unity and stability would depend upon it. The aim of the book report, Beveridge Report was to keep the capitalist economy afloat, not in any way to undermine it, and to establish the possibility of further growth and expansion. The general, postwar acceptance that society could be dominated to such an extent by the state was doubtless made easier by the total domination of society by the ‘warfare state’ for the previous six years. Importantly for the elites, their pursuit of a new welfare-modelled state allowed for the even greater cooption of the report, labour movement, individuals and communities into a unified sense of Britain’s role in report the world. The point of this brief historical survey is not to suggest that the principles and the red pyramid reality of the book report, welfare state brought no positive benefits. The National Health Service, premised on the idea of providing universal access to peut persan dissertation healthcare at the point of need, has played a significant role in both eradicating disease and significantly improving the health of the population. The introduction of book report on roots a comprehensive system of education provided, in theory at least, access to essays society rigorous learning and knowledge to everyone, regardless of class or social privilege. The social provision of material necessities and resources to individuals who, through no fault of their own, were unable to provide for report, themselves is an expression of the important humanist responsibility that society has to all of its members in times of need. The recognition that poverty, illness and unemployment are social problems, and not the result of individual moral failings, was implicit in the model of welfare that was dominant in comment peut on etre persan dissertation Britain from the end of the report, Second World War to essays the 1970s, and is an essential insight for anyone concerned with social justice.
However, it is important to set the positive benefits of the welfare state against book report on roots, the constant potential for the ever-greater intervention of the state in society, and the consequent domination and structure of writing toronto dependency that this establishes, to limit the capacity of individuals and report on roots communities to take control of tech worked their circumstances. By providing a buffer against the worst deprivations caused by poverty, unemployment and social alienation, the welfare state also plays a significant role in report on roots encouraging people to accommodate to their lot. The criteria by which any past, current or proposed welfare intervention should be judged is in terms of the custom essay, capacity that it gives individuals to take greater control of their lives – to live the lives that they want to lead, with the means to take control of the report on roots, resources that they feel are necessary. On this basis, it would be wrong to dismiss the gains of georgia tech essays that education, healthcare and material welfare benefits – when people are in need, a decent society should develop mechanisms to meet those needs. But it would be naive to overlook the hardnosed political origins of the welfare state, and its role in de-radicalising and controlling working-class aspiration, and to book on roots leave unexplored the increasingly problematic role that a new therapeutic welfare state plays today. The old aspiration, amongst social reformers at least, to provide social mechanisms that might empower people to take greater control of their lives has been entirely absent in the discussion and development of the welfare state over on role society, the past two decades. Indeed, the on roots, new ‘enabling state’, as Blair christened it, is a direct consequence of a diminished view of the capabilities of individuals and communities. Where the welfare state was in essence an attempt to head off radical, working-class politics, the motivation for the transformation of the search, meaning of welfare in recent years has been a semi-conscious attempt by the state to engage with, connect to, and in report numerous ways reshape and resocialise the citizenry. Let us consider two examples.
The case of children and families. One of the most progressive campaigns of the feminist movement in the 1970s and 80s was for the provision of universally accessible childcare on the red pyramid book report demand. Book Report! At first sight, it might seem as if this demand has finally been achieved with Sure Start, the New Labour government’s ‘programme to deliver the best start in life for tragedy and juliet essay, every child by bringing together early education, childcare, health and family support’. Sure Start provides children’s centres (‘service hubs where children under five years old and their families can receive seamless integrated services and report on roots information’), through a guarantee of free ‘early education’ provision for three- and four-year-olds, and the promise of childcare provision for tragedy of romeo essay, every child between the ages of three and 14, from 8am to book report on roots 6pm. The only party political disagreement over Sure Start today concerns who will do the most to increase its funding and ability to provides services. However, two insidious ideas underpin the Sure Start initiative. First, the assumption is that most parents are at best ignorant of how to raise their children, and at worst are utterly dysfunctional. Essays Of Women In Indian Society! The second is a fatalistically deterministic view of child development – an idea that miscreant adults and broken communities are the result of ‘bad parenting’ from the earliest months of a child’s life. Sure Start aims to create healthier children by ‘supporting parents to care for their children both before and after birth ’ [my emphasis]. In reality this involves the state teaching parents about the book, moral ills of smoking and drinking during pregnancy, and ensuring that children are fed the the red book, recommended five portions of fruit and book report on roots veg a day, amongst other things.
Sure Start even provides instructions to parents on how they should play with their children. Such intervention undermines the authority and autonomy of parents and encourages them to view child-rearing and family life as an activity which can only be undertaken under the careful guidance of state-sanctioned experts. More than any previous social-service interventions in family life, which were traditionally directed towards a relatively small section of very deprived families, Sure Start aims to engage with families across all social classes. Sure Start assumes that state intervention is comment persan essential to report produce properly socialised individuals and to keep families together, while ignoring many other problems related to childcare provision, access to decent education and the financial burden of raising children. It is all about therapeutically redirecting the population towards the right way of essay thinking and behaving and parenting, rather than providing them with the things and finances they might need. Unemployment and incapacity. Over the report on roots, past couple of years, society has been going through a deep economic recession, with the official level of unemployment reaching nearly 2.5million people. Consequently there has been much material insecurity and hardship for a great many individuals.
However, in our response to essay writing toronto these hardships, we have moved a long way from the period of book industrial labour militancy that dominated the recession of the 1970s, and which played a large part in bringing to an end the traditional postwar welfare consensus. As Brendan O’Neill has argued, unemployment has ceased to be a political issue to inter essay which we see the possibility of social and political solutions. In response to the current recession, the state is not readying troops of armed men to book on roots maintain social order – instead it is training an army of counsellors and therapists to help the essay writing services, newly unemployed cope with their changed circumstances. NHS Direct call-centre operatives have been encouraged to listen out for signs of depression amongst callers who have lost their jobs, while Jobcentres have been given the authority to report refer jobseekers for comment peut persan, cognitive behavioural therapy, with a promise that such therapy will soon be offered onsite at Jobcentres themselves. These initiatives are only an expansion of the government’s stated intention, planned before the recession, to provide psychological therapies to the unemployed, not simply to help them cope with unemployment, but to help them to ‘develop the confidence’ to get back into work. Unemployment, in other words, is now seen as a problem of book on roots individual psychology rather than social and economic organisation. The changing understanding of unemployment, from comment on etre persan dissertation political failing to individual handicap, is reflected in the fact that of the five million people currently out of work and claiming benefits in the UK, over 50 per cent are drawing Incapacity Benefit – they have been redefined as incapable of working rather than as being denied a job by the current social and economic framework. While political parties do still express concern about the rising bills for the expansion of welfare, behind their rhetoric there is no real attempt to book encourage any autonomy or independence. Instead, the inter essay, mechanisms through which the unemployed will apparently be ‘assisted’ back into work involve an ongoing process of report on roots training, mentoring and essays of women in indian society support, which will continue even once work has been found. In other words, the book, assumption is that state intervention and tech essays worked support will be needed in order to maintain an individual’s capacity for work and employment. The widely held assumption that many unemployment and incapacity claimants are cynically manipulating the welfare system misses the extent to which individuals have been encouraged by the new welfare state to understand themselves in terms of their physical incapacities and psychological vulnerabilities.
That unemployment has come to report be understood as a problem of custom essay writing toronto individual incapacity and community attitudes and culture, rather than of social organisation, is expressed in the Conservative Party’s diagnosis that ‘in many parts of the report, country, worklessness is being passed from generation to essays of women society generation’. Here, the children of unemployed families are understood as being socialised by a degenerate culture; such children are seen as being less likely to book report on roots achieve at school and more likely to end up as workless in the future. Like the in indian society, assumption that the abused child becomes the adult abuser, unemployment is seen to be a psychological problem caused by a failure of appropriate parenting and poor socialisation. On Roots! In some ways, this takes us back to the old idea of essay poverty as a moral failing (or in this instance a psychological failing) rather than as a social problem – the book report, new therapeutic state is taking us backwards. The idea that society can and custom essay toronto should provide material welfare for people who need assistance from time to time is a positive one. But a welfare model built on the principles of therapeutic intervention results not in greater individual enablement and autonomy, but in book on roots the further individuation of social problems. This outlook suggests that individuals are generally incapable of organising their lives – and comment peut on etre dissertation this risks becoming a self-fulfilling prophecy, as individuals really do come to book report on roots be increasingly dependent upon the state to mediate, regulate and give counsel on the most common and everyday activities.
The creation of the red book report a society in book report on roots a condition of such dependency is a truly demoralising waste of people’s lives and energies. However, for the state to try to change this situation, to allow people to act as capable and autonomous individuals, would be to challenge the very foundation upon which the state has sought to build its legitimacy in our post-political climate. We need a serious political debate about dismantling large sections of the welfare state. This does not mean that we should slash and burn welfare provision in the name of balancing the government’s books. It means interrogating how the welfare state has come to have an almost entirely corrosive role upon the individuals and communities who are subject to it. Georgia Tech Essays! Far from on roots being an tech essays that, ‘enabling state’ as Blair suggested, what we now have is a disabling state. The debate we must initiate needs to book report move beyond the custom toronto, limited political imagination that dominates both left and book right. The state is neither the only institution that can guarantee the wellbeing of the citizenry, nor can we rely on the market consistently to provide for individuals.
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Roots: The Saga of an American Family Chapters 1-5 Summary
11th grade essay . one of my regrets is I didn't do most of the assignments that cost a decent amount of marks and that could make me fail this course again. If I did them, I wouldn't be as nervous as I am. Book Report! - A. . but I do wish I didn't have been lazy in the middle of the georgia essays worked semester. I could have had a good mark, then I wouldn't be finishing work so I can pass and I would be studying for book report on roots the exam instead. - M. Grade 11 English Comprehensive Course Outline. Search! cannot get away with when it comes to researching and using information? Then. take a few minutes to visit the online Plagarism tutorial. You have all had experience with various writing styles, and book report on roots as we begin the the red pyramid semester I think it is always helpful to review the four or five types of book on roots paragraphs that you will regularly be using throughout the course.
I have added a file that you can download/view/print below. Stay tuned for writing activities that will help you practice these different forms of writing. - to worked examine (two or more objects, ideas, people, etc.) in order to note. similarities and differences; to book compare two pieces of georgia tech that worked literary work. - to compare in order to book report on roots show unlikeness or. Custom Writing Services! differences; note the opposite on roots, natures, purposes, etc., of: Contrast the. political rights of Romans and services Greeks (Webster's. Book Report On Roots! p 442). Additional Persuasive Writing Resources. Chapter 18 Assignment: Advice Letter. As part of our current novel study, students will be required to discuss particular sections and aspects of Tuesdays with Morrie. Please make sure that you are an active participant in peut dissertation these table discussions and that you take time to reflect and comment on the events surrounding Morrie's inevitable decline. Book! Aphorism Essay or Speech Assignment. Using your persuasive writing skills, you will argue your case and show that your viewpoint is the correct one.
The assignment is included below, please click on the file to access it. Comment Peut Persan! Persuasive Speech Rubric - Written Form. Persuasive Speech Rubric - Oral Form. Julian Treasure: How to report speak so that people want to listen - Ted Talk Video. Tuesdays with Morrie vs. The Catcher in custom essay services toronto the Rye or vs. The Lovely Bones (Optional Bonus Mark Assignment) Now that you may have completed all of these books, you will be developing an editorial in which you convince a future Grade 11 student that one OR the other books is a better book at dealing with the book on roots topic of Life or Death . 2. a statement broadcast on radio or television that presents the opinion of the. owner, manager, or the like, of the station or channel. 3. something regarded as resembling such an essay writing toronto, article or statement, as a lengthy, dogmatic utterance. Book On Roots! ***Keep scrolling down to access both Process and Comprehension Exam Resources*** Comprehensive Exam - This exam is written in the school gym. Book! Make sure you have the necessary writing materials before starting. Cell phones, I-pods, MP3 players and backpacks will NOT be allowed in either the report gym or in the classroom during the exam session. The following resource/file will assist you as you prepare for the final examination.
You will not be required to identify ALL of these techniques within the exam texts - however you will need to discuss more than one. Poetry Resources - Comprehension Exam Prep. Click on essay toronto the file below to access a Resource Sheet that includes definitions of Figurative and book Rhetorical Devices, including metaphors, similes, alliteration, personification, hyperbole and many more. You will need a hi-lighter marker, blue/black pen(s), pencil and white-out (optional) Grade 11 Exam Practice Questions. Georgia Worked! June Comprehension Exam.
Grade 11 Words Project. February 24, 2012 - Words Work Period 2. Book Report On Roots! March 6, 2012 - Words Work Period 3. March 7, 2012 - DUE DATE. March 7-8, 2012- Presentation Days. Before you begin the writing process, you need to think about your Writing Variables. Custom Writing Services Toronto! What type of piece are you writing? (Form) What is your theme or main message? (Central Idea) Who are you writing this for? (Audience) What is your reason for writing it/What are you trying to do? (Purpose) Where will your audience view, read or hear it? (Context) Persuasive Writing Assignments - Cyber Bullying and Topic of Choice. is not a problem that needs to be addressed in schools or in society as a whole. To assist you with your Macbeth Editorial Assignment and in addition to posting the newest assignment (first link), I have included two more files that contain writing strategies and tips for editorial writing. Book! If you are still struggling with this assignment, please e-mail me or see me before/after class for pyramid book report clarification. The Lovely Bones vs. Tuesdays with Morrie Persuasive Essay Assignment. Due: Friday, December 21, 2013.
To help you navigate your way through this assignment, I have included a couple of resources to on roots assist you with writing a basic 5 paragraph essay. Click on the links and the red book or files below to access these resources. I also have some essay outlines and planners in the classroom, they are located in the black drawer in the back of the room. Please see me in class or e-mail for more information. Immediately following this post you will find a file link for book report on roots the CONNECTING YOUR WRITING VARIABLES Sheet.
Please ensure that you hand in this along with your Persuasive Essay. The Lovely Bones: First Thoughts Reflection. Pyramid Book! In a reasonably sized paragraph, write down your first thoughts in report on roots your reflection journals after reading Chapter 1 in The Lovely Bones. Custom Writing Services Toronto! You will be making regular comments and reflections in your journal throughout the novel study. Please make sure you keep up to date with all entries. Monster by Walter Dean Myers. The Pigman by Paul Zindel. A Glimpse into the Future (or the Present) Is Your Life Affected by Someone's Drinking?
Jim Carroll and The Basketball Diaries. What did you learn from Jim Carroll's personal narrative? Was the book on roots diary form an effective way of telling a story? Explain why or why not using references from the film.
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Book Review: Roots by Alex Haley | The Art of an Improbable Life
Film Noir: A Study in Narrative Openings, Part 1. Film noir is one of those filmic terms which critics lovingly use, but if forced to could not give a unified meaning. Like other borrowed terms (mise en scene, genre, realism), when applied to film the definition becomes hazy. On Roots. Film noir has been referred to as a genre, a cycle, a movement, a mood, and a style. In a more recent study James Naremore refers to film noir as belonging to a history of “ideas” tied to “commercial strategies and tech, aesthetic ideologies,” an idea we have “projected into report on roots the past” (as a retro genre term, like horror, which is usually referred to critically prior to its use by custom essay writing services toronto, the industry as a term, i.e. pre-1930). Those referring to it as a genre are inclusive, stretching the definition to include contemporary films ( Chinatown , Roman Polanski, 1974, Night Moves , Arthur Penn, 1975, Body Heat , Lawrence Kasdan, 1981, Dead Again , Kenneth Branagh, 1991), The Last Seduction , John Dahl, 1994, The Usual Suspects , Bryan Singer, 1995, Bound , Andy, Larry Wachowski, 1996, L.A. Confidential , Curt Hanson, 1997, and The Black Dahlia , Brian De Palma, 2006); those referring to it as a cycle or movement are exclusive, restricting the films to a specific period (usually somewhere between the years 1940 and 1960). Within this group there is a further distinction, with some critics being more inclusive than others. Book. When defined as a mood the films are selected cross generically ( The Lost Weekend , Billy Wilder, 1945/The Problem Picture, Leave Her to Heaven , John Stahl, 1945/Melodrama, Val Lewton’s nine RKO films from 1942 to 1946/Horror, Pursued , Raoul Walsh, 1947/Western, Beat the Devil , John Huston, 1954/Comedy, Bladerunner , Ridley Scott, 1982/Science Fiction, Sin City , Tarantino/Rodriguez 2005/Science-Fiction/Animation.
If one were to make a list of every film referred to as film noir by one critic or another the georgia that, total would certainly exceed 300. My predilection is to define film noir as a specific period, a movement, between the years 1940 and report, 1958, which gives weighted balance to social/cultural issues and industry factors (post-World War 2 malaise/uncertainty, changes in the family structure, Cold War paranioa, exodus of German/Austrian talent to the US during the rise of essay toronto Nazism, etc.). There is report on roots little reason to and juliet, go over this area since it has been treaded over to death. It is report important, however, in my structural account of film noir openings, to discuss it in an historical context. I have decided to narrow my area of study to georgia that, the years 1940 to 1950 –which could be considered as the classic period (or moment) of film noir. My reason here is that this period is more representative of the classic film noir because it remains closer to its original sources and impetus and had not yet attained the status of retro/neo-noir. (See Paul Schrader’s seminal article on the film noir for a list of the motivational factors and report, phases.) Discussing the films in context implies a consideration of film noir’s relationship to classical Hollywood cinema. In analyzing the films closely various common schemata became apparent. Contextualizing them only seemed natural.
My decision to essay, study film noir openings was not approached a priori but discovered itself when a concerted viewing of over forty film noir revealed a pattern of forceful and emphatic openings. Therefore the aim of the essay is not only to contextualize film noir but to add insight into its aesthetic by approaching film noir in a new and (hopefully) illuminating way. I will elaborate on my definition of “opening” a little later. To define film noir as classical or anti-classical is a risky endeavor. A case in point is David Bordwell’s writings on report on roots, the subject. According to his unbiased sampling of 100 classical films only pyramid book, 20% of book classical cinema employs the flashback, and usually for brief exposition ( The Classical Hollywood Cinema , p.42). How does film noir fit in to this model? Realizing Bordwell’s shifting paradigm which allows for large variances of “bound alternatives,” both linear and non-linear narrative structures are to be considered as part of the classical style. The Red Book. 
This is understandable, since both linear and non linear narrative structure have appeared in classical cinema, but it is book report on roots also apparent that the flashback structure is used more often, and elaborately, in persan, the film noir. On Roots. Hence it is a schemata more common to the film noir than, say, the georgia tech essays, comedy. Does this make film noir less classical? Bordwell discusses film noir under the book report, section “Bounds of the red book report Difference” and lists four ways in which film noir is seen to challenge classical cinema ( The Hollywood Classical Cinema , p.76). He then states his belief that these four elements are not really anti- classical but exist on the most extreme side of the bound alternatives. He concludes: “These films blend causal unity with a new realistic and generic motivation, and the result no more subverts the classical film than crime fiction undercuts the orthodox novel” (p.77). In his book Narration in the Fiction Film he is book even clearer on this:
In sum, film noir is not outside the pale, as many of its admirers prefer to think. Inter Search Essay. It is a clearly codified option within classicism, a unified set of syuzhet tactics and report, stylistic features no more disruptive of classical principles than the conventions of genres like the musical or the melodrama (p.198). I agree with Bordwell in tragedy, this respect. Although certain noir elements may strain classical form they remain codified. Therefore the motivation for the deviant schemata still falls under one of the four pertaining to classical cinema: compositional, realistic, intertextual, or artistic ( The Hollywood Classical Cinema , p.19). The elements which diverge most from classical style fall under the most common type of intertextual motivation: generic. Hence a typical downbeat noir ending is no more anti-classical than the song and dance which interupts the narrative in report on roots, a musical or the direct camera address in the 1930s ‘Anarchistic comedy’ (according to Henry Jenkins, a form of comedy derived from the ‘Vaudeville Aesthetic’). So why is it that film noir is seen by writing toronto, many as a challenge to classical style? The answer lies in an earlier comment: that most noir schemata exist on the most extreme side of the ‘bound alternative.’ Take for book report on roots, example film noir’s consistent and complex use of the flashback, its (at times) baffling narrative structure, its intricate and symbol laden lighting patterns, compositions, and essays of women, camera movements, its ambiguous morality, and its assault on clearly defined story/character motivation.
These elements remain within the report, bounds of classicism because they are motivated realistically and generically, but they appear anti-classical because they counter the dominant style and hence force the spectator to custom essay services toronto, work harder by searching for less used or more complex schemata. Also, although these schemata were not invented by film noir they do find their highest concentration within it. To quote Bordwell: Of course, the book report, classical style defines certain spectatorial activities as salient, and the historical dominance of society that style has so accustomed us to the activities that audiences may find other schemata more burdensome ( Classical , p.8). Bordwell’s inclusive system may lead one to book report on roots, ask the question, if indeed classicism encompasses such broad stylistic variance then is on etre persan dissertation it really saying anything as a classification? Defining classical cinema is not an easy task. Book Report On Roots. When dealing with such a vast body of work an exclusive method would result in too many omissions. The inclusive method, while saying less about individual films, remains the only system capable of managing such a vast undertaking.
I have accepted Bordwell’s system, faults and all, because of its implications. Bordwell feels strongly that classical cinema is not as illusionistic and essays on role of women society, formulaic as many would believe. Watching classical cinema involves the spectator in an active process where deductions and book report on roots, inferences are made based on essays on role of women society, incoming information. Book On Roots. This is a participation necessary to the completion of the artwork. Bordwell also believes, as I do, that despite film noir’s unified mood (in a general sense), it is not as homogeneous a body of work as many critics would lead you to believe. An example is the fine essay by J.A.
Place and L.S. Peterson, “Some Visual Motifs of the Film Noir which tends to homogenize the visual style of film noir (concentrating on lighting and composition), while acknowledging that they are ‘diverse films’ that can not be grouped together through “pat political or sociological explanations” (p. 325). Bordwell’s definition of classicism ranges far enough to include the search essay, baroque/mannerist strain of any art form. Other genre critics, notably Jack Shadoian in Dreams and Dead Ends: The American Gangster/Crime Film and Tom Schatz in Hollywood Genres have discussed the evolutional quality inherent in film cycles and book on roots, genres.
Each genre/cycle has various stages it undergoes, from the formative stage where conventions are realized, to the classical stage where they are honed and perfected, to a baroque stage where formal and stylistic experimentation occurs, to tragedy and juliet essay, a final reflexive and parodic stage. In a sense, Bordwell’s inclusive definition of classical cinema (all Hollywood films made between the years 1917 to 1960) can be understood through Noel Carroll’s reworking of George Dickie’s Institutional Theory of Art. Carroll states that something qualifies as a work of art if it can be appreciated as a repetition, amplification, or repudiation of an earlier artwork (1979). With respect to Bordwell any film which repeats, amplifies, or repudiates classicism, while remaining within the report on roots, said parameters, belongs within the classical style. The Red Book. In effect, this becomes the bound alternative. In discussing classical narration Bordwell says: “Typically, the report, opening and closing of the film are the writing services toronto, most self conscious, omniscient, and communicative passages” ( Narration in Fiction Film , p.160). Keeping in mind film noir’s tenuous relationship with classicism I aim to discuss the noir opening and how it is an amplification of the typical classical opening. All openings in book, classical narration are important, but in film noir they seem to take on on role of women in indian, an added importance, thereby remaining within the classical paradigm but amplifying it. The importance may rest on several levels: dramatic (quickly pulling us into the diegesis), narrational (retarding/withholding information or setting the story in motion), stylistic (setting the tone for the balance of the film), and thematic (revealing the themes and currents underlying the film).
Marc Vernet describes the opening of film noirs as being marked by book on roots, a disarming ‘quietude’ which seems paradoxical when compared to the violence and brutality which follows. “Without doubt, this air of tech essays safety is more or less relative since one may identify the distinctive traits of the film noir in report on roots, its very first images” (Vernet, p. 3). Of course not all film noirs come shooting out essay of the starting gate. As is the book on roots, case with any cluster of films there will always be divertions, exceptions, and inclusions which are less representative. To quote Jack Shadoian: The gangster/crime genre is an involved system of family relationships. Specific films tend to violate, extend, adapt, and sometimes dismiss the conventions that in part color and motor them even as they are evoked and put into play. (p. x) Returning to the earlier discussion of Bordwell’s broad definition of classicism, if you replace the georgia tech essays, words “gangster/crime genre” with “classical Hollywood cinema” this quote serves the Bordwell/Carroll parallelism of repetition, amplification, and repudiation very well. Before beginning the book report on roots, analysis a definition of essays in indian society what I mean by report, “opening” is in order. Peut Persan Dissertation. In trying to come up with a working definition I attempted to keep it as simple and sensible as possible by allowing the openings to describe themselves. I came up with the following: an opening is the first completed action, event, or important exposition rendered by the film.
For example, the train ambush in White Heat (Raoul Walsh, 1949), the murders in The Dark Mirror (Robert Siodmak, 1948), and The Spiral Staircase (Robert Siodmak, 1946), the hired killing in This Gun For Hire (Frank Tuttle, 1942), and the pardoning of Roy Earle in High Sierra (Raoul Walsh, 1941). Although the variances are great in terms of length (from 45 seconds to 17 minutes) and on roots, manner of assembly (one shot/several shots, one scene/several scenes) they are almost always clearly demarcated by fades, dissolves, or wipes and usually have a microcosmic Aristotlean structure (beginning, middle, and end and, yes Godard, in that order). In the majority of the films with a flashback structure the complete “prologue” leading to the flashback constitutes the opening. At times this meant having a lengthy opening, but for the following reason I felt this was inevitable: since the prologues functioned as complete sequences it seemed natural to keep them intact. Subsequently (with the exception of Knock on essays on role society, Any Door , Nicholas Ray, 1949) I could not find a comfortable “out” point.
What would become of the remaining portion of the prologue? The most difficult film to establish an opening for was Mildred Pierce (Michael Curtiz, 1945). Book Report. The brief 35 second murder scene which opens the film may appear to be a cohesive scene, an opening, but the manner in which it fuses to the next scene, in tone and georgia essays, temporal order, suggests otherwise; and, once the subsequent scene begins it must be followed to its conclusion: the book, beginning of the flashback. It’s common knowledge that the beginning of a narrative must have a magnetic lure. In discussing the tragedy of romeo and juliet, insulation and “public privacy” accorded to us by the darkened theatre house V.F. Perkins suggests that film is on roots self consciously aware of the psychological distance between the film world and the real world “…by allowing the spectator time at the beginning and end of the movie to shed and reassume his self consciousness” (Perkins, p.134). Indeed many films draw us into their world with slow, inviting camera movements, usually beginning from afar and then moving forward (sometimes in conjunction with dissolves), often literally bringing us into book report the diegesis through the frame of on roots a window or door: The Bride of Frankenstein (James Whale, 1935), Journey Into Fear (Norman Foster, 1943), The Big Clock (John Farrow, 1948), Conflict (Curtis Bernhardt, 1945), Nocturne (Edwin L. Marin, 1946), Body and Soul (Robert Rossen, 1947), Night of the Hunter (Charles Laughton, 1955), Psycho (Alfred Hitchcock, 1960).
The dramatic pull of openings is in no better evidence than the film noir. Seeing film after film it became apparent that the emphatic opening is a film noir convention. (And my study did not include The Killers (Robert Siodmak, 1946), and essay writing services, Touch of Evil (Orson Welles, 1958)! Based on my findings the openings can be divided into four general types: Group A consists of films with a flashback structure. Book. It is subdivided into two types: the peut on etre persan, framed flashback (Group A1), where we begin in the present, go to an extended flashback and then return to the conclusion in the present (the classic A B A structure), and the interspersed flashback (Group A2), where the narrative oscillates between the present and book report, the past. The majority of the framed flashbacks are of the A B A variety. The transitions from present to tech essays worked, past and back are clearly demarcated by a dissolve, wipe, or fade, and from a story standpoint we never actually leave the initial location (a police station in D.O.A. , Rudolph Mate, 1949, The Dark Past , Rudolph Mate, 1948, and Murder, My Sweet , Edward Dmytryk, 1944, an armored truck in Criss Cross , Robert Siodmak, 1949, and a swimming pool in Sunset Boulevard , Billy Wilder, 1950) because the flashback has taken place inside a character’s mind. Although cued subjectively, by book report, the lead protagonist, once the flashback begins the narration takes on an objective or omniscient point of view. As Bordwell says:
Character memory is simply a convenient immediate motivation for a shift in chronology; once the shift is accomplished, there are no constant cues to remind us that we are supposedly in someone’s mind. ( Classical , p.43) The variances within the second type, the interspersed, depend on the number of peut on etre times the narration returns to book, the present. The slight variances from the A B A model will be mentioned in context. The films from Group B1 maintain a linear narrative in accordance with classical Hollywood style. All the openings are revelatory in some way. And Juliet. At the least, they all introduce the lead protagonist in their milieu and/or dilemma. Many of them go further by revealing important emotional and report, psychological character traits and a few go a step further by georgia that, interweaving them with the theme(s) of the film. Book Report On Roots. In classical Hollywood style (if you want a message call Western Union) this is motivated by the need to book, start and move the story forward (narrationally). The films in Group B2 also have a linear structure but begin more emphatically with a highly expressive/stylistic opening which functions as a microcosmic prologue to the film’s style and/or theme(s) and currents. In these openings thematic and stylistic revelation dominate over book report on roots, character/story revelation. Since space prohibits a close reading of all the openings I have selected one or two representative films from tragedy of romeo essay, each group which I will discuss in depth in Part 1 of the essay ( The Dark Past , Sorry, Wrong Number , This Gun For Hire , White Heat , The Set-Up , The Letter ), and will then continue with a greater sampling of films treated in less detail, in the second part of this essay ( Journey Into Fear , Murder, My Sweet , The Strange Love of Martha Ivers , Body and Soul , Criss Cross , Champion , D.O.A. Book. , Sunset Boulevard , Laura , Double Indemnity , Mildred Pierce , Out of the Past , Knock On Any Door , High Sierra , The Maltese Falcon , The Glass Key , Cornered , Scarlet Street , Gilda , The Stranger , The Big Sleep , The Lady From Shanghai , Key Largo , Caught , The Spiral Staircase , Notorious , The Dark Mirror , and The Asphalt Jungle . The thrust of my analysis will be to describe the custom writing toronto, action and formal elements of the opening and book report, interpret them in terms of stylistic and thematic intent.
Broken down, there are general questions I asked of all the openings: what can we infer from them and what is the on role of women in indian, driving motivation behind them? For the latter question I was guided by Bordwell’s system: 1) compositional: common sense elements which are required for a particular narrative to function, for example, “a story involving a theft requires a cause for book report on roots, the theft and an object to be stolen” (p. 19) 2) realistic: the plausability factor 3) intertextual: factors relating to the conventions operating within that type of custom essay writing toronto art, with generic being the most common, and 4) artistic: when aspects of the art form call attention to itself through technical virtuosity, showmanship, or strategies that expose the book, ‘invisibility’ of classical style through reflexivity, parody, etc. (Classical, p.21-23). In support of and in tech that, addition to these motivational factors I employed a triad of broad semantic and syntactical parameters: narrational (when an book report on roots element relates directly to the plot and its ordering), sensational (an element which is less concerned with plot than spectacle and exploitation), and reverberational (elements which are laid out for the expressed purpose of setting up (or foreshadowing) a mood, atmosphere, tone, or motif).  I am also indebted to the theoretical insights of E.H. Gombrich, Noel Carroll, and and juliet essay, V.F. Perkins. Some of the more specific questions asked include: Is the opening reflexive? Does it have a symbolic or structural link to the conclusion?
What is the relationship between directorial and generic style? From group A1 have selected Rudolph Mate’s The Dark Past (framed flashback) and Anatole Litvak’s Sorry, Wrong Number (interspersed flashbacks). Case Studies. Group A1: Framed Flashback. The Dark Past (Rudolph Mate, 1948)
Description : The film begins with a series of dissolves from an overhead shot of the city, to tall buildings, to a crowd of people. The images are cued by L.J. Book Report On Roots. Cobb’s (Dr. Andrew Collins) voice-over narration. The camera follows people boarding a bus. The V.O. Inter Search Essay. comments on report, the routine daily activities we all must endure. Inside the bus the camera tracks left to right along the faces of the essay writing services toronto, passengers while the V.O. Book. interprets their thoughts. As the bus stops and passengers disembark the V.O. informs us “this is where I work.” Cut to an optical point of view  tracking shot toward a building. Several police officers greet Dr. Collins/camera as they walk by. Two dissolves bring us into the police station.
The camera continues to dolly forward through a corridor, tilting up to capture the respective departmental signs above each door. We arrive at search, his office, “Police Psychiatrist” just as he says “… experts at understanding people.” The camera tilts down from the sign, the door opens and the camera enters the room. Moments later the doctor enters the book report, frame to pick up a sheet of paper from his desk, ending, for the moment, the subjective narration. On Role Of Women In Indian. As the doctor and police officer speak Dr. Collins looks out the window at a new group of prisoners being escorted into book report the precinct (seen as his POV ). Essays On Role Society. His V.O. begins and bridges a cut to book, the viewing room. As each prisoner is identified he externalizes their thoughts in V.O. The fourth prisoner, an 18 year old, catches his interest. After he analyzes the on role of women society, young prisoner we shift back to objective narration and report on roots, he attempts to convince the search essay, arresting officer that the young prisoner be sent to the psychiatric ward.
They return to the doctor’s office and the officer asks: “Doc, why should you care about a kid like Larrapoe?” To prove his point the doctor begins to relate the story of Al Walker (William Holden), an infamous criminal. The camera dollies in slightly to book on roots, the seated doctor and his voice bridges the dissolve to the flashback: “Wasn’t too long ago, not more than a couple of years ….” Interpretation and Insights : Bordwell distinguishes two types of spatial establishing paradigms: immediate and gradual ( Classical , p.63). Writing. The former begins within the locale, usually on book, a small detail, then pulls back to reveal the entire space. The latter takes us into the space incrementally (the series of dissolves being the essays on role of women, classic example). On Roots. The Dark Past establishes its location gradually. This opening is important stylistically and thematically. Stylistically the subjective POV shot which brings us into the police station and into his office primes us for the film’s most important and tragedy and juliet, impressive scene, Al Walker’s surrealist/subjective recollection of the childhood incident which triggered his Oedipal Complex. This scene, however, is much more distanced stylistically from the film than the subjective POV shots in the opening. The subjective strategy in the opening is similar to the opening of Rouben Mamoulian’s Dr.
Jekyll Mr. Hyde (1932). The oscillating point of view in the opening primes us for the rest of the film. Book Report. The point of view in essays worked, the opening shifts from subjective to report on roots, objective. This also occurs in the flashback, which is triggered subjectively (by Dr. Collins) but takes on essay writing toronto, an omniscient point of view and a subjective POV of another character (Al Walker). We can infer many of the film’s themes from the opening. Its documentary tone (partly on location photography, V.O. Book Report. narration, deglamorization of the police, “This is where I work”) cues us for the social commentary.
One of the film’s most blatant statements is the need to custom writing services toronto, recognize the individual within the mass. At two points in the opening the V.O. narration interprets the thoughts and feelings of on roots various people. From this we can infer the subsequent importance that psychoanalysis will play in on role of women, solving the story’s obstacle (Al Walker’s Oedipal block) and the significance placed on psychiatry as a means of correcting and report on roots, preventing deviant social behavior. Dr. Tech That Worked. Collins places the burden of such control squarely on the back of society. From this vantage the on roots, motivation for the opening is narrational, slightly artistic (didactic) and also reverberational, since many of the film’s themes are established in essay services toronto, the opening.
Comparing the opening of on roots The Dark Past with that of Mate’s other film noir, D.O.A. Writing Services. , becomes interesting because it exposes the link between form and content. Both films begin with a similar action: a man making his way through a police station. In The Dark Past the camera POV is on roots subjective. Georgia Tech That. In D.O.A. Book Report. it is not; instead the essay, camera follows the on roots, man from behind his back. The reason for this strategy is to georgia essays, keep the man’s identity unknown, thereby emphasizing the theme of fate and book report, coincidental tragedy.
The character’s anonymity could likewise have been withheld with a subjective camera position, but that would have taken away from the randomness and of romeo and juliet essay, universality of the protagonist/event. Therefore the camera style which opens D.O.A. indicates the film’s central theme: fate and chance happening. In The Dark Past we need a character to lead us. Dr. Collins becomes our authority figure (as he says, “It takes an book on roots expert to inter search, catch another expert”), informing us and convincing us of the importance of society’s role in the prevention and reformation of crime and criminals. Group A2: Interspersed Flashbacks. Sorry, Wrong Number (Anatole Litvak, 1948) Length of Opening : 9’15” (After a 25 sec. intertitle prologue)
Description : The film begins with a dissolve from the prologue to a shot of the city at book on roots, night. A subsequent dissolve brings us into a dark, deserted office. The camera dollies toward a door; the words “Henry J. Stevenson Vice President” become visible. Another dissolve brings us inside the room. The camera continues to dolly forward toward the pyramid report, desk; on book on roots, it rests a telephone, with its receiver off. There is a dissolve to another location. Leona Stevenson (Barabara Stanwyck) is lying in her bed, phone in hand, attempting to reach her husband, Henry J. Stevenson (Burt Lancaster). The camera pans to her night table as she reaches for a cigarette and tech essays worked, lighter (a marriage photo and small clock are visible). Her behavior toward the operator is forceful, demanding, and on roots, impatient.
Before hanging up she accidently connects into comment peut on etre dissertation another line. Book Report On Roots. The camera dollies to a close up as she realizes that the peut persan dissertation, two men are planning a murder. Before the victim’s address is given the connection is lost. Book Report. Leona hangs up. Georgia Essays That. Cut to a medium shot. Report On Roots. She graps the phone again and calls the operator, insisting that the inter search essay, operator trace the call.
She reaches for a tissue paper on her other night table; the camera pans with her but remains on the table long enough to reveal a crowd of medicine bottles. Report. Cut back to Leona. The camera now becomes assertive. (An omniscient camera movement unmotivated by character or any other classical motivation, i.e. reframe, follow a character, a moving vehicle, etc.) It dollies to her open window, across the length of her room (dissolve) down her staircase, and to a bell high up on the downstairs wall which she uses to summon her servants. Throughout this assertive camera movement we hear her offscreen voice complaining that she has been left alone for the night and that nobody cares for tragedy of romeo and juliet essay, her. We cut back to Leona. She receives a phone call from her father in Chicago. A painting of her father bridges a dissolve to him. The camera pans around the den while they talk. He tells her daughter that the house is like a morgue without her, meanwhile there is a party going on in the next room. After their talk we dissolve to a clock in Leona’s room and to book report on roots, another location. Interpretation and Insights : This powerful opening is tech worked extremely evocative of the film’s themes and primes us, with its visual style, for the harrowing conclusion.
The use of the mobile camera is its most striking feature. However, it is not used for book, showmanship but to enhance the character’s mental and physical claustrophobia, her isolation, to complement the dialogue, and to expose subtle visual clues. For example, one of the several clues overheard by essay, Leona about the murder plan is book that it is to take place at 11:15 PM because the 11:15 train that passes on the nearby bridge will camouflage any screams. After the disturbing phone call the camera leaves her bedside and pyramid report, tracks to the open window. It is dark, but visible in report on roots, the distance is a lit bridge. The camera continues to inter, dolly across her room and then down the book, staircase leading to the bell on the wall. The movement not only establishes the space but emphasizes her isolation. It is simply mirroring her emotional state as she complains to comment peut persan, the operator about her loneliness. This camera movement around her room and down the report, stairs foreshadows the even more complex 1 minute 45 second crane shot in the final scene. The shot opens on a clock. It pans to a close up of Leona on her bed.
She is talking frantically on georgia that, the phone. The camera slowly cranes up and away from Leona, out of the second story window, down around a tree and to the ground, capturing the dark silhouetted figure searching and then entering through a side window. Litvak employs the Bazinian schemata of the moving camera to maintain the book on roots, “integrity” of spatial unity. And Juliet. However, in this case its function is not to suggest the “ambiguity” of reality but rather to stress its very reality –a killer stalking its helpless victim. Rather than crosscutting, the book, uninterrupted camera movement from Leona in of romeo and juliet, her deathbed to the killer visualizes the exact distance between them, augmenting the suspense by showing us both the spatial and temporal contiguity of killer/victim, life/death. Like the later Rear Window , the opening of Sorry, Wrong Number visually reveals important character and story elements. Within the first few moments we infer that she is married (the photo), bedridden and book report, ill (the medicine bottles), alone and isolated (the slow tracking shots), and wholly dependent on the telephone. The moving camera captures her physical isolation in her immediate spatial environment; the peut on etre dissertation, telephone captures her emotional as well as physical isolation from the outside world. Report. The operator, her link to the world, the essays worked, police officer, society’s symbol of protection, and her father, her own personal protector, all prove utterly useless in realizing her pleas for help. (Her father says that the on roots, conversation she overheard was probably a radio program, a reflexive allusion to Lucille Fletcher’s original radio play.) It is no coincidence that she is murdered while on the telephone with her husband. According to Noel Carroll, one of the reasons why movies hold such a powerful attraction for audiences is because of its “erotetic” (question/answer model) narrative (1985). Movies generate a variety of questions which are answered during the progress of the film.
This question/answer model engages the audience in inter search, an inductive process whereby they must absorb incoming information and infer what may happen. Carroll distinguishes between two of book many types: the micro question and the macro question. A micro question is one which is answered in the same scene or in one of the immediately succeeding scenes. A macro question remains unanswered for the majority of the film, often until the final scene. Inter. The most obvious example being Citizen Kane ‘s “Rosebud.”
The opening of Sorry, Wrong Number poses one of each. The micro question –where did Henry J Stevenson go after work?– is answered in the subsequent scene (the first flashback). The more important is the macro question: who is the victim of the planned murder? Although the conclusive answer only comes toward the end, we are certainly encouraged to infer a guess. On Roots. The opening provides two noteworthy clues: the visual emphasis on essay, Leona’s isolation and report on roots, helplessness, and the pointed delineation of her overbearing, domineering nature, her illness, and her wealth: plenty enough motivation for georgia essays, murder in the film noir world! This Gun For Hire (Frank Tuttle, 1942) Description : The film begins with a fade in to a dingy hotel room, an immediate establishing of the space.
A man, Raven (Alan Ladd), is lying on his bed. The camera is at book on roots, a slight low angle. In the foreground hangs a coat and just below an alarm clock on inter, a night table. The alarm clock rings. Raven awakens, shuts the book on roots, alarm and sits up on his bed. That Worked. Diegetic piano music is heard. Book On Roots. He looks at of women in indian, his watch, removes a letter from his coat pocket and checks an address (insert shot). Cut back to a low angle medium shot of Raven.
After securing that his gun is loaded he places it and the letter inside his briefcase and begins to leave. The sound of the book on roots, window shutting draws his attention to a kitten. He pours the kitten some milk then leaves to wash his hands. In the tragedy of romeo essay, meantime a young maid enters. The kitten spills a can, prodding the maid to frighten the kitten. Raven returns; angered, he slaps the maid and book report, forces her out of the room. On Role Of Women In Indian Society. He pats the report, kitten then gets up to leave. Two dissolves later he is entering an apartment building. A young girl seated on the stair case greets him as he makes his way upstairs. He meets with a man, a blackmailer who is under the impression that Raven is on role of women there to give him money in exchange for an incriminating letter.
A woman is also present. She leaves the room. After listening to the man ramble Raven removes the book report on roots, gun from essay writing services toronto, his briefcase and shoots the man once. The woman enters the room. Raven remarks, “They said he’d be alone.” She runs back into the bedroom but Raven shoots her once through the report on roots, door. On Role Of Women Society. He checks to make sure she is dead, confirms the letter, places it in his briefcase and leaves. Book Report. In the hallway the innocent girl says, “Mister, I dropped my ball.” Two shot counter shots lengthen the moment. Raven makes a movement to go into his briefcase for his gun, stops, and decides to retrieve the ball. The scene fades out. Interpretation and Insights : Here is an example of search essay film noir excelling within the classical paradigm. This opening has all the book, earmarks of the classical Hollywood sequence: clearly demarcated scenes (in the hotel room, in the apartment, and in the hallway), transitions (fade in and fade out) and one completed action, culminating in a beginning, middle, and end.
There is custom essay nothing excessive or overtly symbolic, as every action has a narrational purpose. However, the opening remains richly evocative of noir character, environment, and visual and aural schemata. The noir visual look is established as early as the first shot of the film. The low angle and cluttered frame immediately suggest the claustrophobic noir environment. Several of the book report, subsequent shots are again framed from a low angle, emphasizing the tech worked, enclosing ceiling and book, walls. The room, replete with harsh shadows (they seem painted), murky walls and chipped plaster, characterizes the ‘seedy’ noir world.
The deathly still aura lingering within the room foreshadows the impending murder. Not even the repetitive piano music can cut through the aura of writing silence. The opening establishes not only Raven’s character but, since this was his first starring role, Alan Ladd’s screen persona. Raven, the hired killer, is awaken by an alarm clock: just another day at the office. His demeanor is on roots quiet and gestures graceful and calculated. A loner, Raven has a stronger affinity for cats than humans. (As he says later, “they’re on their own, they don’t need anybody.”) He is the consumate professional, always turning in a “neat” performance. While the blackmailer rambles on inter essay, Raven remains silent. Before revealing his gun he flashes the blackmailer a sardonic half smile, a hired killer’s confident, fond farewell. Raven’s professionalism and “neatness” is evident in book report on roots, his style: one bullet per victim.
He is thorough, making sure that the woman is stone cold dead and inter search, that the letter is authentic before leaving. Report. On the way out writing he is interrupted by the young girl. The shot counter shots establish that the girl has seen Raven’s face well. On Roots. The completist, Raven contemplates killing her but decides against it. This conclusion plants a provocative rhetorical question in the audience’s mind: would he go that far? As Willard Cates (Laird Cregar) later finds out, Raven is a man you do not want to double cross. By the end of the opening Raven’s (and Ladd’s) screen persona is indelibly carved: the laconic “cold angel” with boyish good looks masking a tough, uncomprimising interior. White Heat (Raoul Walsh, 1949) Description : The film begins with a series of dissolves from macro to the red report, micro: an aerial pan of the city, to a “California Highway State Line” sign, to a long shot of a train. From the on roots, train there is a L-R swish pan capturing a car in transit. Cut to the interior of the car.
Four men are seated in writing, the car. James Cagney (Cody Jarrett) is in the front passenger side. The camera dollies in slightly to frame on Cody. Book On Roots. He nudges the driver, motioning him to speed up. The Red Pyramid Book. Three cuts ensue, from the car to book on roots, the train and back to the car. The camera pans to follow the car screeching around a bend. Cut to a head on shot of the train as it chugs past the camera left. The scene momentarily changes to the interior of the georgia, train to observe the other half of Cody’s gang at report on roots, work.
The scene returns to the exterior. Pyramid Report. The men quickly exit the car and execute their respective duties. In the ensuing shots the train comes to a halt, the mail compartment is dynamited open and the heist a success except for a few casualties. Report On Roots. Two train employees are ruthlessly shot down by Jarrett simply because they know his name. After the second man is shot he falls onto a lever, which accidentally releases hot steam into tech essays that worked the face of one of Cody’s men. Cody looks down at him writhing in pain and then yells out, “Come on, let’s get outta here.” He runs off screen right and the other men pick up the injured man.
There is report on roots a dissolve to a radio newsman reporting the hold up. Interpretation and Insights : The motivation for this opening is narrational (animates the narrative) and compositional (logical causal factors). In the first few shots director Raoul Walsh relies heavily on audience’s mental set. Of Romeo Essay. Any person who has seen at least one or two gangster films recognizes the connotative meaning of the fourth shot in the film. The car, the dress code of the four men and report on roots, the presence of essays on role James Cagney cue us into the crime milieu. This shot, in combination with the previous shot of the train, are all we need to infer that a hold up is in progress.
This fourth shot is the report, most important single shot in the opening. Not only does it cue us to the crime milieu, but it subtley hints at Cody’s psychosis. Cody is framed in inter search, medium shot. He looks at his watch. Report. The camera dollies in slowly to a close up as he nudges the driver and motions for comment peut persan, him to speed up. After this action is completed the camera remains on report on roots, the close-up for an extra beat. Knowing director Walsh’s classical style, where each camera movement has a function, the nature of this shot has an emphatic purpose above any immediate narrational function. Inter Search. For example, the lingering close up may inform us that this character is the leader of this gang, but, being James Cagney in 1949, the report, audience undoubtedly know this already.
There is an intense look on the red pyramid, Cody’s face, and he even looks away once, suggesting unease and restlessness. This lingering close-up has no other function, therefore we can infer that it must signify something. I will submit that this is a subtle nuance but, is it too subtle for Hollywood? In the Carrollian sense this opening challenges us, at this early point, to report, infer Cody’s psychosis (or in the least his viciousness) from the close up and Cody’s behavior during the hold up. If interpreted in tragedy of romeo essay, a certain way, the opening can be seen as a reflexive commentary. White Heat has as much in common, if not more, with the 1930’s gangster cycle as with the film noir. Cody Jarrett, like Roy Earle in High Sierra , is a throwback to the prohibition era: a man behind the times; it is 1949 and the gangster collective has given away to the individualistic noir anti-hero. The train hold up is reminiscent of the era of the western, when train hold ups were common. If this allusion is report on roots conscious, then it is a reflection of the anachronistic current running throughout White Heat . I will now move on to the two examples from Group B2 (linear/powerfully emphatic), The Set Up and The Letter . Group B2: Linear/Powerfully Emphatic.
The Set-Up (Robert Wise, 1949) Description : (There is a title sequence of a boxing fight. On Etre. All that is book report visible are the boxer’s legs. One of the fighters collapses to the canvas. Fade out.) Fade in.
The opening shot begins high above street level, parallel to a street clock in the right foreground; it reads 9:05. On the extreme right we see a hotel’s neon sign. On the the red pyramid book report, street level in report on roots, the background is another huge sign: “Paradise City” (the wrestling/boxing arena). The camera cranes forward past the clock and of romeo and juliet essay, toward street level. Book On Roots. Another neon sign becomes visible: “Dreamland.” On the soundtrack we hear jazz music and a loud teenager selling the evening paper complete with fight card. There is a cut to a man selling only fight cards. (From his drawl we can correctly infer that he is an ex-boxer.) The youngster walks in screen right, directly in front of the man and continues selling his paper. The camera dollies in to a two shot.
The man pleads: “Hey, I gotta make a buck too.” The brash youngster replies: “Ah, go take a walk.” Cut to the dejected man. Camera pans with him as he exits frame right and fixes on a group of comment peut persan people purchasing tickets. The central figures are a blind man and his male companion. Camera pans with them left as they enter the arena. Another man enters frame left and the camera follows him to another group of people. A quick reframe settles on a shot of two women. The following conversation takes place: First Woman (without hat): I don’t know why I let George talk me into coming. Second Woman: (very sarcastically) Why Harriett, I thought you liked the book report, fights. First Woman: Like them, last time I kept my hands over my eyes the whole time.
The camera reframes right (the corner of the building) to another shot of of romeo essay two men standing at the fight poster discussing who to book, place bets on. Stoker Thompson’s (Robert Ryan) age is the toronto, butt of a joke. They exit frame left and the camera turns slightly and book report on roots, dollies in to essays of women, the poster. The Stoker Thompson vs. Tiger Nelson fight line commands center frame.
An arm enters frame left and strikes a match over Thompson’s name. Camera reframes left to follow the match to the cigarette. Another two shot, of a short, balding man and a taller, sweaty and unkept man. (The taller man is Tiny, Stoker’s manager and the other Red, his corner man.) They enter the “Ringside Cafe.” Tiny meets alone with another man and in a series of shot reverse shots we discover that he has thrown the night’s upcoming fight for the short money ($50.00). Tiny and book, Red leave the custom essay services toronto, cafe. Tiny cheats Red on book report on roots, his cut by telling him that their share was only georgia that, $30.00.
We also find out that to save Stoker’s cut Tiny has not informed Stoker about the set up. Report On Roots. Red remains unsettled at the idea of Stoker being kept in the dark. Services. The camera follows them to a point then dollies in report on roots, quickly to Stoker Thompson’s name on the fight poster. (The camera then pans 90 degrees to a hotel across the street, signalling the the red book report, subsequent scene with Stoker and his girlfriend in the hotel room.) Interpretation and Insights : This impressive opening is motivated narrationally and reverberationally. It informs us of the major drama and poses a central macro question: will Stoker follow suit and lose as usual or will he upset the balance with a victory? One of the interesting features of this opening is that it introduces several minor but key characters.
The punch drunk vendor for example, who we later find out is one of Stoker’s biggest fans, remains a constant reminder of where Stoker may be heading. More importantly perhaps are the host of characters who will reappear during the fight scene as key spectators. Throughout the fight scene there are reaction cuts to the spectators. Director Robert Wise does not paint a pretty picture of the boxing fan (or human nature). Wise portrays the fan as a blood thirsty savage who vicariously indulges his/her deep, primordial urges (catharsis?). For example, the blind man, who has the fight recounted to him blow by blow by his friend, remarks in a viscious tone: “Why don’t he work on report, that eye.’ The worse culprit is the hypocritical woman who in the opening laments going to the fights and then behaves like an animal during the fights. Whereas most of the noir openings introduce the lead character in the flesh, in pyramid book, The Set Up Stoker’s presence is felt equally strong through other means: his name on the fight poster, the book report on roots, people who discuss him, and essay writing services, the punch drunk vendor. The expositional nature of the opening goes beyond plot advancement (narrational motivation) to on roots, the more complex reverberational motivation.
Most of the film’s themes are echoed within the opening: corruption, lost dreams, father time, and the cruel and custom essay, hypocritical side of human nature. The opening shot cranes past a large clock, establishing the “real time” structure while symbolizing the inevitable reality every aging boxer must face. Visible are the signs “Paradise City” and “Dreamland,” a not too subtle reference to the washed up boxer’s lost dreams. The punch drunk vendor trying to eke out a living selling fight cards is overshadowed by the aggressive youngster, exposing the capitalist version of Social Darwinism. Stoker’s manager Tiny has a highly dubious moral and ethical system.
Not only does he cheat Red, in all likelihood his only book report, friend, but his fighter. And Juliet. The boxing world once again stands in as a micrososm of corruption in society. The first few shots establish the space of the book report on roots, film: hotel, fight arena, and inter essay, cafe. Outside of a few scenes with Stoker’s girlfriend Julie, the film is confined to this area. Metaphorically, Stoker’s own life has also been confined to a similar “space”: dingy hotel rooms, arenas, and bars/cafes. A recurring camera movement during this opening, the quick pan and/or reframe, will play a key role in another of the film’s great scenes. Book Report. After winning the fight Stoker is georgia worked left by himself to answer to the irate gamblers. He tries to elude them but is eventually cornered in a dark alley. Book. He struggles but is pinned to tragedy of romeo essay, the ground by several men. The leader, Little Boy, gives the signal to commence the book, savage beating and the red pyramid report, the camera quickly pans to a shadowed reflection of a jazz band on a nearby wall, the book report, frenzied music standing in for the beating. (This exact same tactic is used in search, The Sweet Smell of Success (Alexander Mackendrick, 1957) and, with variation, by Sam Fuller in Underworld USA , 1961.) An unusual feature of the film is its strict accordance to “real time.” The film is 72 minutes.
The credits last just under one minute. The clock in the opening shot reads 9:05. The final shot cranes back past the same clock, now reading 10:16, perfectly accounting for the remaining 71 minutes of screen/story time. There is a fade out at the end of the credit sequence, a fade in to the film and a final fade out at the end. (Since the credit sequence is bridged by fades it is temporally distanced from the film and hence its action –a boxer being knocked out– serves as a metaphor for Stoker’s less than successful boxing career.) Outside of these three fades all other transitions in on roots, the film are straight cuts. At that period in the evolution of the language of search film style the report, fade/dissolve/wipe were common transitional schemata depicting varying time lapses. The unadorned cut was used to georgia tech worked, join shots which succeeded each other in continuous temporal order. This usually meant either shots within one established locale or scenes occurring simultaneously (crosscutting). Being a former editor Robert Wise was as conscious of this as anyone.
Therefore, to emphasize the temporal structure of the book, film (screen time=story time) Wise begins and ends on custom essay writing services, a clock and uses the report, ‘straight’ cut exclusively. I can not be sure, but would be willing to bet that The Set-Up is the only Hollywood film of the 1940’s not to employ a fade, dissolve, or wipe (excluding the beginning and end). What intrigues me the most about this realistically motivated aesthetic choice is the rhetorical question of whether or not the audience at that time consciously made the connection between the exclusive use of the cut and the temporal structure of the that, film. It is obvious that this was a conscious choice on book report, the part of the comment peut on etre persan, filmmaker’s, but how did the audience react? The use of the report on roots, fade/dissolve/wipe was a part of the 1940 audience mental set, but how closely attuned to their own mental sets were they? They could perceive their presence but how about their absence? Were they conscious of the lack of a fade, dissolve, and wipe and accord that to the strategy of real time, or was it something they felt intuitively? My guess is tech essays that the latter would be more likely, hence certain mental sets may be intuitively felt more than cognitively realized. In fact I would say that, on a cognitive level, the opening and closing shots of the clock trigger the temporal strategy of the film more than the exclusive use of the cut. (That is, to an average viewer.)
On one of my viewings of The Set-Up I kept track of the cuts and counted 630. Allowing for a margin of error, this works out to an approximate average shot length of 6.8 seconds, faster than the average of that period (9) but well within Bordwell’s bound alternative. My brief research reveals the limitations of such studies. The 6.8 ASL might persuade someone who hasn’t seen the film to infer that The Set-Up does not employ much mise en scene (long takes, depth of field, mobile camera, intricate blocking) but rather that it derives more of its stylistic meaning from the editing. Book. The cutting in The Set-Up is excellent, and used for more than just moving the story along, but the ASL does not reveal that a great percentage of the cuts, (approx. 311) occur during the fight scene, which takes up approximately 24 minutes (one third) of screen/story time.
Away from the fight scene –and fight scenes are always cut quickly– the ASL is much higher. Indeed there are several intricate and important long takes in comment on etre, The Set-Up . Therefore the ASL is book not always an tragedy of romeo and juliet essay accurate indication of shooting style for someone who has not seen the film in question. A better assessment of the film’s statistical measures would be a scene by scene average, which would then reveal precisely where and when the average shot length varies. The Letter (William Wyler, 1940) Description : Although the opening lasts 15’45” I will only describe the most important section, the book, first 5’45”. The film begins with a night shot of the moon. The shot dissolve to a sign –“Rubber Co. Search Essay. Singapore, Plantation No. 1”– and then to a tree trunk.
The camera tilts down the trunk to a bucket collecting sap. The camera cranes up and away from the tree and left to right across the worker’s sleeping area. Book. Workers are seen lying on essay, hammocks, sleeping, resting, playing chess, etc. The camera cranes up to book, a second level and essays of women, continues over the straw roof; (Dissolve) the camera is still tracking L-R. A cottage is visible in the background. A gunshot is heard. A man stumbles out of the door onto the front porch; a woman is seen following behind him. A second gunshot is report heard and (cut) to dogs awakening to custom essay writing, the sound. Three shots of the workers ensue. The third gunshot is followed by a closer shot of the incident. The man, in the foreground, falls down below the book, frame while the woman (Bette Davis as Leslie Crosby), dressed in black, follows him down the stairs, emptying out the revolver.
She slowly brings her gun hand down and drops the gun. Tech That. The camera dollies in to on roots, a close-up. Her face is still, emotionless. Cut to the disturbed workers. The fourth shot is pyramid book a close-up of a man looking out from behind bamboo bars. He glances upward and there is a cut to his POV : the moon moving behind a dark cloud. Cut back to the close-up. The frame is now considerably darker and growing increasingly darker. Cut to a medium shot of book Leslie, also in high angle and in partial darkness. Cut to a reverse shot above her left shoulder; Leslie looks down at the corpse lying at the bottom of the georgia essays that, steps. During the course of the shot the light pattern and intensity alters according to the position of the report on roots, moon and the clouds.
As the frame lightens Leslie’s harsh shadow becomes visible across the corpses’ back. She turns quickly and book, glances up to the sky. Book Report On Roots. Cut to her POV of the moon coming out from behind the clouds, with a cut back to Leslie. She returns her attention to the corpse. Cut to a frontal shot. The back lighting casts her in a semi-silhouette. Cut back to the reverse shot; Leslie exits frame left (up the stairs). Cut to a servant running toward the cottage and stopping at the sight of the corpse. Georgia Tech Essays That Worked. Leslie invites the book report on roots, servant into in indian the cottage.
She orders the servant to send someone to inform her husband, working on a nearby plant, and the district officer about the incident. The servant remains in the living room. Leslie walks to her bedroom, opens the Venetian doors and book report, calmly shuts them behind her. The camera remains fixed on custom essay services toronto, the Venetian doors long enough to capture the nuance as Leslie turns the lights on. Book On Roots. This brings us up to the 3’45” mark of the opening. The next few shots are of her husband and district officer being summoned and their arrival at the cottage. The husband, Robert Crosby (George Marshall) attempts to open the bedroom door but finds it still locked: “Leslie darling, its Robert.” Seconds later the door slowly opens and Leslie cautiously exits the comment, room. Book Report. My reason for ending at this point will soon become apparent. Interpretation and Insights : This is one of the rare openings where reverberational motivation overpowers all else.
The murder, which triggers the story and sets the drama in gear, is secondary to the overlaying symbolism. Custom. The symbolism centers on the timeless theme of the doppelganger, a common motif in report on roots, expressionism and film noir. It pervades the entire film and essay, is animated in a variety of interesting ways (to varying degrees of originality and on roots, subtlety). The moon, the image on which the film opens and closes, is used as a symbol of both oncoming death and the imminent duality of human nature. Its position in relation to the clouds establishes the light/dark, good/evil patterning which dominates the film in nearly every facet: actual shifts in pyramid book, lighting intensity, lighting patterns, chiaroscuro, clothing, characters, and narrative structure. In one way or another these elements are established in the opening. The opening and closing scenes of the book report on roots, film mirror each other.
One begins and the other ends with a shot of the comment peut, moon; also, the book, death of tragedy and juliet Mr. Book. Hammond in inter search, the opening is visually linked to book report on roots, Leslie’s death in the final scene by the same moon/clouds lighting pattern. The shift in light intensity within a continuous shot occurs several times in the opening (close-up of the worker behind the the red pyramid report, bamboo bars, the on roots, reverse shot of Leslie, the Venetian doors) and is repeated throughout the film. Symmetrical shadows are also used to reflect the splintering of the soul. The light/dark patterning is essays that also reflected in the clothing. This will become most evident later in the film but is book report cued in the opening. During the murder Leslie is wearing a long, dark dress. The victim, Mr. Hammond, is tragedy wearing a dark top and white trousers. On Roots. All the other characters surrounding Leslie wear either all white (or light) or predominantly light clothing (her servant, the workers, the tragedy and juliet essay, district officer, her husband, and the lawyer).
Allowing for obvious symbolism, what has been established thus far is that Leslie is all evil, Mr. Book. Hammond “grey” and the others all good. This may seem too facile, obvious, or coincidental, until a subsequent event resoundingly confirms the symbolism. Moments after the murder Leslie sends for her husband and district officer and waits inside her locked bedroom. We do not see her again for two minutes as the scene switches to the exterior. Search Essay. In story time this intervening period is not long, perhaps fifteen or twenty minutes.
Her husband arrives and she exits the bedroom. Leslie is now wearing a white blouse and a black skirt, the reversal of Mr. Hammond’s clothing pattern. Book. I did not detect this subtle change until the fourth or fifth viewing. The probable reason is that the tech essays that worked, intervening two minutes obscures one’s memory for such detail. The color coded symbolism becomes obvious in the scenes between Leslie and book on roots, Mrs. Hammond (Gale Sondergaard): Leslie dressed in white and Mrs. Hammond in comment peut on etre dissertation, black. Leslie’s shifting color pattern is an externalisation of her immediate mental state.
It is no coincidence that the report, final two shots of the film are of a veil hanging over a chair and of the moon. The fact that there is only one micro/macro question in this opening (Is Leslie a murderess?) is emblematic of tech essays its motivational factor. A narrational or compositional motivation deposits salient questions. The more subtle reverberational motivation can also expose concrete questions, but when it dominates as strongly as in The Letter it establishes mood and foreshadowing elements, rather than obvious narrational/plot questions. It relies heavily on intuition, retroactive thinking, and, sometimes, repeated viewings. 1 For instance, in a Hollywood film you will never encounter a shooting style as radical as an Eisenstein (short shots) or Jansco (excessive long takes). The bound alternative Bordwell speaks of rests somewhere in between the extremes ( Classical , p.62). 2 This triad of semantic and syntactical parameters was developed in conversation with Ian Jarvie while a graduate student at York University.
3 A subjective camera shot is described by Edward Branigan as “a shot in which the camera assumes the on roots, position of a subject in the red pyramid book, order to show us what the subject sees” (p.103). Book Report. There are many nuances when dealing with a subjective POV , but for my purposes this is fine. Branigan calls this an optical POV . Throughout the paper I will use subjective and optical interchangeably. For complete bibliographic references see end of Part 2. Donato Totaro has been the essay services toronto, editor of the online film journal Offscreen since its inception in 1997. Totaro received his PhD in Film Television from the University of book report Warwick (UK), is a part-time professor in Film Studies at Concordia University (Montreal, Canada) and a longstanding member of AQCC (Association quebecoise des critiques de cinema). A Left-Handed Form of Human Endeavour: Narrative Comparisons Contrasts Between the Noir Heist Films The Asphalt Jungle and essays on role of women, The Killing.
Film Noir: A Study in Narrative Openings, Part 2. Singapore Sling : Postmodern Noir, Narrative, and Destructive Desire. History and Time as a Fork in the Square. “Notes” on Notes on the Cinematographer. Susan Sontag: Against Interpretation?
1997 2017 Offscreen, ISSN 1712-9559.