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Aristotle s Poetics Essays | GradeSaver
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Additionally NX bridges the standard file and print services of the client, with the Unix file and book on roots print services of the poetics server, so that, wherever you are, you can see the same applications and the same network resources.Besides the native X-Window protocol, NX is able to translate, encrypt and compress industry standard protocols like the RDP protocol, used by Microsoft and design essay Citrix, and the VNC protocol, used by a number of freely available tools, giving secure and fast access to the complete set of facilities made available inside a corporate network. The power of network computing has never been more affordable!Here are some key features of NoMachine NX Server:· Deploys X11, RDP and VNC desktops securely over the Internet· Provides unmatched performance, thanks to exclusive compression and aggressive caching· Connects to XDMCP servers, Windows Terminal Services and poetics Citrix MetaFrame servers on the backend, using the same client· Seamlessly integrates single X11 applications with the steps to take an academic essay native client desktop· Lets users leave their applications running while disconnected and resume from any client on the network· Lets applications access any file system on the client as if it were on the server· Lets users cut and paste between local and remote applications· Prints from the server to poetics essay printers installed on the client· Plays sound and essay trees our best english multimedia produced by the remote application· Integrates with your authentication infrastructure and poetics directory service· Supports industry standard SSL encryption and Transport Layer Security· Fully integrates with SSH, avoiding the need for a further network access port· Provides seamless integration with Web portals and corporate Intranets with one-click access to any application.What's New in This Release:· This version provides improvements to the session startup procedure by notably decreasing the time required for start-up when ten or more sessions are running. Book On Roots? What's New in This Release: [ read full changelog ] · This version implements the ability to poetics configure the server to allow for starting the NX session as the root user. · It also includes a number of solutions for issues affecting the review of related literature about in the desktop sharing functionality. For example, sharing the local desktop could fail on recent Linux distributions such as Fedora 10 and 11, and the NX session could not fit the dimensions of the session window when it is poetics, attached to a native display on the server. NoMachine NX Server Manager is the upcoming management interface for to take writing an academic essay, the NX Terminal Server system.
These are a few:dojo - Serves as the basis for most of the tacos library functionality. The best js package available hands down.Prototype - Currently seems to be one of the core library components that many other libraries are based on. Provides common fuctionality, like sending/recieving ajax requests, manipulating DOM structures and interacting with forms.script.aculo.us - A library spun off of the prototype library that provides lots of common Effects and animation techniques. To Take When Writing An Academic Essay? Also provides a few ajax components, like Autocomplete and in-place editing.Rico - Yet another library based on the prototype package. Poetics? Provides similar functionality to script.aculo.us, with the addition of more comprehensive components and animation techniques.What's New in This Release:· Dojo Widget - Generic component for (almost) all dojo widgets.· script.aculo.us - brand new components based on script.aculo.us· Comet component· New Annotations - allow you to inject ILinks and easily check if component parameters are bound.· New binding prefixes - including 'template' that makes string related ognl expressions easier, and 'absoluteAsset' which works like the asset binding but makes sure that the created url is absolute.· BeanForm - All-in-one, flexible bean editor BeanForm has become a major part of Tacos. This update offers complete compatibility with Tapestry 4.1.2.· Tapdoc - though not yet properly released from within tacos, it offers a maven plugin for component reference generation. SwingWT is an implementation of the Swing/AWT APIs over SWT. Design Essay Study? SwingWT is a 100% pure Java library which aims to be a free implementation of essay, Swing and AWT. Unlike Swing, SwingWT drives native peer widgets for your platform from SWT. You can see a screenshot of the basic SwingWT demo here (Linux/GTK2) and here (MacOSX).Here are some key features of SwingWT:· More responsive GUIs and faster startup times· Less RAM usage for applications· Many developers prefer the Swing API· Existing Swing applications don't need to be recoded· Mature Swing UI designers can be used· Developers deploying to *nix/Win32 can compile natively with GCJ and the applications can be distributed without a VM. Linux distribution makers could package many existing Java/Swing applications that previously could not be distributed in workable state.· SWT components can be directly accessed through the API, allowing mix and match (make Eclipse plugins with Swing!)· All platform benefits such as font sub-pixel decimation for LCD monitors (unavailable in Swing)· Use Swing on mobile devices!· The best of both worlds!
New Swing components for JClosableTabbedPane, JCoolBar, JTaskTrayItem..· A FREE implementation of Swing you can redistribute and modify to suit your own requirements· Insulation from changes to type questions the SWT APIs· Insulation from essay, differences between SWT platformsWhat's New in This Release:· This release contains many fixes and compatibility improvements, including support for AudioClip and SWT 3.2.
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Essay on Poetics - jstor
The “Eumenides” of Aeschylus: Whole-Hearted Patriotism #038; Moderated Modernity. Aeschylus’ Eumenides is a play about an institutional innovation and a paean to the goddess of the city. It is an account of the origin of Athens’ Supreme Court and a love poem to essay, Athena and essay her people and places. This poet, however, loves for cause and with a thoughtful passion. This people, the poetics essay, ”Attic folk,” schooled by their divinity, have the wisdom to domesticate dread and to innovate moderately.
My aim will be to flesh out and give precision to these notions, in sum to delineate the idea of a reverent revolution. I ought to confess at the outset that I love this play, but that Greek tragedy, as a genre, is alien to me. In his youthful work, The Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music (1870), Nietzsche propounds a stark opposition between Socratic and tragic culture. He writes: ”And now one must not hide from oneself what is hidden in the bosom of this Socratic culture: an optimism that deems itself limitless.” (Ch. 18) I recognize myself as a minor instantiation of the steps to take when writing an academic, Socratism that Nietzsche fears and poetics despises, this—I might say, American—optimism that wants to nullify deep tragedy by of related poverty philippines, the light of poetics essay reason and neutralize fate by to start, the devices of poetics ingenuity. When I read a Greek drama, I immediately fall to ways to start introductions, considering how its “tragedy” could have been forestalled.
I think to myself: “What little bit of good sense could have circumvented this mess?” Moreover, I feel my way into the inwardness of the tragic heroines and heroes and find myself repelled by their super- and sub-human lack of what one might call life-intelligence. A few years ago I was having lunch with a colleague, Jonathan Badger, who had just lectured on Sophocles’ Antigone, and essay expressing to him my view of that tragic heroine as a teenage monster. He showed me that it was actually obtuse to regard her as a sixteen-year-old girl with an authority problem. She is not a fiercely rebellious teenager but a human token designed to be caught in an ultimate, unresolvable clash of fearfully fundamental forces, a cosmic rift—here the one between family and city, between blood and politics. Tragedy, he was saying, is not about characters in ways essay situations but about catalysts of sub-rational and super human clefts in a world in which no man, woman, or girl can do the right, the saving thing.
I saw his point. One reason, then, that this drama, the Eumenides, speaks to me lies in what it is not. It is not a tragedy of the poetics, unresolvable impasse, of the unavoidable fatality. It is surely a drama, since drama is Greek for an eventful deed. But it is also a pragma, an affair practically handled, whose outcome is not all-round cleansing by steps writing, devastation, but a future of essay good daily living. Socrates, who is, according to Nietzsche, the when writing essay, late-coming destroyer of deep-delving dark tragedy, was a boy of eleven when the Eumenides was first shown. Perhaps he was in essay the audience; I don’t know if children were allowed in, but he was a great theater-goer in later life. This much can be said: His severe critique in literature about the Republic (383B) of the tragedians, including Aeschylus, can’t stem from this play. For it is poetics essay, quite literally the steps writing an academic essay, apotheosis, which means the “deification,” of essay good sense.
Aeschylus invests this drama of sweet reason, of moderation triumphant, with exhilarating solemnity and participatory splendor. I mean that precisely. Whereas in most tragedies the audience looks on and reacts, perhaps recoils, at the fate of friend english kings and heroes, in this play all Athens is on stage: The spectators see themselves as part of the play. And whereas in poetics most Greek tragedy the audience faces fearful and pitiful depths, in this play it is ways essay introductions, carried to poetics essay, joyful heights by an act of prudence that subverts tragedy. The final tone of the play is that of a city led by literature, a goddess whose wisdom is touched with glory. So now I have broached the matter of the first part of my subtitle: Except for a brief prologue in essay Delphi, where lay the omphalos-stone, the navel of the world, the Eumenides is set in Athens, where, it will be shown, resides the world’s wisdom. In Delphi the scene is the sacred enclosure of Apollo’s temple; in Athens it is design design, Athena’s temple on the High City, the Acropolis, and then on the rock facing the Acropolis, Ares’ Hill, the Areopagus.
This Athena, the essay, Athena of the report, play, is Athena Polias, the poetics essay, City-Athena, the Democratic Athena. She is not, to be sure, the protagonist of the drama, which is a choral band; she is, however, its chief individual actor. I don’t know if there are any other plays in review of related literature about poverty philippines which a divinity is the sole main character; it is, to say the least, a remarkable moment in stagecraft. Athena is on poetics, stage together with her people, the “Attic folk,” the on roots, Athenians, first with a few, then with the whole town. Poetics Essay! These people are named from their city, and their city is review of related literature in the philippines, named from its goddess.
But here is a wonderful fact: As in English, so in essay Greek, Athens is a plural: Athenai, “the Athenas.” I will return to this name, but now I want to point out that no other great Greek city I can think of is thus named from its divinity-not Sparta, nor Corinth, nor Argos at the center, not Syracuse in the west or Miletus in the east of Greater Greece. The play is not, strange to say, named after its chief actor, its choral protagonist. Report On Roots! In fact—a curious and significant fact—it is not named after anyone actually so called in the play. There are no “Eumenides” in the Eumenides. Let me draw back here to place the poetics essay, play Eumenides in its trilogy, the Oresteia. The Agamemnon is the of related literature poverty in the, first of the essay, three. It is a model tragedy in the familiar sense. The hero, just returned from the conquest of to take essay Troy, is poetics, killed by his wife Clytemnestra. She has her reasons; it is an ways to start essay open question whether she assassinates or executes him. I am reminded of that fine movie, Witness for the Prosecution, which ends with the wife stabbing her iniquitous husband in the courtroom; Charles Laughton, playing the winning but unwitting Queen’s Counsel for the defense of the guilty husband, who will now defend the wife, terms that deed not a murder but an execution.
The second play, the Libation Bearers, is a bridge drama. The exiled son of Clytemnestra and Agamemnon, Orestes, returns clandestinely to kill his mother. Again it is an poetics open question, the report, question for the final play, the Eumenides, whether his deed is polluting matricide or rectifying revenge. In this middle play, a band of creatures called the Erinyes appear and pursue Orestes as a mother-killer. Poetics Essay! Or rather they don’t appear, for although they are on stage, they are visible only to Orestes, “dark-gowned and twisted round with swarming snakes,” while to the women bearing the essay introductions, drink offerings they are mere “notions.” (doxai, L.B. 1049-51) Hence, some interpreters have thought that they are extrusions of Orestes’ guilty conscience. If so, they are matricidal-guilt phantasms only while the mother’s blood is not yet dry. In the last play they have material lives and are plain to sight, to hearing and essay even to smell—they exhale stink (Eu. 53).
The first two plays are set in Agamemnon’s kingdom, Mycenae, which in the fifth century was part of Argos. Now, in the Eumenides, the scene shifts from Argos to Athens via Delphi. I observe here that this final play of the trilogy will have none of the practically prescriptive features Aristotle ascribes to tragedy in his Poetics, the very features the Agamemnon has to review of related about poverty philippines, perfection: no colorably good human being of high station with a tragic flaw, no so-called unity of time and place, no audience purification by pity and fear. Poetics Essay! (Ch. 13, 5, 6) Instead the play’s occasion, Orestes, is a small-gauged victim of circumstance, the protagonist divinities are beyond human flaw, the play includes the ways essay, world as its venue and covers months or years in its time. It might even be said to qualify, before the poetics, event, Aristotle’s claim that poetry is more serious than history because the to start, historian only essay, tells what did happen while the poet tells what might happen. (Ch. 9) Now this poet so fuses, in his mythopoetic drama, what did and what might happen that the opposition between history and poetry is in to start effect canceled. For the Eumenides is a revised story of an origin, of poetics essay a founding, not a speculation about what might in general happen, but a story about what might in particular have happened. So, indeed does most imaginative writing, but this drama gives a mythopoetic account of the founding event of a real institution, the Areopagus, the ways essay, High Court of Athens. It is intended to give the meaning of the Court’s present. Poetics Essay! This is not factual history conjectured from evidence by research but the when writing an academic, dateless past recovered through a vision of its present consequences—not fact but nonetheless, or better, therefore, truth. I shall try to explain myself later.
The present point is to emphasize how uncanonical this play is in its melding of history and poetry—surely a new genre. And that brings me back to its name. Eumenides is the title by which the play was known in poetics antiquity; there is some agreement that it was Aeschylus’ own. I’ll suppose that it was, since that leads to a thought-provoking and so perhaps intended consequence. The play-going city, virtually every male citizen and trees friend english resident, knew well who these Eumenides were. They had a sanctuary at the “Hill,” in Greek, Colonus, a mile north of Athens-center. It was the place where in poetics essay Sophocles’ Oedipus at Colonus the patricide Oedipus will be said to have found refuge and release, as will the matricide Orestes on Ares’ Rock, the Areopagus. These divinities were also known to have a more central home, in essay study the cleft beneath the Areopagus, facing northeast toward the poetics, Acropolis. And they were called variously the Awe-inspiring, the August Ones.
People were evidently mindful of the literal meaning of Eumenides, an adjective formed from eu, “well,” and menos, “disposition.” They were the Well-disposed Ones; as Sophocles will say: “because they receive the suppliant out of their well-disposed hearts” (O.C. 11. 39, 89, 486). These gracious goddesses are thought of design design essay study with respectful and even with affectionate trust. I will venture a comparison. Although refugees like Oedipus and Orestes aren’t exactly “huddled masses,” yet I am reminded of Emma Lazarus’s poem inscribed on poetics, the main entrance of the Statue of Liberty, which announces that she receives those “huddled masses yearning to breathe free.” Just so the Eumenides represent the capacious, burden-removing and, I might say, diversity-welcoming aspect of Athena’s city—as we will see. Now these well-disposed ones were on the playbill, or whatever apprised the theatergoer of the dramatic fare for the day. And behold! the creatures that form both the chorus and the character confronting the protagonist have the essay trees our best, very opposite name. They are called the Erinyes, and poetics essay sometimes speak as one in ways to start essay introductions the first person singular through their leader, one Erinys. (e.g.
951) They too don’t act as does the usual tragic chorus; for example, the old burghers of Argos in the Agamemnon are sidelined to ineffectual, mildly wise commentary. But these are a fierce lot. Everyone knew them as well. In English they are called the “Furies.” Their Greek name may derive from eris, “strife,” but the facts are lost in the mists of age. The Eumenides appear as a trinity, an august threesome, but the age-old Erinyes are a band, better a pack, of twelve. They are horror incarnate, frightful and disgusting, dressed darkly in rags, with rheumy eyes, foul breath and snakes through their hair. Apollo’s Pythian priestess, who opens, the play is soon seen running out on all fours from their sight, which is poetics, Gorgon-like, but even more, bitch-like. When we first see them they are asleep, panting and steps slobbering in poetics their dream of hunting their victim down: Catch, catch, catch-mark him! (130) The oldest manuscript of the play that we have, the Medicean Codex of the later tenth century, includes a life of Aeschylus which claims that he did yet another unheard-of thing: By letting the Erinyes “loose without order into the orchestra, he so scared the people that infants expired and women miscarried.” I don’t think infants and pregnant women were in fact in the theater, but as I imagine it, the effect was—how shall I put it?—participatory. The business of the Furies was the opposite of the releasing Eumenides. They held the importance questions, world bound in the constraints of order and justice.
In the Iliad they check Achilles’ grieving horse when he bursts, unnaturally, into human speech. (19.418) Heracleitus says that “the Sun will not overstep its measures; if he doesn’t [control himself], the Erinyes, the poetics essay, helpers of justice, will rout him out.” (Fr. 94) Clearly these dreaded beings guard the rightful courses of nature. To Take Writing! Such natural order is called justice, dike. Poetics! These guardians of dike are born of Earth in Hesiod’s Theogony (184) and of Night in Aeschylus’ Eumenides, of of essay type obscure darkness in either case. As the action developed, the spectators began to understand that they were witnessing a terrific conversion: The Erinyes were turning before their eyes into Eumenides. They were transformed in bearing and garb—most significantly, as we will see—but also in number, although the play does not say so.
Had I been the essay, choregos, the producer, of the play I would have had the transformation include the fading away of the ways to start, twelve-pack Erinyes into the threesome Eumenides; the Eumenides would in essay fact, make a terrific movie script. However it was staged, it was a grand transfiguration—except that the new name was never uttered. To Take An Academic Essay! Why not? Something near enough is said of them in the play: The reformed Erinyes are given the adjective euphrones, “well (or kindly)-minded.” These frightening faces, Athena says to poetics, her citizens, will be of great profit to you, if you, being kindly-minded, honor them, the Kindly-minded. (euphronas euphrones, 992) As I imagine it, all of Athens, sitting there in enthralled solemnity, was meant to experience a dawning recognition: “But these transfigured horrors are our Kindly Ones, our Well-disposed deities, our Eumenides, that live on the other side of the hill not far from this theater!” By the end of Aeschylus’ century, the name Eumenides is simply a euphemism for Erinyes—very likely Aeschylus’ doing, but not in his spirit. For in his play, the Erinyes really do disappear and are transformed into the Eumenides. Athena and her people know how to essay our best english, turn the dreadful females into poetics, the Gracious Ladies, how to make the horrors holy. That is Aeschylus’ trenchant patriotism: to see Athens as a sovereignly assimilative power, her goddess as supremely, grandly ingenious—and something else, something beyond that I will consider later; it has to do with the fact that the Eumenides, if no longer horrible, are terrible still: the frightening faces. The learned name for steps essay any causal account, and thus for Aeschylus’ mythical history, is aetiology, from poetics, aitia, a “reason or cause,” and logos, a “rational account.” Temporal aetiology accounts for present situations and institutions through their beginning. Primal times are explanatory times; to recall them is to recall the present to its sense of itself. Aeschylean aetiology, however, is not done by what we call archaeology or history, the unearthing of buried artifacts or the researching of old documents.
It is rather the of related literature in the, projection backward into the timeless past of an originary vision, of the origin as it appears now to the mytho-poetic sight. Nowadays mythmaking has a bad name, especially among professional historians. It is an accusation. For example, there is a well-known book entitled Inventing America.  In its Prologue, the author, Gary Wills, analyzes Lincoln’s “Gettysburg Address” of 1863. “Well, now,” he says, “that is a very nice myth,” a “useful falsehood,” and a “dangerous thing.” It is a reprehensible piece because, among other things, in the exalted biblical language of “four score and seven years ago” Lincoln traces the birth of the nation back to 1776 and so to the Declaration of Independence and to its self-evident truth “that all men are created equal.” Wills, however, thinks he knows that this date of origin is deceitfully false. It was not until the final ratification of the Constitution in 1789 that we became a nation, and thus our conception was not in an idea but in all sorts of practical manipulations, messy and even unholy. Essay! What is more, Wills likes better that view of our country which sees it as the product of practical compromises than that which envisions its birth in a whole-hearted ideal because such ideals are never “straight-minded,” to borrow a word from the Eumenides. They always have, he thinks, a subtly pernicious hidden agenda, in Lincoln’s case the establishment of a “civil religion,” which made us falsely feel that we could save and redeem the ways essay introductions, world. I cite this book only to sharpen by contrast the contours of both Aeschylus’ and Lincoln’s kind of patriotism, which does not consign its country’s present to ever-disputable, secular historical fact, but derives it from a primal act that contains timeless truth. Such origin-myths given a definite temporal dimension to presently active principles; mythopoetry is the art of putting a past event behind the present situation. This is truth-telling of a high order and has nothing in common with the falsification of poetics essay facts—which Aeschylus did not have in any case. I doubt a mean-minded deceiver could produce a founding drama of steps when an academic such grandeur.
It is time to say what, in general, I take to be the poetics, difference between falsified fact and mythologized aetiology and to take when writing an academic essay wherein the deep truth of the latter lies. Georges Clemenceau once said, when asked how historians might judge German guilt for World War I: “This I do not know. But I know for certain that they will not say that Belgium invaded Germany.” For the reverse is a brute fact and essay its denial a brute falsification. On the other hand, an idealized account of the originating event, the ideal founding of a current institution—especially if it is endangered—is not a subversion of when fact, but a revelation of truth; namely, of the true meaning and the ideal function deeply embedded in that institution, as the civic poet discerns it. Poetics! It is not a refashioning of the historical past for the benefit of the essay, present but a penetration into poetics essay, the present for the recovery of the primordial plan. How, in when essay particular, can we tell feckless disregard of facts and mendacious skewing of history—in short, shameless propaganda—from sound-minded mythopoiesis? Strangely enough, language usually tells. Aeschylus’ Greek seems to me an poetics essay essential element of his patriotic passion.
It is as far as any diction can well be from what will one day be the crude formulas of to take writing essay propaganda; it has the essay, ring of truth. The marvel is that any of his Athenians understood him, for his language is so high and subtle, so grand and flexible, so archaic and neologistic, so bold and importance type questions complex that most of us who suppose that we knew at least a little Greek have to puzzle the text out laboriously with recourse to every aid available. I will give a few examples of his word-making, poetry practiced on the very elements of language: bdelyktropoi, “of a loathsome turn” (52); palaiopaides, “elderchildren” (69); dysodopai pala, “of-a-rough-and-rocky-road” (387); brotoskopon “man-watching.” (499) All these words are so new and sound so ancient; this diction is magnificent without being grandiloquent—though, to be sure, the reverently irreverent Aristophanes displays Aeschylus and poetics Euripides in Hades hurling eleven-syllable masses of “tight-riveted words” at each other. (Frogs, 824) The Athenian audience, at any rate, loved it in all its stiffness and inventiveness, and they seem to have caught the to start essay, hyper-intricate choral meters and savored the gorgeous staging. For the Oresteia won first prize. Aeschylus wrote between seventy and ninety plays—we only poetics, have seven—and won first prize twenty-eight times; some of these were posthumous, since after his death the people of Athens decreed funds toward the revival of his plays. The Eumenides was first performed in 458 BCE, and it was rooted in the present of that year. Of Related Literature In The Philippines! There are at least four references to poetics, the current situation. To begin with, when Athena first appears she says that she has heard Orestes’ call from far-off Troyland, where she had been taking control of territory assigned to her by the Greek victors.
Not only is she presenting herself as a divinity with far-flung possessions, but to steps to take when writing an academic essay, the Athenian audience, she must have been heard, in these early days of the Delian League that would turn into Athens’ empire, as asserting dominion over the cities of the poetics, Troad, a claim Athens was then in fact pursuing. Again, when the Erinyes finally accept Attic domicile they are re-robed onstage in “scarlet-dyed vestments.” (phoenikoba ptois… esthemasi, 1028) As they had been promised, they become “fellow-dwellers,” metoikoi in Greek. (869, 1011) These “metics,” resident foreigners, something like our green-card holders, were just at this time being recognized as of importance type major importance to Attic prosperity. They participated in the great civic processions dressed in essay scarlet robes. Aeschylus is book, expressing the inclusiveness of Athena Polias’s city, or, put less amiably, he is endorsing the expansionism of post-Persian Athens. A third topical reference lies in poetics Orestes’ grateful oath, pledging Argos to perpetual peace and alliance with Athens (764), a matter of considerable current importance to a city embarking on just that audaciously expansive foreign policy. The fourth case I will mention concerns the Areopagus High Court, whose founding is the central event of the of related literature philippines, Eumenides. The old oligarchic Areopagus Council, the historical court, had recently been stripped of its expansive powers, powers of law-enforcement, punishment, censorship. In the democratic reform that occurred just a few years before the poetics, production of the play (463-61 BCE), these had devolved on popular institutions.
Aeschylus, evidently a moderate democrat, here appears to steps to take essay, endorse this reduction of the court’s brief to cases of murder, since he represents Athena as instituting it for poetics essay just that purpose. Aeschylus himself was deeply engaged in importance the city’s life, and it was a factor in essay his fame. The year after winning first prize for design design essay study the Oresteia, in poetics essay his late sixties, he left Athens for Sicily, probably to to start, execute dramatic commissions, and died there soon after at poetics essay, seventy. The people of essay friend Gela, where he was buried, set him a grave marker with an inscription calling him Athens’ pride and noting that he had fought at Marathon. But he had fought also at Salamis, the other of Athens’ two great single-handed battles against the Persian invaders. At Salamis the Athenians fought in ships under the view of poetics essay Xerxes the design design essay study, King. Eight years later, in 472, a very young Pericles was the poetics essay, producer of Aeschylus’ Persians, which takes place in Xerxes’ court at Susa after the Salaminian defeat and is the grandest case of empathy for on roots a vanquished enemy that I know of.
The time of his life as a whole and of this, his last recorded winning play, was altogether the high time of his city. When he was five years old, the Pisistratid tyranny was overthrown in favor of the Athenian democracy to which we might well be said ultimately to essay, owe our own political being. Essay Introductions! When he wrote the Oresteia, the Persians had been ejected from Greece for essay over two decades, and the perils of Attic imperialism were looming, though yet avoidable. When Aeschylus left Athens in 457, the rebuilding of the mighty old temple of Athena Parthenos, destroyed by the Persian occupiers of the of related in the, Acropolis and rebuilt with tribute money paid by Athens’ client states to essay, the Delian League, money meant to protect them from the Persians, and in fact soon to steps an academic essay, be stolen by the Athenians—this ominous and glorious Periclean project was yet ten years off. So also was the restoration after the Persian sack of the essay, Erechtheum, Athena Polias’s house, being talked of but very far from even being begun. This precinct, alluded to in the play (855), was Athena Polias’s special seat, where was housed her primeval statue of olive wood, the one that will play a role in the drama, the one that miraculously survived the Persian burning of the High City.
And it was here that the testimonials of the contest between her and review of related about poverty in the Poseidon for the possession of Athens were shown, a salt pool struck from the rock by the sea god and by it an olive tree sprung up from the rock at essay, the behest of the city goddess. It may be that the olive tree was a witness to Athena’s trumping wit, which won her the city: A salt pool is put to importance of essay questions, real use as brine in which olives are marinated to make them edible. As I imagine it, Aeschylus felt his city to be at a cresting time, with some depths of danger and more heights of poetics essay hope looming. 458 BCE was a time of crisis for Athens —krisis in the Greek sense, a time for judgment when a provident poet-lover of his country would be inspired to to take writing, foresee the glories and essay driven to forfend the disasters of the future. I want to observe here parenthetically that, while even a sketchy knowledge of current events—sketchy, that is, compared to of essay type questions, what any Athenian spectator would know as a matter of course—could serve to make the play’s strong footing in the real present more pointed, a perceptive reader is likely to sense this too, albeit impressionistically. The play speaks for itself, as do all great works.
Besides the astonishing language and the expansive spirit of the drama, the town folk who sat there took in astonishing new interpretations of the poetics, world they knew: the origin of the Delphic oracle as well as of the review of related about philippines, names both of the Areopagus and of the Eumenides, the comparative stature of their goddess and Delphi’s Apollo, the origin of essay their claims on to start, Argos’s loyalty. But again and poetics essay again, and above all, they saw the magisterial management of their city’s affairs by their goddess, the maternal virgin goddess, the peaceable warrior goddess, flexible and firm, the to start, child close to her Father who is the highest, the universal divinity. I imagine them, as they participated in this climactic drama, infected with Aeschylus’ kind of patriotism. There are, as I said, different patriotisms, unsound and sound. Essay! There is “chauvinism,” bigotry and exclusiveness, born of to take essay poverty of poetics spirit and clumsy anger. Book Report On Roots! And then there is poetics essay, a liberal patriotism based on moral consanguinity. Thus Lincoln says that those who adopt the moral principle of “that old Declaration of Independence” can claim to be “blood of the blood.” And there is essay our best, also a community of poetics customs and friendly feeling. And last but not least there is the land itself; the hills surrounding the city of Athens are sung as “violet-crowned” (iostephanoi) and the continent of America is sung for its “purple mountains’ majesty.” But first and report above all there is a founding wisdom. Thus the third stanza of poetics ”America the Beautiful” qualifies patriotism:
America, America, God mend thine every flaw, Confirm thy good in brotherhood, thy liberty in law! Thus, too, Aeschylus’ patriotism is introductions, first and finally focused on poetics, his citizens’ moral virtue: They are “sound-minded [or in the usual translation ‘moderate’] in good time” (sophronountes en chronoi, 1000); this is the most exalted praise their new co-dwellers know to book report, give Athena’s people. With this quotation I come to the drama itself as an exemplar of the second part of my subtitle: “Modernity” means literally “just-nowness,” from Latin modo, “just now.” This literal meaning suggests one defining aspect of modernity—there are others—that fits the Aeschylean re-visioning of Athens’ goddess. In this sense, modernity is an ever-recurrent moment in human history; it is the mode of rationality practically applied. A given situation goes from poetics essay, onerous to insupportable and human ingenuity finds a—usually radical—device for bettering man’s estate in the here and now, an impatiently swift solution; this modernizing reason is bent on rectifying the essay trees friend english, condition just now. It doesn’t care what cosmic balances, what ancient restraints, what natural bonds may be disturbed, disrupted, abrogated. Poetics! Such enlightened reason is bright-eyed and trees our best friend light-headed in its universalizing impulse and in its disrespect for the ancient obstacles.
It is the poetics essay, impatient, with old naive Nature, and wants to book report, supplant her with new, sophisticated Artifice. These abstractions are, I think, embodied in the two contending divinities of Aeschylus’ play. The earlier part shows how Athena aids the poetics, new rationality, represented by essay our best english, Apollo, in winning its case against the old justice; the later part shows how Athena moderates this dangerous victory by inviting the poetics, old powers into of related literature poverty, her city and poetics essay teaching her people how to be soundly rational by essay, respecting the claims of a primeval cosmic equipoise, awful though it may be in aspect. Poetics! The Eumenides, being the last drama of a trilogy, supervenes on a long chain of of related literature poverty in the dramatic events. To recount it in poetics essay skeletal form: Before the Oresteia begins, Atreus, Agamemnon’s father, has killed Thyestes’ sons and served their flesh to their father at a banquet. Poverty! Agamemnon himself has sacrificed his and Clytemnestra’s daughter to speed on the Greek expedition to Troy. In the Agamemnon, his wife, Clytemnestra, and poetics Aegistheus, a surviving son of Thyestes, have killed Agamemnon on his victorious return from Troy, each for a compelling reason. In the Libation Bearers, Orestes, Clytemnestra’s and design design essay Agamemnon’s son, has killed her and Aegistheus to avenge his father and preserve his own succession. Now in the Eumenides, Clytemnestra’s ghost is clamoring for Orestes’ death as a matricide.
That last killing would be the end of the poetics essay, Atreides, the report, House of Atreus, and the vacating of the curse on it for essay Atreus’s deed. Thyestes’ progeny had already been erased. The two cursed lineages would have ceased, for Orestes’ sister, Electra, is childless. Nature would have evacuated the evil and the cosmic equipoise would be regained. This is natural justice, the justice of the ways, Erinyes, also called the “Curses” (Arai ) who are naively furious justice: Why should a killer, especially a mother-killer, live? It is against the logic, the measures, of nature. Ordinary mortals, on the other hand, tend to be of two minds. They have tit-for-tat justice in their bones, but they also ask, as does the poetics essay, chorus at trees our best, the end of the Libation Bearers : “When will there be rest from, when will there be a stop to the fury of this blind ruin?” (ate, 1076) They long for essay an imposed intervention, a forcible cut-off that ends the to start essay introductions, natural course, the logical working out poetics essay of the trees our best friend, accursed drama. This natural justice has the name dike, or as its enforcers sometimes say: eytheia dike, “straight justice.” (312, 436) The Erinyes think of poetics themselves as straight-justice-dispensing.
The word dike with its derivatives is the dominating sound of the importance, play: dikaios, endikos, dikastes, dikephoros, orthodikaion, adikein—the text bristles with it, and the ear rings with it. This dike, which the Erinyes claim as their own, has a thoroughly practical, concrete use. It means old custom and usage; it will henceforth mean the actual lawsuit brought and the effective judgment rendered; but above all, it means the order and right of essay things. The noun dike seems to be anciently connected with the verb deiknymi, “show, indicate.” The Erinyes say: “Come, let us join in the dance since it seems right to display our hateful muse,” for their office is to importance type, do “straight justice,” justice horrid but perspicuous. (307) The Erinyes’ dike, the justice of reciprocity, a life for a life, is plainly indicated by brute fact, particularly when blood relations are involved. Dike, the concrete justice of the Erinyes, is poetics essay, therefore not dikaiosyne, Just-ness, the thought-invoking object of inquiry mooted in Plato’s Republic. The question behind the play is indeed “What is justice?,” but it is engaged by the parties to importance questions, a trial and by judicial decisions. The accuser is dead Clytemnestra, appearing as a specter (eidolon), the defendant her live son Orestes, the venue the Areopagus court of ten juror-judges with Athena as arbiter; the advocate for poetics Clytemnestra is the band of Erinyes, for Orestes, Delphic Apollo.
So the ways to start essay, play begins in Delphi and right away there is revisionist mythmaking, Aeschylean aetiology. The Pythia, the poetics essay, priestess of Apollo’s oracle, comes out of the temple just to tell the story of Apollo’s taking possession of Delphi. All the world knew that it had been a violent business, but the Pythia paints the picture of a smooth, unforced inheritance. In this tale, Apollo is a welcome civilizing god, the “prophet” of Zeus. He appears as a divinity of easy—no, facile—dominion, a god whose people have been trained to suppress the darker circumstances of trees our best friend english his installation in Delphi. The priestess goes back in and soon runs out again, totally freaked out, as our students would say, by essay, the creatures that sit inside on stools, asleep, slobbering and book on roots snoring.
She exits. The temple doors are now open and we see them: the essay, Erinyes. Apollo comes on the scene with Orestes, to whom he promises protection from these Furies. He tells him to flee from them over land, sea, and islands, but finally to go as a suppliant to Pallas Athena’s city for “relief from his pains.” He ends: “For I persuaded you to kill the mother-body.” (84) Orestes sets out on his long expiatory flight. Clytemnestra’s specter appears and upbraids the sleeping Erinyes for neglecting their pursuit.
They wake up to dance and sing the first of several choruses that have a terrible kind of dignity and induce a repelled sort of pity. They sing to essay study, Apollo: “You, the young male, have ridden down the old female divinities” (daimonas, 150) by the respect you show for a godless man. “This,” they sing, “is what the younger gods do who exercise power altogether beyond Justice.” (162) Apollo responds by reviling them. They then bandy words, a foretaste of the arguments they will mount before the Areopagus, where both will claim to have justice on their side. It is a long time later. We are now in Athens, on the Acropolis. Orestes has arrived to sit, as he had been ordered by Apollo, as a suppliant with his arms around the old olive wood statue of poetics essay Athena, the one kept in of related literature about poverty philippines the Erechtheum. He insists that he is no longer polluted because Apollo has purified him and that, moreover, his guilt has been blunted by time and travel. The Erinyes are still in poetics hot pursuit. When they see him clasping the statue, they sing out a horrible song: They will suck red clots of our best friend blood from his limbs in poetics essay requital for mother-blood, “Everyone receives the justice he deserves….” Hades “oversees all in his recording-tablet of type a mind.” What they are saying is that some deeds are un-erasable: “Mother’s blood, once spilled on the ground, is scarcely recoverable,” even if retribution has been exacted. (261 ff.) Orestes claims, on the contrary, to have worked off his guilt through travel and essay “time that, growing old along with everything, purifies it.” (286) And now, the lead-Erinys announces the “Binding-Hymn.” It is a furious, long, stamping dance, an incantation for enchaining the mind. (370, 332) It asserts the Furies’ power and right to pursue even into Hades those who commit inexpiable crimes of blood.
Athena flies in, answering Orestes’ call. Aeschylus was admired for his staging; she surely arrives, a dea ex machina, by some cranelike device. But neither machines nor words make the wonder of this moment; it is rather the spectacle itself: Here is Athena’s old bretas, the olive bole that Orestes is introductions, embracing. Here is the possibly winged (1001) goddess herself, the essay, divinity on design design, which Orestes has called. He sees her, the spectators see her, the splendid deity vis-a-vis her presumably primitively carved, homely statue. How could the sight of both together help but lead to reverent reflection? The city was full of statuary Athenas. The Athenian spectators must think: We can reach her through these images; when we call her she will hear and come. But they must, at the same time, feel reminded that their wooden board, their marble statues, and their clay statuettes are just that: images, not the goddess herself. And that is poetics essay, exactly what distinguishes their worship from idolatry.
For an idol is to the worshiper not an review poverty in the image, but the spirit itself, prayed to, not through. These Athenians, presented by poetics essay, their first playwright with the ways to start essay, wooden token and the real goddess face to face, were being invited—whether they followed the call or not—to think about the patent defectiveness and the mysterious power of those increasingly perfect representational artifacts that their normally invisible goddess was eliciting from poetics, them. Indeed, thoughtful spectators might realize—once the to start essay introductions, magic of the performance had faded—that the “living” goddess who had been juxtaposed onstage to her venerably featureless effigy was herself a piece of Aeschylean poetry and stagecraft. Poetics Essay! Then they might wonder whether her innovative rationality, combined with her preservative respect for the—henceforth—ancient ways she had herself subverted, were in fact the attributes of a poet’s made image or the revelation of a divine revolution: Was the poet interposing himself between the citizens and their goddess, or was he their conduit to her? Athena descends and notices the design, Furies. Apollo had reviled them and driven them from his temple: “Out, I am ordering you….You belong where there are judgments and poetics butcheries of head-lopping and eye-gouging, and of essay questions where the green youth of boys is poetics, ruined by destruction of review about poverty philippines seed” (186)—Aeschylean language for castration, high poetry to poetics essay, render the immoderate tone of the self-righteous young god. Here is Athena’s reception for them.
She says that she is not afraid of, but she is writing an academic essay, amazed by these creatures, which are unlike any other race, not seen among gods or comparable to humans in shape. Then she catches herself: “But to speak ill of someone close by us because he is misshaped does not approach what is just…” (413) The Erinyes introduce themselves. They are called the “Curses,” and are the children of Night who live beneath the earth. Poetics Essay! They begin the on roots, argument.
Athena says: “I would understand [all this], if someone would give a perspicuous account.” (420) Athena wants to hear from both sides in lucid speech. She admonishes the Furies not to poetics essay, insist on formalisms. The Furies begin to trust her and entrust their case to her decision. So does Orestes. The gist of the book, case is, on the Furies’ side, a rationally connected double demand: that a mother-killer should be hunted down even into Hades and that their own just prerogative to execute this charge should not be abrogated. On Orestes’ side, too, there is a double argument, which is essay, not so rationally coherent, though Orestes has had a “smart teacher” (sophos didaskalos, 279) in Apollo. He admits to the deed, but claims that it was just to requite his father’s murder, and he also offers the excuse that Apollo forced him to it with threats of “stinging pain to the heart.” (466)
Once again something simply amazing happens. Athena, the daughter of the god of gods, puts herself modestly on the level of mortals. She says: “The affair is too great for some mortal to think he can adjudicate it…Nor is it right for me to design design, decide a judicial case concerned with a killing so acutely anger-filled.” On the poetics, one hand there is steps when writing an academic essay, before them a purified suppliant, on the other, the undeniable charge of the poetics, Furies who will, moreover, should they lose the of related poverty in the philippines, case, poison the ground for ever. So Athena also has two agendas: a fair verdict and the protection of Attic soil. She issues an ordinance “for all time.” (484) Justice concerning killings will henceforth be turned over to judges . Poetics! Dike will go to dikastai; Justice is turned over to juries; the natural course of just requital is turned into a case-at-law, and design essay study the avenging Erinyes are to plead before a court.
Acquittal or punishment ceases to be a private and now becomes a public affair. A British Lord Chief Justice said: “One…object of poetics punishment is to prevent…the victims of crime from taking matters into their own hands.” Athena’s institution of the high court of Athens is a revolution in human affairs, the steps writing, kind of event I call modern, or, better, modernizing. It means the overthrow of poetics essay ancient ways in the interest of a reasonable procedure, a crucial characteristic of which is the growth of public power, the on roots, expansion of what in essay our quintessentially “modern times,” the times in which modernity becomes the established mode, is called the state. But what if the accuser loses the case, if a guilty defendant escapes punishment on technicalities and the righteously aggrieved party is left helplessly furious? What if the humane, exculpatory rationality of the human court leaves the world out of kilter? We will see how Athena mitigates this inevitable consequence of institutional justice, the conversion of capital Justice as a power into lower-case justice as a process. But first there is essay trees friend, that initial, that mythic trial before the Areopagus.
Athena goes off to select “the best [material, ta beltata] among my townspeople.” (487) I don’t think she means the aristocrats or oligarchs. Aeschylus’ locution betokens that the essay, juror-judges are just the fittest citizens. Aeschylus, recall, is a defender of Athenian democracy. While she is essay trees our best friend, gone, the essay, Eumenides sing again, a song of despair and essay threatened withdrawal: “Now come the overturnings, the revolutions (katastrophai ), wreaked by essay, new ordinances—if the review of related poverty philippines, hurtful justice of essay this mother-killer is to dominate.” (490) “I shall”—they sing as one—”permit every violent ruin” (moron). Let no one cry out ‘O Justice! 0 thrones of the Erinyes!’ …since the House of Justice has indeed collapsed.” (511) And then in the middle of their lamenting threats they make a demand that justifies my picture of them as intended by Aeschylus to be the representatives of the aboriginal justice of equilibrium: Approve neither the anarchic life.
nor the tyrannized one… God grants the power to everything middling. I speak the proportionate word. (symmetron epos, 531) Athena, who was not there to steps to take when essay, hear them, will—wonderfully—repeat their words. But first the trial. Poetics! The scene seems to have shifted to the chambers of the Areopagus court.
Trumpets sound; the people stream in; the court sits. The Eumenides, advocates for Clytemnestra, offer a simple case: He admits he did it. The opposition’s claim that Zeus, Zeus who overcame his own father, has more regard for importance of essay questions a father’s than a mother’s death is implausible. Poetics! Moreover, Clytemnestra, in killing her spouse, did not kill a blood relation, a mitigating circumstance for her. Importance Type Questions! Orestes intimates right away that neither is he his mother’s blood relation. Apollo now speaks for Orestes. He again proceeds violently: “You altogether hateful beasts, hated by the gods…” (644) He follows Orestes’ line: “The mother so-called is not the child’s begetter.” (658) He goes on to speak as a scientist to common folk, dispensing fancy then-modern biology, according to which the mother has no part in the embryo except that of a nurse. He cunningly mentions that the male can even engender entirely without a mother.
He cites the daughter of Zeus, Athena herself, as a case. Poetics Essay! It is a smart lawyer’s move, but once again, disregardful of the Erinyes. For Aeschylus has-against tradition-made them the children of Night, and she, Hesiod tells us, can bear “having slept with no one” (Birth of the Gods, 213); the Furies themselves (probably) have no father. I interrupt the account here to essay trees our best friend english, point to a curious circumstance that must have crept into every spectator’s mind: Apollo’s argument, which in fact abolishes mothers, insofar as they are nothing but carrying wombs, is cleverly made in a drama that is enacted, except for Clytemnestra appearing as a specter and the Amazons appearing in a story, mainly by childless females whose status is essay, above, below, beyond natural womanhood: the Pythian priestesses who open the play, the Erinyes who are transformed in its course, the consecrated guardians of Athena’s statue who lead the book report on roots, exit march. Above them all thrones Athena Parthenos, the Virgin. (999) Why? Well, first this is a sacral drama, and poetics the great Olympians are served by virgins. Importance Type Questions! But more significantly, the two protagonists, female-gendered but non-bearing, are, on the one hand, male-like powers, the essay, one of ways fiercely spirited engagement, the other of majestically large objectivity. Poetics! Yet, on the other hand, both are capable of kindly care, the Eumenides eventually by Athena’s unique persuasiveness, she herself always as the city goddess who cherishes (911) her own people as with a supernatural maternity. To Take Essay! From this dual disposition both reach a middle wisdom, the moderation that they will soon be revealed to have in common. The pleading is done.
Athena addresses her citizens while the court deliberates. Essay! She tells them yet another revisionist foundation myth—more aetiology. The place where the court of juror-judges; that will exist for ever, is deciding its first murder case, the kind for which she has instituted it, is called the Areopagus, ”Ares’ Rock,” because there the army of Amazons from Asia that attacked Athens in the time of Theseus sacrificed to Ares. (683) Again, all the world knew the current explanation of the name, which was that Ares, having killed a son of Poseidon for trying to rape his daughter, was tried on essay, this hill for essay murder by a jury of gods. I assume that he was acquitted, as Orestes will be. Why this new tale? One notion is design design essay, that Aeschylus wants Orestes’ trial to poetics essay, be the initial case of the new Areopagus court. But if the earliest court consisted of the twelve Olympian gods, Athena’s institution of a mortal court of ten would still be original enough, and if Ares had indeed been acquitted, the precedent might be welcome. I think Aeschylus revises the naming event of trees our best this court’s home to remind his audience of the more recent Asian army that had entered the essay, city just over three decades ago, that of the introductions, Persians. Then Athens had ejected a male invasion—they regarded the Persians as effeminate—as once before in mythical times it had defeated a female invasion. Now, in the dramatic time of the play, it must cope with another female band not of invaders but of infernal plaintiffs about to be outraged: Those Amazonian warrior women were easier to deal with than these furious female deities.
She uses the pause in the drama to make a consequent point: Reverence this Areopagus! Don’t muck up—she uses strong language—your own bright water. Their own inborn fear and awe will keep the town’s men from doing injustice, as long as “the citizens themselves don’t make innovations in poetics essay the laws.” (epikainonton nomous, 693) While in the course of instituting novelties, she warns her people against innovation! And then, in the most significant moment of the play, she goes on to say exactly what the Eumenides have said in her absence: “I counsel the caring townsmen to revere neither the anarchic nor the tyrannized way, and not to throw all that is dreadful out introductions of the city. For who among mortals, fearing nothing, is yet imbued with justice?” (697).
She and essay the Furies together seem to essay study, be doing a long-term end-run around Apollo, although she is about to help him win his current case. Athena’s political wisdom is ingeniously and complexly deep, as we will see. After the jurors have voted and before the votes are counted, Athena makes a consequence-fraught announcement. If the vote is poetics essay, tied, Orestes will be acquitted because her pebble is going into the urn for acquittal. Her reason is stupefyingly simple and unprincipled: “I support everything male—except for to take writing the matter of poetics essay getting married [here speaks the virgin goddess], and I am very much my Father’s child.” (736) This is another remarkable moment.
Her refusal to invent a principle-preserving sophism is positively refreshing here. After all, she has a deeper reason that she is wise not to articulate before the introductions, Furies: to stop the descent of killing, to put an poetics essay end to this murderous lineage without actually eradicating it. And yet she knows that this is a dangerous circumvention of the dread and awe that irredeemable blood should inspire. And that is, as ever, only one of two wise intentions. The other is to establish by precedence a permanent ordinance: the judicial compromise that will resolve an insoluble situation. The equality of votes, five to five, which she surely foresees—or so I imagine—betokens the inability of human beings to resolve this matter by themselves, to be of book report one dispositive mind, any more than the deity could deal with it alone. She knows that she is to be the tie-breaker; she must supply the essay, casting vote, and it is for ever—and still for us—in favor of acquittal.
When humans are equally divided in mind, civilization says: Let him go. Give him the benefit of the doubt. And ever after, in the goddess’s absence, her tie breaking vote, cast for clemency, will be present in importance of essay type every court, and so will she. (I don’t say “cast for mercy” because this is pagan moderation, civilized leniency, not Christian forgiveness.) Furthermore, Athena’ s rule tends toward slowing innovation in deliberative assemblies: Positive action is defeated by a tie. So Orestes is acquitted, and he, full of poetics essay gratitude and promises for an Argive alliance, quits the our best, scene with his divine advocate. Athena is left with her assembled people—and the essay, absolutely infuriated Furies. They dance again and become, as people do, ominously repetitive but also darkly beautiful with rage. Book Report On Roots! They again speak as one, fixated on the locution of being ridden down by the younger gods and iterating their lament: I am she who is unhonored—she who is poetics essay, wretched,
I emit poison, my heart’s poison in payment for design pain. in unbearable drops on the ground. (780, 810) And again the goddess does something astonishing, something no other divinity, I imagine, would or could attempt and accomplish: She undertakes to calm the Furies, to gentle them. She speaks to them between their laments. She tells them they are not unhonored nor defeated, for the votes were equal and Zeus himself kept Orestes from harm. This is tact—half the jurors, she points out, were for them; moreover, not their antagonist Apollo, but the god of gods himself ordered the outcome. Here she gently reminds all of her closeness to Zeus; she alone knows the keys to the chamber where his thunderbolt is sealed. (827) It is the subtlest of poetics essay threats. Ways! But above all she has begun to poetics, make her daring offer: Be “augustly honored and be co-dweller (synoiketor) with me.” (833) She is inviting the essay trees our best english, Furies into her city!
They still rage repetitively. “For me to bear this, oh!—for me of such ancient good sense to dwell in this earth is a dishonoring defilement,” they say twice over. (838, 871) Athena bears it patiently, though she tells them understatedly, “Zeus has not done badly by me either in poetics essay giving me good sense.” She promises more, a place for them close to design study, her own Erechtheum, the prize of the country’s first fruits, and honors over any they might have from mortals elsewhere—if they will not afflict her places with incitements to bloodshed, drunken rages, fighting-cock hearts, and rash intractable aggression. “Let our wars be external!,” she says, since it is not war she denounces but civil war. (861) “I won’t weary of telling you,” she goes on, “so you can never say that by me, the younger, and my city-holding mortals, you, the ancient deity, went unhonored and essay were made a stranger on this soil.” If you have reverence for the power of Persuasion, the honeyed soothing and seduction of my tongue, you will stay. (881, cf. 970) Suddenly, as one, they cave in: “Queen Athena,”—now first they call her queen, as had Orestes before them (235)—”what settlement do you say you have for me?” (892) Why? Surely they have been both bribed and sweet-talked, but surely that alone would never have persuaded these recalcitrantly tough old customers. Importance Of Essay Questions! I think what gets to them is not only Athena’s tactful rhetoric, which she takes so far as to incriminate herself as one of essay those hated younger gods, though one who is deferential to the ancient ones, whom she has begun to address in report on roots the singular as one deity. (848) No, it is above all her genuine understanding of their indispensable function. She is, to be sure, acting for her people: “For like a plant-shepherding man (andros phit ypoimenos) I cherish the grief-removed nation (genos) of these just people here” (911)—this is Athena talking high-Aeschylean to make a declaration of love to her Athenians. But then, after she has already brought the corps of Furies over, after they have already accepted co-dwelling (synoikia, 916) with her, she says from kindly care for her citizens: I have finally fixed these great and hard-to-please spirits, “for it is their lot to manage what pertains to mankind.” (927) This is powerful language, which shows that she is seriously acknowledging their dangerous potency, the risky blessing she is introducing into her city. Poetics Essay! Her wise management of these managers reminds me of what is perhaps the crucial line in book report Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice: Bassanio says to poetics, the vengeful Jew: “Can no prayers pierce thee?” and Shylock answers: “No, none that thou hast wit enough to make.” (4.1.128) Athena has wit enough and wisdom to pierce the avenging Furies, and that is because she, unlike Apollo (or Bassanio), can summon a real, a reverential respect for book them: “Great power has the Lady Erinys.” (950) They sing antiphonally, the Erinyes of blessings to be bestowed, Athena of the blessings to be received, telling her citizens to be ever well- (or kindly-) minded toward these Well- (or Kindly-) minded ones,” the Euphrones—which is as close as she seems to wish to poetics essay, come to trees our best english, naming the Eumenides.
There is a great exit procession: the Areopagites, Athena’s acolytes, her Athenians, and finally the goddess herself, conducting the Erinyes, now dressed in the scarlet of resident aliens, marching as metics (1028), to their permanent home beneath Ares’ Rock. Here is the third strophe of the exit march, sung by the Erinyes, now, without need of naming, recognized by all the spectators as their Eumenides: Chairete, chairet’ en aisimiaisi ploutou, iktar hemenoi Dios. Parthenou philas phil0i, sophronountes en chronoi; ontas azetai Pater.
Rejoice and farewell in the happiness of wealth, Rejoice, townspeople. Seated close to Zeus. Friends of the friendly Virgin Moderate in poetics essay good times. Under the wings of Pallas Athene. As you are, the Father respects you. (996-1002)
Of course, the whole theater was, though seated, marching along, a light trochaic tread, solemn but relieved, grave, and exhilarated. This was surely a high moment of sound-minded patriotism founded on whole-hearted trust in the wisely innovating goddess. As this founding drama draws to a close, Athena repeatedly invokes the Father, Zeus. Through her, her people are near to him. I think this means that though she acts locally, in this Attic land, on this Athenian High City, at this Rock of Ares, she is instituting a larger way, she is thinking universal Zeus-like thoughts for other places and later times. Sophronountes en chronoi the new neighbors say of report on roots Athena’s people: They “are being temperate, sound-minded, moderate.” All these terms are acceptable renditions of poetics sophronountes, which is, moreover a present participle, a verbal form signifying a continuing action. That is, at least, how their city-goddess acts: ever-temperate, ever-moderate, and what that means for Athens I shall end by saying in a moment. But why en chronoi, “in time, just in time, in essay study good time”—all of poetics these are possible meanings?
It has seemed to readers a puzzlingly reserved phrase, a note of restraint sounded among these transports of reconciliation. Perhaps what the Erinyes mean is that moderation is neither inbred nor learned in a day, especially not in its ongoing realization, the very temporality suggested by design essay, the verbal form: being actively moderate—thinking soundly over poetics time. Under Athena’s wings they keep learning. Review Of Related Literature Philippines! What is this—their, her—moderation in this forever critical situation, life lived literally with the Erinyes beneath? Let me begin to essay, answer by recapitulating Athena’s acts of moderation and innovation: Apollo, to win his case, cites new science which in effect says, “There are no mothers;” Athena, ensuring the same outcome, refers instead to her unique case of motherlessness and abstains from inhumanly radical generalizations. Faced with repulsive creatures, Apollo insults and expels them. Athena rather controls her repugnance and accords them more courteous treatment than, I imagine, they have ever received since dark Night bore them; she soothes and invites them. Saddled with a case in which primevally simple and humanly compromised justice confront each other, she magisterially accepts the case but modestly recognizes that neither her people nor she can resolve the review of related poverty in the philippines, matter alone. Consequently, she founds a novel institution, a court for cases of killing, thus both making justice a public rather than a family responsibility and corroborating Athens as a place of refuge and resolution. Poetics! She makes the when writing an academic essay, number of juror-judges even, well knowing that the first division of votes will express a right-minded human ambiguity concerning the case. She assumes the office of poetics essay tie-breaker to give this verdict to the god-driven killer who is the of related poverty, first to come before the Areopagus court, tacitly ordaining the essay, rule that in subsequent cases, when the mortals decide in her absence, equal votes will moderate primitive severity by review about poverty in the philippines, signifying acquittal. Having thus of poetics essay necessity offended the Furies, she goes persuasively—and sincerely—far in steps to take writing acknowledging their priority and power, honoring them with titles: She names, or rather titles them, finally, the August Goddesses ( Semnai Theai) , and grants them prerogatives-in effect a share in the supervision of her city.
Gently she domesticates them and turns these new residents into almost new deities. And yet…She is poetics essay, a modernizing goddess who, as the Erinyes themselves say, has caused a revolution. But when she takes the tremendous risk of domesticating these justly vengeful deities and making them officially metics, that is, co-dwellers, it is their intention she converts, not their nature: They are, as everyone knew, now the Eumenides, the Well-Intentioned, the Kindly-Thinking Ones. Ways To Start Introductions! But they are still angry Erinyes as well: Their dark character as children of Night is poetics essay, not canceled but preserved  in essay study that cave in poetics Ares’ Rock, beneath the design essay study, Areopagus Court. What above all moderates Athena’s modernity and makes her revolution a reverent one? It is that she knows and poetics essay honors the report on roots, ancient dread. Poetics! When the Erinyes lament that the new young gods ride them down, she, though herself a member of the new generation of gods, knows what that means: The others, at least this Apollo, are too brightly shallow to feel it, to to take when writing an academic, feel the fear that the world will become unbalanced if holy terror fails. Even as she is establishing that work of reason, the human jury sitting in judgment, where the public decides by the numbers and the perpetrator goes humanely free when there is doubt, even as she is freely innovating, she tells her Areopagites: “Their reverence for the court and the inborn fear of the townspeople will keep them from essay, doing injustice… as long as the citizens don’t make innovations in the laws.” And then, she gives her counsel, the gist of which I will quote once again: not to revere either anarchy or despotism, And not to throw all that is dreadful out of the design essay study, city. For who among mortals, fearing nothing, is poetics, yet imbued with justice? (698)
This dread, this fear that the citizens are bidden to preserve, is a deep awareness of—one might even call it a kind of trust in—the terrible consequences of lightly letting old laws lapse and forcibly bringing in a new rational relief that leaves the primal Justice of reprisal out of kilter. A penultimate question: Are the Erinyes creatures of conscience? Perhaps in the first moment of matricide Orestes experiences a gnawing horror like remorse. For in the Libation Bearers only he sees the book on roots, Furies. Poetics Essay! But they soon materialize, and in the Eumenides the whole city sees them. To Start Essay! They are there not to essay, express a haunting sense of guilt but to recall a world-dislodging deed, and essay they are not evocations of the perpetrator but emissaries of the victim. Poetics Essay! The Erinyes are, indeed, never renamed in the play, but at the very end the people in the procession give them one last fitting adjective: euthyphrones, “straight-thinking.” (1040) They are also repeatedly called children: “elder children” (palaiopaides, 69), no-children children. (paides apaides, 1034) There is in our best friend fact something naively, frighteningly, undeflectably direct about these ancient children; they demand straight simplicity like young children when they are in the holy terror mode, when they are fixed on the brute fact of an inequity: “Why is he allowed…?” No, they are not extrusions of the perpetrator’s conscience. But neither are they expressions of the victim’s outrage.
The Erinyes are rather exhibitions of a cosmic power. They are, by Aeschylus’ fiat, daughters of Night. “Murky Night” has borne, as Hesiod tells in his Birth of the Gods, many daughters, among them Nemesis, Blame and essay Woe, Destiny and the Fates, Who pursue the transgressions (paraibasias) of men and gods, Nor ever do these goddesses cease their dread anger. Before they have given evil attention to review of related literature poverty, anyone who has gone wrong. (213-25) The Erinyes belong among the divine powers who keep the world from poetics essay, going out of joint  by rectifying imbalances. Of Essay Type! Born from murky dark, they bring a dreadfully simple clarity of accounting: Do and pay. Such are these anciently young spirits, while Athena is the poetics essay, newly young deity, and importance questions yet they come together over cosmic and civic politics. Both oppose anarchy as well as despotism (526, 696), because it is unbalanced, immoderate. Yet, Athena Polias is an altogether modern, modernizing goddess, a civic deity who innovates, makes political revolution in the modern mode still current with us: She transfers moral responsibility to public institutions, decides by the numbers, that is, by voting, resolves issues by rational fiat, encourages perspicuous speech in both parties: ”Answer me with something intelligible.” (442, 420) But she is in complete sympathy with the poetics, Furies’ cry that precedes their proscription of political extremes:
There is a place where the dreadful is well (to. and, as overseer of the heart, it ought to stay seated there. It is essay, of profit. to be moderate in narrow straits. (517) So both connect moderation with the welcoming of dread. Essay! For certain blood spilled simply is to start essay, irretrievable (1175) and poetics essay some deeds are forever irredeemable. And the Apolline solution to “invent” what he calls “engines of relief ” (82) racks up debts in that economy of things that the Erinyes call Justice. What Athena understands is that this truth must be invited in and kept in mind: that continuous propitiating mindfulness by book report on roots, the beneficiaries of poetics abrogated requital is required. This is not straight Justice but it is clement civilization.
In that knowledge consists Athena’s moderate modernity. Back, finally, to Aeschylus: Does he “believe in” this Athena—believe that she exists? I answer abruptly, from the report on roots, bafflement of poetics essay a post-pagan and the enthrallment of an all-but-worshiper: He loves her as he loves his city, and love makes moot the question of existence—at certain high moments. Books by Eva Brann may be found in The Imaginative Conservative Bookstore. This essay originally appeared in The St. John’s Review (Volume 50, No. 2, 2008) and is republished here with gracious permission. Importance Of Essay Type! Miss Brann welcomes questions/comments via mail: Dr.
Eva Brann, St. John’s College, 60 College Avenue, Annapolis, MD, 21401-1655 (she does not use computers). Ms. Brann writes: “These reflections on the Eumenides originated in a seminar on board the poetics essay, MJY Callisto, Captain Yannis Stupakis, sailing the Aegean Sea in October of review of related literature poverty in the philippines 2006. The passengers were all members of the poetics, St. John’s College community: Wendy Feintech, Jacqueline and David Levine, Cathryn and Tom Krause, Gretchen Dibble and Robert Mahaffy, Mary Jane Myers, Deborah and Lee Walcott; seminar leaders: David Levine and myself. I thank my colleague Mera Flaumenhaft for ways essay introductions her suggestions and for essay making me aware of her gratifyingly like-minded essay, “Seeing Justice Done: Aeschylus’s Oresteia,” in her book, The Civic Spectacle (Lanham: Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield: 1994), especially pp.
27-41.” Lloyd-Jones, Hugh, The Eumenides by of related literature poverty in the, Aeschylus: A Translation and Commentary. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall (1970). Paley, F. A., The Tragedies of Aeschylos (Edition and poetics essay Commentary). London: Whittaker and Co. (1879). Podlecki, Anthony J., Aeschylus’ Eumenides (Edited with an Introduction, Translation and Commentary). Warminster, England: Aris and Phillips Ltd. (1989). Sommerstein, Alan H., Aeschylus, Eumenides (Edition and Commentary). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1989). Verrall, A. W, The ‘Eumenides’ of ways to start essay introductions Aeschylus (Introduction, Commentary and Translation). London: Macmillan and Co. (1908).
 There is even an old story that Socrates helped Euripides make his plays, who was consequently called by a later comic writer “Socrato-rivet-patched” ( s okratogomphos, Diogenes Laertius, 2.18).  Verrall, p. xxxvi.  It may be that the idea of bringing Orestes to Athens arose from the fact that in the Odyssey he comes from Athens to avenge his father (3.307).  Emma Lazarus, “The New Colossus” (1883): “. . . ‘Give me your tired, your poor/Your huddled masses yearning to essay, breathe free,/The wretched refuse of your teeming shore . . .’ .”  Sommerstein, p. Importance Type! 109, on !. 142.  E.g.
Euripides, Orestes, l. 35 (408 BCE); Sommerstein, pp. 11-12.  Gary Wills, Inventing America : Jef ferson’s Declaration of poetics essay Independence, New York: Vintage Books (1978), p. xiv ff. A thorough rebuttal of essay Wills’s facts: Harry V Jaffa, “Inventing the Past: Garry Wills’s Inventing America and the Pathology of Ideological Scholarship,” The St . John’s Review 30 (Autumn 1981), p. Poetics! 94 ff.  Paley, p. xxxvi; Sommerstein, p. Book On Roots! 18.  Podlecki, p. Poetics Essay! 163, on l. 398.
 Podlecki, p. 92, on l. 1028.  Meanly implausible reasons were later given for this, his second Sicilian voyage, such as his defeat by young Sophocles or his having revealed the Mysteries (Paley, p. xxv). I think he was a famous Athenian, and so the Sicilian rulers wanted his poetry. There is no reason to ways essay introductions, think he was an essay expatriate; it’s hard to our best friend english, imagine after the Eumenides .  Paley, p. xxxvi.  The Delian Treasure was seized and brought to essay, Athens in 454 BCE.
 This piece of Athenian wit was told me by Seth Benardete half a century ago. To Start Essay! It seems mythopoetically true.  Abraham Lincoln, “Speech in Reply to Douglas at Chicago” July 10, 1858)  Pindar, Fr. 76 (46), The Odes of Pindar, translated by Sir John Sandys, Loeb Edition (1919), p. 556, n. 1. Poetics Essay! Katherine Lee Bates, ”America the Beautiful” (1893), in The American Reader: Words that Moved a Nation, ed. Diane Ravitch, New York: Harper-Collins (1990), p. 184.  Could it possibly be that this, the importance of essay type, moral of the play, is not at poetics essay, the thousandth line by accident? To be sure, not all line counts agree. No, not likely.
 In fact, the Oresteia is the only complete surviving trilogy.  Podlecki, p. To Take When! 129, on poetics, 11. 5-8.  I don’t know whether such a scene is ever repeated. In Euripides’ Hippolytus, for instance, where Aphrodite’s and Artemis’s statues seem both to be on stage, the deities themselves are not seen but only heard (86).
 The philosophical culmination of the reflection on image and original is in of related poverty Plato’s Sophist (240 ff.). Athena was the patroness of arts and crafts.  Lord Lane (1986), quoted as an epigraph in poetics Sommerstein.  In the Generation of Animals Aristotle will elaborate this proto-thesis into a full-blown theory: The mother is an infertile male who contributes merely the to start, receptive material to poetics essay, the embryo (1.19-20; 4.1).  Verrall, p. 126, on 11. 686-93 with sources; Sommerstein, pp. Ways To Start! 2-3; p. 273, on ll. 685-90.  These lines are said to be the most controversial ones in the play (Sommerstein, p. 216). Essay! But the scholarly puzzlement is not about Athena’s agreement with the Furies but which historical laws she is warning against changing.
Is the passage attacking the democratic reform of the Areopagus? There are long discussions in Conacher (p. 199 ff.) and Sommerstein (p. 216 ff.). My notion is design design study, that Aeschylus’ warning is not against a particular historical case but against an ever-recurrent human event: radically rational innovation.  To me it is pretty clear that Athena casts the tie-breaking rather than the equalizing vote, because 1. Poetics! there are 10 complete exchanges between Apollo and ways to start essay the Erinyes, one speech for each act of voting (Verrall, p. Poetics! 130, on ll. 714-33), and 2. if Athena were evening the vote to design essay study, bring about acquittal, the essay, procedure for the court—that a tie acquits—would have had to precede its institution.
 Thucydides tells of report on roots a high moment of similar gloriously exhilarating solemnity. It happens to be an essay actual celebration, the send-off that the Athenian people give their Sicilian expedition, also with trumpets, prayers, paeans. But as the Eumenidean exit is thoughtfully future fraught, the Sicilian send-off is—to the reader who knows the end—fecklessly doom-inviting (P e loponn esian Wa r, 6.32).  The commentators are stumped and so have a lot to say.  I would venture to say this only in a note: The Hegelian term aufheben, which means at of related literature poverty philippines, once canceling, preserving, and raising up, fits this case.
 Thus Heidegger translates dike into German as Fug, “fit.” It is that reciprocity which join s together a tight-fitting whole (Introduction to poetics, Metaphysics, 4.3). About Poverty In The! There is a German idiom: mit Fug und Recht, “with full right.” Moreover Unfug means “mischief.” Published: Nov 10, 2015. Why Kids Should Play With Wild Animals. How the Medieval Church Made Modern Liberty. Pope Francis and essay the Caring Society. Lovely essay.
Aeschylus has always been my favorite of the trees our best english, three tragic playwrights.
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Essays on Aristotle s "Poetics" - muse jhu edu - Johns Hopkins University
19 Websites and Magazines That Want to Publish Your Personal Essays. They’re all over your Facebook feed, and for good reason. Personal essays by popular authors and novices alike are relatable, engrossing reads. Sometimes, their heart-wrenching reflections stay with you for days. For reporters or academics, it can be hard to step back from research rituals and write from personal experience. But a personal essay can endear you to an audience, bring attention to an issue, or simply provide comfort to a reader who’s “been there.” “Writing nonfiction is not about poetics, telling your story,” says Ashley C. Ford , an essay trees essayist who emphasized the importance of creating a clear connection between your personal experience and universal topics. “It’s about telling interesting and worthy stories about the human condition using examples from your life.” But don’t worry if your life doesn’t seem exciting or heart-wrenching enough to expound upon; think of it as writing through yourself, instead of about yourself. “There are few heroes and even fewer villains in essay, real life,” she said. “If you’re going to of related about poverty in the write about essay, your human experience, write the truth. It’s worth it to ways to start essay introductions write what’s real.” Where to submit your personal essays.
Once you’ve penned your essay, which publications should you contact? We’ve all heard of — and likely submitted to — The New York Times’ Modern Love column, but that’s not the only outlet that accepts personal narratives. “Submit to the places you love that publish work like yours,” Ford advises, but don’t get caught up in the size of the poetics, publication. And “ recognize that at small publications you’re way more likely to find someone with the report on roots, time to essay really help you edit a piece. ” To help you find the right fit, we’ve compiled a list of 20 publications that accept essay submissions, as well as tips on how to pitch the editor , who to contact and, whenever possible, how much the steps to take writing an academic, outlet pays. We’d love to make this list even more useful, so if you have additional ideas or details for these publications or others, please leave them below in poetics, the comments! The Boston Globe Magazine Connections section seeks 650-word first-person essays on relationships of any kind. It pays, though how much is unclear. Trees Friend English? Submit to poetics essay email@example.com with “query” in the subject line. Send your pitches about breakfast, brunch, or the culture of mornings to firstname.lastname@example.org or the editor of the section you’re pitching.
Pay appears to essay be around 40 cents per poetics essay word. This publication is aimed at women over 30. Essay Friend English? “We aim to entertain, inform, and inspire,” the editors note , “But mostly entertain.” Send your pitch to email@example.com . Pay varies. Essays — 4,000 words max — should have a “literary quality.” Include your work in the body of poetics essay, your email to make it easy for the editor to review, and of essay questions, send to firstname.lastname@example.org. No pay. Must-read personal essay: “Call My Name” by Gina Easley.
Want to write for this Jewish parenting site? To submit, email email@example.com with “submission” somewhere in the subject line. Include a brief bio, contact information, and essay, your complete original blog post of 700 words max. Suggested word count is 500-700 words. The site pays $25 per post. A progressive, feminist magazine that welcomes all genders to submit content. Email your pitch or full submission. There’s no pay, but it’s a supportive place for a first-time essayist. Must-read personal essay: “ My Body Dysmorphia, Myself ” by writing essay Joanna C. Valente. Poetics? This U.K. magazine has a helpful contributor’s guide . Unsolicited submissions, while rarely accepted, are paid; if an book editor likes your pitch, you’ll hear back in 24 hours. The popular Modern Love feature accepts submissions of essay, 1,700 words max at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Include a Word attachment, but also paste the text into your message. Consult the Times’ page on pitching first, and like Modern Love on Facebook for book report on roots even more insight. Rumor has it that a successful submission will earn you $250. (Correction added Oct. 9, 2014: Payment is poetics $300, The New York Times writes on review of related philippines its Facebook page .) Amy Sutherland’s column, “ What Shamu Taught Me About a Happy Marriage ,” which ran in 2006, landed her a book contract with Random House and a movie deal with Lionsgate, which is in preproduction. “I never saw either coming,” Sutherland said. Another option is the Lives column in the New York Times Magazine. Poetics? To submit, email email@example.com. Salon accepts articles and story pitches to the appropriate section with “Editorial Submission” in the subject line and the query/submission in the body of the email. Include your writing background or qualifications, along with links to three or four clips. Book Report? “I was compensated $150 for my essay,” says Alexis Grant, founder of poetics essay, The Write Life, “but that was several years ago. All in ways, all, working with the poetics, editor there was a great experience.” Who Pays Writers reports average pay of about 10 cents per word.
Indicate the section you’re pitching and “article submission” in steps to take when writing, your subject line, and send to firstname.lastname@example.org. Average reported pay is about 23 cents per word. Each print issue has a specific cultural theme and poetics, welcomes both fiction and nonfiction. Of Related Literature Poverty? Stories and essays of 5,000 words max earn up to $250. Review periods are limited, so check their submission guidelines to make sure your work will be read with the next issue in mind. Submit online . Essay? Must-read personal essay: “ Fire Island ,” by Christopher Locke. The Billfold hopes to make discussing money less awkward and more honest. Send your pitch to book report email@example.com . Poetics? Who Pays Writers notes a rate of about 3 cents per word , but this writer would consider the experience and exposure to be worth the of related about philippines, low pay. Motherwell seeks parenting-related personal essay submissions of up to poetics essay 1200 words. Submit a full piece; all contributors are paid. Design Essay? Must-read personal essay: “ The Length of the poetics, Pause ” by Tanya Mozias Slavin.
This publication focuses on California’s Bay Area. Strong POV and a compelling personal writing style are key. Pay varies. Email firstname.lastname@example.org. Submit essays of to start essay, 800-2000 words to this lifestyle site geared toward women. Essay? Pay averages about design design, 5 cents per word. Focuses on essays that “intersect culture.” Submit finished essays online in the category that fits best. Wait three months before following up. Must-read personal essay: “ Not a Widow ” by Michelle Miller. This personal-finance website welcomes submissions that discuss ways to make or save money. Read the guidelines before emailing your submission.
Pay varies. Submit a story or essay of 10,000 words max in either September or March. Wait six days before emailing to check the status of your submission. Cover letters should include a word count and indicate whether the submission is fiction, nonfiction, or poetry. Essay? Must-read personal essay: “ More with Less ,” by Rachel Yoder. Essay Study? Narratively accepts pitches and complete pieces between 1,000 and 2,000 words that tell “original and untold human stories.” Pay averages 6 cents per word. Poetics Essay? Still looking for ideas? Meghan Ward ’s blog post, “20 Great Places to Publish Personal Essays,” is worth perusing. MediaBistro also offers a section called How to Pitch as part of book, their AvantGuild subscription , which has an poetics annual fee of $55.
This post originally ran in of related literature poverty in the philippines, October 2014. We updated it in poetics, December 2016. Have other ideas or details to add? Share with us in the comments! Lisa Rowan is a writer, editor and podcaster based in St.
Petersburg, Florida. Unconventional Guide to Freelance Writing. While it#8217;s easy to design start a freelance writing business, it#8217;s much harder to actually run one. This guide will help your business thrive #8212; not just survive. Wow, excellent list! But no mention of Huffington Post.
They don#8217;t pay but the exposure is poetics excellent, esp some of thei subcategories like Huff/Post50. Good add, Mithra! Are these US -only? Does anyone know of any such a range for UK? Each publication will vary, although I#8217;ve heard that many will accept submissions from importance of essay type questions around the world! Thanks a lot to Lisa and the writelife website. I#8217;m a new writer, I#8217;ve just finished writing a personal true life story about my mom who#8217;s passed away in 1995.
We are Chinese. I was educated in United States decades ago, still here. Would Write Life like to poetics receive a small part of my mom#8217;s story as submission, if so, how much will I get paid?! We don#8217;t accept submissions like yours, but one of the publications mentioned in this post may be happy to receive your work! Thank you so much for this information.
I was wondering if I could send my articles and travel writings somewhere. To Take When An Academic? This list is very helpful Lisa Rowan and thanks. I would like to add http://www.nuwla.com if I may to this list. It#8217;s a platform I created for regular people in the black community to submit content to inspire and inform the black community diaspora. We launched on December 15, 2015. Mam I#8217;m from essay India and very enthusiast to write of any topics like as essay or books.but so far have no idea where I pushed to select one of the of related literature poverty, best platform where this can get select it for all. Poetics? As I here want to know give me email or website where I can write personally on about Nature as I topics is #8220;Neighbour of the book report on roots, water#8221;.in that title I am written about 500+words.this is based on short story so that it can published any of poetics, journal or more like I appraise or got fame#8230;plz help me in this regard.Thanks!
Hi Lisa mam I am from INDIA and want to write an article on working Indian women and their lifestyle along with what their family members think specially in-laws and children. Well I just want to know whether such article will be accepted if I apply in any of the review about poverty, INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINES. Thanks for poetics essay this great list, Alexis! Mithra I have scoured the to start essay, HuffPost page looking for essay submission guidelines but have come up empty. The #8220;Send us a blog-pitch#8221; link is not working either. Any suggestions? Thank you! I can help you out. I frequently post to The Huffington Post and many writers have asked me how I did this.
I#8217;ve written a blog post with some suggestions. It#8217;s been successful for quite a few. Hope it works for you and if it is, let me know! Thanks so much for responding, William! I will take a look at your blog post and let you know if I am successful. Thank you William#8230; William, Thank you! I emailed the link to questions myself to have it handy after I#8217;ve familiarized myself with items that made it onto essay Huffington Post. I#8217;d be proud to questions have something of mine show up there, to essay get a chance to support them. I mostly write fiction novels but I#8217;ve been published in FAMILY CIRCLE MAGAZINE (a non-fiction piece) and am not averse to opening up my market. fiction novels. That#8217;s an oxymoron!
I just checked out your blog. Great information. Thank you so much. I will look into steps to take an academic, this. I#8217;ve been writing for essay years but have yet to publish a thing. This list gives me a much-needed push to get moving on this. Thank you! Can anyone email them or its only for people living in when writing essay, US like i live in kuwait (middleeastern country )so can i send my any written work ?? In response to your questions about submitting to the Huffington Post, you might be interested in this link explaining how things have recently changed for essay prospective bloggers/contributors to essay english the Huffington Post. http://www.carefulcents.com/get-published-on-the-huffington-post/ I myself was invited to blog for them a little over poetics a year ago, following an article of mine that their #8220;blogging editor#8221; came across in another publication. Trees Our Best Friend English? Per this link, https://contributor.huffingtonpost.com/cms/signup it was possible to sign up until recently to essay just try and become a contributor through this new portal they had created.
However, now this seems to be closed to new requests since Arianna Huffington has left. Things seem to be evolving, so my only ways to start introductions suggestion is just to keep tabs on poetics it, write to editors, try and make an inroad. Frustrating, yes. Importance Of Essay Type? Good luck! Thanks for the great list! Thanks for poetics the list and valuable information.
I will be making some pitches to these publication real soon. #128521; The Write Life continually surprises me. There#8217;s always very informative useful content #128578; Hi Julie #8212; Thanks! I am obsessed with this post#8230; I#8217;m going to use it to place some pieces of my travel memoir. Kudos to Lisa for putting together such a valuable list! THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU LISA! I have been searching for months for this sort of guidance. I write travel based narratives, but so many magazines are looking for #8220;round ups#8221; and other helpful articles, it was feeling like good old story telling was being sent to review about in the philippines the sidelines. I think I#8217;m now obsessed too Alexis! Time to get pitching. Good luck everyone. I#8217;m glad you liked the post, Gai.
Best of luck with your pitches! TWL Assistant Editor. To add to the list: Creative Nonfiction! We#8217;re always reading and often are looking for essay personal essays on specific themes. We#8217;re just about to announce some new calls for submissions. https://www.creativenonfiction.org/submissions. Thanks so much for this idea, Hattie! (P.S. Love your name #8212; that#8217;s one that runs in my family!) Ooh, another good addition. Thanks for review of related about poverty chiming in! my name is essay Lucinda and I am 10 years old. I am a Passionate writer an I can tell anyone that finding websites that I can post my stories on can take me months but now you have posted these websites I can finally find the perfect website to design study post my stories on. Essay? so from the bottom of to start, my heart I thank you Lisa. You go, Lucinda! Best of luck to essay you and your writing.
It#8217;s worth mentioning that there is a $25 fee to SUBMIT to Creative Nonfiction. I know it#8217;s a reputable magazine and many writers would love to be included in their fine collection of personal essays, but I find this fee offensive. There are many of of essay type questions, us writers willing to essay write and submit for design design study free for the exposure alone but to have to PAY to poetics even be considered? Shame on them. Essay? Helpful list! Thanks, Lisa. This is such an awesome list, particularly because it#8217;s well-supported by sample essays against essay, each publication.
Just today, i put my personal story to pitch as a guest post, and here i#8217;m with such a wonderful list. I just loved it Lisa. Thanks for putting it all together. Great suggestions. Book Report? Thank you! I#8217;m trying to get the word out about my upcoming book, Overcoming OCD: A Journey to Recovery, and essays are a great way to do that! Thanks for poetics essay this list, I#8217;ll definitely pursue writing a personal essay. I#8217;ve got some ideas that I#8217;d like to develop.
I#8217;m from the about in the philippines, UK and you mentioned The New Statesman, do you know of any other British sites that accept personal essays? Or do you think a US site would give me a chance? Don#8217;t limit yourself when submitting—if sites or pubs want writers from a certain location only, they should specify in poetics, their submission guidelines. Especially in our technological state of being able to work from around the world, your location shouldn#8217;t be an issue! Thank you for the encouragement. Loved your article.
I am looking for an outlet that would accept a piece I#8217;ve written concerning a right-leaning political view of things. It is an to take writing an academic interesting piece but I know must publications are on the left end of the political spectrum. Any ideas? Thanks for poetics essay your question, Rossana. I don#8217;t know of any outlets off the top of my head, but many are interested in review literature about poverty in the philippines, diverse ideas and essay, opinions, so I wouldn#8217;t write off all the publications on this list. Another option would be to review literature about philippines ask the essay, members of our Facebook community #8212; they may have some ideas! TWL Assistant Editor. If you write conservatism-based pieces, the perfect place for essay friend english you is poetics essay http://www.conservativepushcoalition.com. They are a brand new website that is less than 3 months old and they already have 250,000/day, and it#8217;s growing rapidly.
They don#8217;t pay for the first 10 articles, but after that, they do. We are always looking for more like-minded writers to join us. Of Related Poverty? Find us on facebook at Conservative Push Group and one of the editors/staff will direct you on how to get started. Poetics? The site primarily supports Ted Cruz, but that#8217;s only one facet. There are categories for everything, including lifestyle, opinion, pro-life etc. Many of the authors, myself included, are getting exposure, especially for new writers. The writing on the site is exquisite and we are all like a family. Come on by and check us out.
I can#8217;t wait to see what you submit. #128578; try Pick Me Up Magazine. They have a digitized version, too. Your list was very helpful-thanks! Thank you for this fantastic list Lisa and for book going above and beyond by essay including the sample essays. Ways To Start? This is essay a very valuable post. I#8217;m not quite sure if I#8217;m here in the right forum (but since I#8217;m here, I may as well continue!) I#8217;m fairly new to #8216;online#8217; writing (I have a total of 10 articles submitted and published online, through 3 different sites). At some point in time here, though, I hope to importance of essay questions bring my writing to a bit of a #8216;higher#8217; level. I have a cousin that has had quite a colorful history in employment, and poetics, life in writing an academic, general, and poetics essay, I am pondering writing about some of these events. He has been an literature about poverty in the underwater welder (and had gotten the #8216;bends#8217; at one time); he#8217;s been a logger here in the rugged U.P. of Michigan (and still does this in essay, his #8220;off#8221; time), and is an airline pilot at Spirit Airlines now (current, but pretty much in design, the retirement side of his career). I was thinking about asking him if I could write up something about this colorful past (and current life, for that matter) that he has had. Can you offer any ideas or advice about essay, this?
Any help would be appreciated. I don#8217;t really know where I want to importance type go, or can go, from this point. Thank you for your time. Jeff, I would look at publications that focus on careers and personal finance. I#8217;ve written a few pieces for The Billfold, which is anything-goes when it comes to jobs, making ends meet, interesting careers, and so on. I always find myself chuckling at essay, The Billfold, too. It sounds like he#8217;s done a bit of traveling to importance type questions participate in poetics, these lines of work, so you might consider travel sites or regional publications. Think of it as bringing an unexpected line of work or way of life into the light! Good luck- sounds like fun! I believe the design study, New York Times sill has its column Lives, which accepts personal essays.
There#8217;s also Global Comment, where they accept a lot of different articles, including personal essays. They pay $50 for featured posts. Helpful list! I would add medium.com, it has great stories! TWL Assistant Editor. Thanks for sharing this opportunity, Karin! TWL Assistant Editor. awesome list. What are the odds of getting into Tge Sun, or Brevity, or Creative Non-fiction? This is a great place to start. Thank you.
I#8217;m not sure of the odds, Gloria #8212; but if I find a resource, I#8217;ll share it here! TWL Assistant Editor. I would encourage you not to worry about the poetics, odds- just submit! I once mentioned that I was looking for #8220;smaller#8221; or #8220;more niche#8221; places to pitch than some of my favorite, big-time websites. A colleague asked me what I had to lose by pitching the #8220;big guys.#8221; I didn#8217;t have an answer for her. Design? #128578; Great point, Lisa #128578; TWL Assistant Editor. You might want to essay add #8220;Ducts.org#8221; to essay study your list. Essay? They pay minimimum and are difficult but6 have published several of my essays. Boston Globe Connections pays $500. I published there in August 2014. Great experience with the editor.
Thanks for sharing, William! TWL Assistant Editor. I just submitted a piece to Veronica Chao at the Globe for the Connections column. How quickly did she/they get back to you after submission? I heard back four days after sending my submission in and Veronica is the correct person to send your submission to. What I loved was the custom artwork that goes with your piece. Good luck! Thanks, William!
I sent it four days ago, but know she just got promoted to Editor of the Sunday Magazine, so I#8217;m hoping her response-time was pushed back and that I#8217;ll still hear from her. I read your Connections piece. I can see why it was accepted. Essay? Wonderful writing and such a fresh idea! hello william, thanks for your post. I#8217;ve a piece i#8217;ll love to send to essay Global connection but i don#8217;t know how to start because this is my first and i want to make it right. Can u help me pls.
Not sure exactly what you are looking for in terms of help. But your post should be around 650 words and revolve around some type of personal connection that you have made (parent, child, friend, loved one). Review Of Related Poverty? Send it to poetics essay email@example.com and just include a brief bio. When Writing An Academic Essay? Best of luck! Beautiful essay by you.
Loved reading it. Fantastic list and resource. Thank you! TWL Assistant Editor. We are always looking for poetics great writers as well at BonBon Break. http://www.bonbonbreak.com/submissions. Thanks for sharing, Val!
TWL Assistant Editor. I just finished a personal essay. Thank you for the super list. I love the other magazines chiming in with a call for submissions. We#8217;re happy to review of related literature in the philippines hear from other magazines as well #8212; it#8217;s great to see so many options for poetics personal essays! Good luck with your submission! TWL Assistant Editor.
You#8217;ll also get a free copy of The Freelance Writer’s Pitch Checklist.
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Christology of poetics essay, Jesus in the Book of ways essay, Colossians Essay. As hints from the book’s internal evidences point (Col.1:4, 23; 2:1), the church at Colossae was not founded by the Apostle Paul, but rather the fruit of one of his associates’ labor – namely, Epaphras. His words like “we heard of your faith,” “the gospel which you heard,” and “for as many as have not seen my face in the flesh,” indicate clearly that these people to whom he was writing were known by him only through means other than himself. Nevertheless, they are close to him since they are the result of Eparhras’ bringing of the Gospel in essay their place ( Aid to Bible Understanding 1971). Epaphras was Apostle Paul’s son in essay trees english the faith much like Timothy and Titus. He had come to know the Lord through the preaching of Paul in Ephesus and eventually carried the essay message with him back to importance questions, Colossae and poetics, the result was the founding of the church there. Design? Like any father would feel of significant accomplishments of his son, the Apostle was exhilarated simply by reflecting on such achievement wrought by his son in the faith (Henry 1998). Indeed, it’s quite a feat. To the poetics essay eyes of a true apostle of steps to take writing an academic, Christ who have grasped the vision of the poetics essay Lord of the harvest, nothing more and none else bears the mark of indisputable success than the authentic surrender of previously rebellious sinners to the Lordship of Jesus (Walvoord Zuck 1997). The church in Colossae is yet another landmark to the progress of the Gospel and the advancement of the kingdom of God as well. In Biblical perspective, this is true success.
This letter, therefore, was Paul’s response to essay our best friend english, the report he received from Epaphras regarding the spiritual condition of the Colossians. The details of the report, however, are not thoroughly positive. Concurrently, the whole scenario was one of good prospects, with regard to what they are already enjoying being in Christ, and the possibility of some of poetics essay, them being dragged away to religious nonsense because of the presence of false teachers among them who actively engaging them into a kind of doctrines that sidetrack them from the right focus. These false teachers are so subtle in their approach that caught the study Colossians off guard. The presence of these cultic teachings in poetics essay their midst brought them to a situation that is very dangerous, and Paul had to write to them a polemic on the fundamentals of the Person of Christ and what He achieved on importance questions the cross for them (Duncan p.1 “The Incomparable Christ”). Historical Cultural Background. It is interesting to note that Phrygians are one among the many peoples present in Jerusalem during the Feast of poetics, Pentecost at of related literature about in the, the time when the poetics promised Holy Spirit descended upon the first band of disciples in the upper room (Acts 2:10). These people were there at the very center of God’s activity when He was mobilizing His first band of missionaries to reach the first of the target geographic spheres – Jerusalem. Earlier, Jesus pronounced that his disciples would become His witnesses in “Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the end of the earth.” At the brink of this massive missionary activity, a people who would eventually become direct beneficiaries of an apostolic letter were present – witnessing a poignant presentation of the gospel by Apostle Peter. The city of Colossae was once known to be a great city and was hailed by famed historic figures such as Alexander the Great and our best friend, Herodotus.
Both spoke, in poetics essay their respective times, of Colossae as “a great city.” However, at the time of the writing of the Apostle Paul of his letter to the Colossians, the city was not as celebrated as Laodicea and Hierapolis (Smith The Letter To The Colossians, New Testament Introduction ) in comparison. However, along with these greater Phrygian cities, Colossae was famed for its textile industry. In the ancient world, a variety of cloth called “Colossinum” with its purple wool was one of the book report exquisite that it was very much valued. Thus, Colossae was among the essay triad of known center of the textile industry. Geographically, it was positioned along the banks of the Lycus River, and was 160 kilometers travel to the east side of Ephesus.
It’s easy to importance type questions, think of a Christian disciple from Ephesus to have gone to this nearby city to essay, extend the gospel; and indeed, it might have been Epaphras who blazed the trail of evangelistic work there and probably since then holding the reins of pastorate there. Since Colossae was in the regions of Phrygia which was itself part of Greece, the population was naturally Phrygians, Greeks, and considerable number of Jews. In his book, “The Antiquities of the Jews,” Josephus Flavius recorded that during the reign of Antiochus the Great (223-187 B.C.), he banished into exile from Babylonia 2,000 Jewish families and relocated them into the districts of Phrygia and Lydia (Antiquities 12.147-153). The probability was high that the design design descendants of those Jews who immigrated there two centuries earlier, were without a doubt still living in the same region, and in Colossae particularly were rooted and poetics, settled by book the first century A.D. The mixture of population in Colossae undoubtedly contributed to the difficulty in determining decisively what kind of essay, philosophies or false teachings have crept into the fellowship of Christians at design essay study, Colossae. The manner through which the poetics essay problem is identified in the book makes scholars conclude that it was syncretism. Review Of Related About Poverty? Because these false teachers have never outrightly denied Christ in their instructions, if looked at the surface, they appear to be Christian teachers in the eyes of the poetics essay new converts whose level of understanding of the Christian doctrines was at this time not yet thorough strong. False teachers used Christ only friend english as their launching station to bring these people into the true substance of their belief. For example, it would only disturb the Colossians if these teachers uncunningly had presented themselves as Gnostics, or Judaizers, or some pagan gurus propagating their paganistic philosophies (Bauer et al. 1979). Essay? Therefore, they stealthily conducted themselves among Christians and apparently they have successfully injected some of the study important features of their doctrines into the forefront among the poetics essay biblical truths which the Colossians were previously oriented to focus their minds on, namely, the review in the supremacy and sufficiency of Christ.
Paul elaborated on the implications of everything that the Person of poetics essay, Christ stood for. From unveiling the review literature about poverty philippines majestic Person of Christ to the natural ramifications of what it means he went on in scrupulous details. The confusion that these false teachers created among the Colossian church was very dangerous that it threatens the very character of their identity as Christians (i.e. disciples who follow Christ’s teachings). And besides, it endangers the spiritual lives of the believers at Colossae. Gospel truths will lead to true godliness while half-truths or the Gospel mixed with other philosophical elements which are not found in Christ will always lead to poetics essay, the destruction of life in general. According to Paul, it’s not possible for them to practice Jewish religious rituals, and embrace paganistic beliefs and philosophies, and still retain the true nature of Christianity. As can be seen, the cultural background through which Colossians was written played a huge role on how Paul developed his themes in the book. They could not have escaped the book report applications of Paul’s teachings since he made everything clear to them. Essay? The structure of Gnosticism’s philosophy was based on presuppositions such as, God is the Supreme Being who is spirit and good in nature. He is the unnamed Father, and out of the core of of related literature about in the, His being flows a series of emanations/aeons or mediators, and the material world is evil. Reading Paul’s letter in the midst of a culture that is so familiar with the Gnostic teachings, one would not miss the images he was using and its implications (Shelley 1982 pp.52-54).
To the things advocated by these Gnostics, like for instance, that they needed “mediaries” to be able to tap to that special wisdom which alone could be received from God, Christ is the “wisdom of God.” The advocacy of Jewish traditions which are also present and rampant among these believers were just as attractive as all these Hellenistic philosophies in that it lay claim to the very roots of Christianity (Gaebelien 1998). To those who find the arguments of Judaizers logically appealing, the Apostle would say: “They are but a shadow of things to come.” All of the poetics legitimate practices of the people of God as sanctioned by the Old Testament Scriptures were all types and only a shallow of the design design essay study real thing (Gill 2000). They all pointed to Christ and when Jesus came all of them were done away with because the whole substance of those things is Christ. And Christ was manifested in poetics the flesh. To the Gnostic who does not believe in the incarnation of the Christ in literal physical body, Paul’s word is: “In Him (Jesus) dwells all the design design study fullness of the Godhead bodily” (Col.2:9). To those Jewish Christians who constantly were being “Judaized” by the Judaizers wanting them to incorporate certain elements of their tradition, Paul’s message is: “You were circumcised by the circumcision of Christ.” He made it in essay the spirit “without hands.” “God has forgiven all your trespasses because Christ has wiped out everything that the ways introductions righteous requirements of the law have been demanding from you.” Christ neutralized all the poetics essay incriminatory proofs written in the Jewish canon that would declare Christians guilty, whether Jews or Gentiles, before the bar of God’s justice (Metzer 1975). Book Report? In Paul’s own words, “He (Christ) has taken it out of the way, having nailed it to the cross” (Col.2:11-14). The Colossians were reminded of the all sufficiency of essay, Christ (Wenham et al 1994).
Overall Message of the report Book. Since what is under attack is the very Person of Jesus Christ, and because this assault has far-reaching effects and poetics, naturally hit the Colossians at different fronts of their faith, Apostle Paul saw it necessary to concentrate his treatise on the Person and the work of Christ. For instance, as it was the assertion of certain teachers inside the church that the fullness of spiritual experience which until then had not been realized in their lives could be attained only through means other than Christ (e.g. worship of angels), Paul had to stress the distinctness and the exclusivity of the study role of the second Person of the Godhead in poetics essay salvation and in securing the fullness of experience of every believer in their relationship with God. The completeness and essay study, the comprehensiveness of Christ’s Person and work have covered everything that the Colossians could ever imagine. There is no angel, no religious practice/rituals, and no tradition could ever surpass Christ. Christ is supremely preeminent.
The Colossians, contrary to what these false teachers wanted them to be convinced of with their teachings, has the fullness already in Christ. They needed only to realize this through the poetics essay clear elaborations of an of related literature about poverty in the Apostle. Epaphras discovered the significance of this role of Paul, hence he asked for his reinforcement. During this time of the church’s history, Christ’s teachings were still significantly guarded by legitimate apostles. In Colossians 1:1, Paul opened his letter with this salutation: “Paul, an apostle of poetics essay, Jesus Christ by the will of God. . Book Report On Roots? . to the saints and faithful brethren in Christ who are in Colosse. . . .” He has not yet by this time visited the church at Colossae and therefore has not known personally many of them. Poetics? They might have heard of trees our best friend english, him though through Epaphras. And so, his first words reflect the poetics essay assertion that what will follow are instructions coming from the one who has been sent directly and authorized by book report on roots Jesus Christ himself. Paul said, “I am an apostle of Jesus Christ by poetics the will of God.” This introduction stands in sharp contrast to book on roots, the false teachers in their midst who go along professing to be spiritual elites who were privies to God, and possibly, Jesus. Therefore, the poetics first few words of Paul are crucial and their force is to take essay carried through the entire letter.
It bears the mark of apostolicity and hence it is not just an ordinary epistle. Paul was one of the privileged few in his time, like Peter and the rest of all the poetics essay twelve authentic apostles, who had seen and were commission by to start essay introductions Jesus personally. And at the time of his writing, there were many still living apostles who could attest to essay, his claim, although it was not necessary. His apostleship was widely known among the first generation of Christians, and at Colossae, Epaphras was there as direct result of Paul’s apostleship – and the Colossians the indirect product of Paul’s commission. In setting forth very clearly the fact of his authority, what he had to say to them in this letter were not opinions or just lofty guesses coming from a person who mustered enough of his noble thoughts about Christ. His teachings were at that time the standard teaching of true apostles of Jesus (Clarke 2003). Another paganistic element in the teachings of these false teachers was the contention that insights into spiritual powers – demonic powers – that could protect and shield the Colossians could be acquired through certain observances and rituals. In particular, rites that were thought of as effective in restraining the flesh from engaging even in legitimate use of the body in marriage between husband and wife, and lawful consumption of essay study, food and essay, use of things were put forward as necessary for superior spirituality. Again, to battle these cultic emphases on the superficial appearance of spirituality among the Colossians, the essay our best friend apostle Paul presses over and over again the theme of Christ’s overall sufficiency. The absolute preeminence of Christ has overarching cosmic implications.
To know Christ is to know God. To know Christ is to poetics, know the Creator who not only created the universe and all of the planets, but also by His power hold these things together (Col.1:15-20). If Christ is, as the Apostle’s Creed faithfully declares, “very God of very God,” then they have all good reasons to trust in Him alone . No religious leader should dare to compare Him to angels nor to spiritual mediaries because He Himself is review of related about poverty in the God. “ He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. For by Him all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers. Essay? All things were created through Him and for Him” (Col.1:15-16). Themes of the Book.
One of the pressing concerns that had seriously affected the demeanor of the Colossians was their fear of the “stoicheia” – Greek word for “elementary principles.” The source of the heresy that Paul was battling among the Christians in Colossae was the philosophy that had successfully sneaked into their consciousness. It was very unfortunate to see an apostolic congregation being victimized by this philosophical nonsense (Balz Schneider 1990). Paul would have to tell them in trees his letter of the utter rubbishness of what they are entertaining in place of poetics, Christ. They were playing with “philosophy” which amounts to steps writing, “empty deception” because it comes from “the tradition of men” (Col.2:8). In the ancient times, stoicheia means many things. But basically, it means, as it is translated in English, “elementary instructions.” These include the poetics essay physical elements like earth, water, fire, and wind. Also, the ancient people would have meant it to be “elemental spirits.” These elemental spirits are believed to be those powerful beings that control nature. Report On Roots? These are evil spirits and poetics, therefore hostile in nature. Review Literature Poverty? They command the respect and essay, allegiance of human beings because they rule over the fate of humans.
They can cause “sicknesses, effect a curse, bring in poor crops, plagues, earthquakes, and to start, natural disasters” (DeWaay “Colossian Heresy” p.1). The Colossians find this kind of teaching so attractive. Poetics Essay? Their problem however was that in this kind of hodgepodge religion, they had already fallen into idolatry from importance type whence they had been delivered when they believed the Gospel. In the first chapter of Colossians, Paul established the reality of poetics, Jesus’ divinity. Jesus Christ is the one who is truly in control of the “elemental spirits” because He is in fact the Creator of everything “seen and unseen.” In Colossians 2:15, Paul presented Christ as one who through His death on design the cross, “disarmed principalities and powers,” and by the power of His resurrection, “He made a public spectacle of them, triumphing over them in it.” The culture where they happened to be living in essay has much influence on their lives that they never have suspected. This sinister influence had been there all along and just biding time, and had found the occasion through the false teachers. It was observed that this belief in in the “elemental spirits” had been characteristic of ancient Pagans and Jews. It could be that some of the initiates to the Colossian church were looking for help in Christian religion to avert the spell of essay, stoicheia in their lives.
This belief in “evil forces” in the air might even be their common background. Writing Essay? They were brought up from this superstitious environment. Paul, therefore, had to remind them of poetics essay, what has transpired when they surrendered and have put their trust in Christ. They “died with Christ from the basic principles of the to start introductions world” (Col.2:20). There’s the word “ stoicheia ” again. The Colossians should have totally forsaken any trace of this paganistic reservation. If Christ rules the poetics universe, why fear the evils that these sinister spirits could inflict them? And if Christ is the Creator and for trees our best friend whom all things were created, including “invisible elements,” and all the spiritual hierarchy in the heavens, then He must be Supreme and Sovereign. The Colossians did not have to subject themselves to useless regulations. The understanding of the Person of Christ is crucial to the establishment of the Christian’s faith.
After this elaboration of Paul on the majesty of the poetics Person of book report on roots, Jesus Christ in his epistle to the Colossians, there should be none any more room for any additives to essay, the faith and practice of the Christian life. Christ’s Person and His redemptive work are sufficient source of unshakeable confidence. Thinking about the Person of Christ, of who He really is importance as portrayed by poetics Paul in Colossians, how could possibly anyone who knows all these things concerning Jesus add to Him the philosophies of mere men? What is review literature about poverty philippines it there that innovative human beings can add to Christ? False teachers of Paul’s day would say that if one wanted to be freed from the dominion and powers of poetics essay, darkness, even if he or she has Christ already, there needed to be certain things to be added. To this, Paul would retort: “Christ has saved us from the powers of design, darkness and there’s nothing to be added. Poetics Essay? He is enough and we are complete in Him.” To look for “fullness” somewhere else and other than Christ is to doubt His Person. Of Related Literature About? All things consist in Him and in Him all the fullness dwells. In Christ we received redemption and the forgiveness of our sins. Anonymous. 1971.
Aid to poetics, Bible Understanding . Ways? Brooklyn, NY: Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of essay, New York, Inc. (Aid). Bauer, Walter; Arndt, William; Gingrich, F. Wilbur; Danker, Frederick. 1979. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature . Review About Poverty? Second Edition. Chicago, Ill: The University of Chicago Press. Poetics Essay? (BAGD).
Balz, Horst and Schneider, Gerhard. 1990. Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament . 2 Volumes. Ways To Start? Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. ( EDNT). Barnes, Albert, Notes on the Bible . Electronic E-Sword Files. E-Sword copyright 2000 – 2003 by Rick Meyers. www.e-sword.net.
Beveridge, William A Short History of the Westminster Assembly. Revised, edited, and introduced by J. Ligon Duncan III. Greenville: Reformed Academic Press, 1993. Clarke, Adam. Commentary on the Bible. Electronic E-Sword Files.
E-Sword copyright 2000 – 2003 by Rick Meyers. www.e-sword.net. Duncan, Ligon. Christology, Soteriology, and Eschatology. Orlando: RTS Media Ministries, 1993. [with accompanying audio tapes].Ligon Duncan III. Greenville: A Press, 1991 1 , 1993 2 , 1994 3 . Cunningham, William An Introduction to Theological Studies . Essay? Edited and introduced by J.Ligon Duncan III. Greenville: A Press, 1991 1 , 1993 2 , 1994 3 . DeWaay “Colossian Heresy” p.1. Retrieved March 20, 2008 http://cicministry.org/commentary/issue71.htm Douglas, J.D. and Comfort, Phillip. The New Commentary of the Whole Bible: New Testament: Based on the Classic Commentary by Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown . Electronic STEP Files. Cedar Rapids, IA: Parsons Technology (JFB). Gaebelien, Frank, editor.
1998. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary . Electronic STEP Files. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. (EBC). Gill, John. Exposition of the Entire Bible . Electronic E-Sword Files. Essay? E-Sword copyright 2000 – 2003 by Rick Meyers. www.e-sword.net. Henry, Matthew. 1998. Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible . Electronic STEP Files. Cedar Rapids, IA: Parsons Technology. Metzger, Bruce M. 1975.
A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament . 3rd Edition. Stuttgart, Germany: United Bible Societies. The Holy Bible, New King James Version. Power BibleCD Version 3.3 Copyright 1999, 2000, 2001 Phil Lindner, Online Publishing, Inc. Shelley, Bruce. Church History in plain language. 1982 pp.52-54.
Walvoord, John and Zuck, Roy. 1997. The Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament. Electronic STEP Files. Cedar Rapids, IA: Parsons Technology. Poetics Essay? (BKC). Wenham, G.J., Motyer, J.A., Carson, D.A. and France, R.T.
1994. New Bible Commentary: 21st Century Edition . Downer’s Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press. Ways To Start? (NBC). University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 13 March 2017.
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