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Trip to New York City Essay -- Personal Narrative…

Trip new york essay

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My Trip to New York Essay

c p casting resume Plasma Physics Group, P-24, MS-E526. Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos, NM 87545. Phone: (505) 665-6524, Fax: (505) 665-3552. Ph.D., Electrical Engineering, U.C. Berkeley, 1991. M.S., Electrical Engineering, U.C. Berkeley, 1989.

B.S., Electrical Engineering, U.C. Santa Barbara, 1980. Blake P. Wood is a staff member in Pulsed Power Weapons Physics Team of the Plasma Physics Group (P-24) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). He has served as Team Leader of Applied Plasma Technologies, as Principal Investigator (PI) of trip new york essay P-24's $14M Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) program with General Motors, and PI of P-24's involvement in essay contest to win, NWT and new york essay NMSM programs to produce cathodic-arc based erbia coatings for fire resistant pits and pit casting operations. Rpi Required Essays. He is currently PI of P-24's research in vacuum arc and intense ion beam technologies, and new york essay is a member of the physics design team for the Atlas program. Blake has over dessay kaufmann a decade of experience in numerical modeling of plasmas and new york hydrodynamic experiments using 1-D and 2-D particle-in-cell and MHD codes. He has received an RD 100 award and two LANL awards for Excellence in Achieving Industrial Partnerships.

He is a member of the American Physical Society (APS), the American Vacuum Society (AVS), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). He serves on the executive committees of the Los Alamos Nuclear and hiring someone to write a paper Plasma Sciences Section of the IEEE, and the New Mexico AVS. He has served as guest editor of the IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science. He is a contributing author on trip essay, the book Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition, to be published by John Wiley Sons, Inc. Between 1980-1987, he worked in dilthey's, a variety of staff and supervisory positions in trip new york essay, the computer and telecommunications departments of the Chevron Information Technology Company.

Blake is a U.S. citizen and holds a DOE Q clearance. Peer-Reviewed Publications (first author): B.P. Wood, A.J. Perry, L.J. Bitteker, and W.J. Waganaar, Cratering behavior in single- and hiring poly-crystalline copper irradiated by an intense pulsed ion beam, Surface Coatings Technology, V108-109, 171 (1998). B.P. New York. Wood and D. Georgia Worked. Pesenson, Cathodic-arc plasma density, radial profile, and total plasma inventory as measured by microwave interferometer and Faraday cup, IEEE Trans. on Plasma Sci. 26, 1718 (1998). B.P.

Wood, K.C. Walter, and T.N. Taylor, Plasma Source Ion Implantation to Increase the Adherence of Subsequently Deposited Coatings, Adv. Plasma Sci., A. Kobayashi and N.M. Trip Essay. Ghoniem, eds., Institute of Applied Plasma Science, Osaka, Japan 1997. B.P. Wood, W.A. Reass, and I. Essays That Worked. Henins, Plasma Source Ion Implantation of Metal Ions: Synchronization of trip essay Cathodic-Arc Plasma Production and Target Bias Pulses, Surf. Coat. Tech. 85, 70-74 (1996).

B.P. Wood, M.A. Lieberman, and A.J. Lichtenberg, ``Stochastic electron heating in dream essays on human and culture, a capacitive rf discharge with non-Maxwellian and time-varying distributions'', IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23, 89 (1995). Essay. B.P. Wood, I. Henins, W.A.

Reass, D.J. Rej, H.A. Davis, W.J. Waganaar, R.E. Muenchausen, G.P. Johnston, and H.K. Schmidt, ``Large-scale implantation and deposition research at Los Alamos National Laboratory'', Nuc. Inst.

Meth. B. 96, 429 (1995). B.P. Wood, I. Henins, R.J. Gribble, W.A. Reass, R.J. Faehl, M.A. Nastasi, and D.J.

Rej, ``Initial operation of a large-scale plasma source ion implantation experiment'', J. Vac. Essay Contest. Sci. Tech. B 12, 870 (1994). B.P. Wood, A.J. Lichtenberg and M.A. Lieberman, ``Arnold and Arnold-like diffusion in many dimensions'', Physica D 71, 132 (1994). B.P. Wood, Displacement Current and multiple pulse effects in plasma source ion implantation, J. Appl. Phys.

72, 4770 (1993). Trip. B.P. Wood, J.T. To Write A Paper. Scheuer, M.A. Trip. Nastasi, R.H. Olsher, W.A. Reass, I. Henins, and essay contest a house D.J. Rej, Design of a large-scale plasma source ion implantation experiment, Materials Research Society Symposium Series, Vol.

279, pp. 345-350, (1993). B.P. Wood, M.A. Lieberman and A.J. Lichtenberg, ``Sheath motion in a capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge, IEEE Trans. Trip. Plasma Sci. Georgia That. 19, 619 (1991). B.P. Wood, A.J.

Lichtenberg and M.A. New York. Lieberman, ``Arnold diffusion in weakly coupled standard maps'', Phys. Rev. A 42, 5885 (1990). Dessay Kaufmann Montpellier. Peer-Reviewed Publications (collaborating author): M. Hakovirta, K.C. Walter, B.P. Wood, and M. Nastasi, Graphite macroparticle filtering efficiency of three different magnetic filter designs used in the filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. A 17 (5), 3077 (1999). D.T.K.

Kwok, P.K. Chu, B.P. Wood, and C. Chan, Particle-in-cell and TAMIX simulation of hydrogen plasma immersion ion implantation process, J. Appl. Phys. 86 , 1817 (1999) H.A. Davis, B.P. Wood, C.P. Trip Essay. Munson, L.J.

Bitteker, M. Nastasi, D.J. Rej, W.J. Waganaar, K.C. Walter, D.M. Coates, H.M. Schleinitz, Ion Beam and Plasma Technology Development for Surface Modification at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Materials Chemistry and Physics, V54, 213 (1998). K.C.

Walter, M. Nastasi, N.P. Baker, C.P. Munson, W.K. Essay A House. Scarborough, J.T. Scheuer, B.P. Wood, J.R. Conrad, K. Sridharan, S. Malik, and R.A. Bruen, Advances in PSII Techniques for Surface Modification, Surface Coatings Technology, V104, 205 (1998). A.H. Hamdi, X. Qiu, G.W. Malaczynski, A.A.

Elmoursi, S. Simko, M.C. Militello, M.P. Trip New York. Balough, B.P. Wood, K.C. Walter, M.A.

Nastasi, Microstructure Analysis of Plasma Immersion Ion Implanted Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings, Surface Coatings Technology, V104, 395 (1998). C.P. Munson, R.J. Faehl, I. Henins, M. Nastasi, W.A. Essay On Future Plans. Reass, D.J. Rej, J.T. Scheuer, K.C. Walter, and B.P. Wood, Recent Advances in Plasma Source Ion Implantation at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Surf. Coat.

Tech. 84, 528-536 (1996). M. Nastasi, A.A. Elmoursi, R.J. Faehl, A.H. Hamdi, I. New York Essay. Henins, G.W. Malaczynski, J.V. Mantese, C. Munson, X. Qiu, W.A. Reass, D.J. Rej, J.T. Scheuer, C.E. Speck, K.C. Walter, B.P.

Wood, Materials Science Issues of Plasma Source Ion Implantation, Materials Research Society Symposium Series, Vol. Rpi Required. 396, pp. 455-466, (1996). K.C. Walter, H. Kung, T. Levine, J.T. Tesmer, P. Kodali, B.P. Trip Essay. Wood, D.J. Rej, M. Nastasi, J. Essay. Koskinen, and J.-P. Hirvonen, Characterization and Performance of trip Diamond-Like Carbon Films Synthesized by Plasma- and Ion-Beam-Based Techniques, Surf.

Coat. Tech. 74-75, 734-738 (1995). K.C. Walter, M. Nastasi, H. Kung, P. Kodali, C. Munson, I. Henins, and B.P. Wood, Diamond-Like Carbon Deposition for essays and culture Tribological Applications at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Materials Research Society Symposium Series, Vol. 383, pp. 411-422, (1995). Essay. D.P. Butt, K.C.

Walter, M. Essay To Win A House. Nastasi, A.L. Campuzano, B.P. Wood, D.J. Essay. Rej, and hiring to write G.G. Miller, Corrosion of Diamond-Like Carbon Coated Nickel in 0.25-M Sodium Chloride, Phil. Mag. Lett. 70, 385 (1994). D.J. Rej, B.P. Wood, R.J.

Faehl, and H.H. Fleishmann, ``Magnetic insulation of secondary electrons in plasma source ion implantation'', J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 12, 861 (1994). R.J. Faehl, B.G. DeVolder, and B.P. Wood, ``Application of particle-in-cell simulation to plasma source ion implantation'', J. Vac. Sci.

Tech. New York. B 12, 884 (1994). D.J. Rej, J.R. Conrad, R.J. Faehl, R.J. Gribble, I. Henins, N. Horswill, P. Kodali, M. Nastasi, W.A. Reass, M. Shamim, K. Sridharan, J.R. Tesmer, K.C. Walter, and B.P.

Wood, ``First results from the Los Alamos plasma source ion implantation experiment'', Materials Research Society Symposium Series, Vol. 316, pp. 593-598, (1994). A.J. Lichtenberg and hiring a paper B.P. Trip. Wood, ``Diffusion on two space and time scales'', Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2213 (1989).

A.J. Lichtenberg and B.P. Wood, ``Diffusion through a stochastic web'', Phys. Rev. A 39, 2153 (1989).

Process for the formation of wear- and scuff-resistant carbon coatings, Patent Number 5,458,927, October 17, 1995. Recent Conference Presentations: Development and tech that Applications of an Ion Beam-Based Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, contributed poster at the Nuclear Explosives Design Physics Conference (NEDPC), Los Alamos, NM, 10/26/99. Trip. Liner Implosions for High Pressure Physics Research, invited talk at the International Conference on High Pressure Science and dessay montpellier Technology, Honolulu, HI, 7/27/99. Shock Compression Experimental Capabilities of the Atlas Facility, contributed talk at the APS Topical Conference on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, Snowbird, UT, 7/2/99. Use of an Intense Ion Beam as a Flash Neutron Source for Neutron Resonance Spectroscopy of Temperature in a Dense Plasma Experiment, contributed poster at trip new york essay the APS Division of Plasma Physics meeting, New Orleans, LA, 11/18/98, and at the APS Centennial meeting, Atlanta, GA, 3/25/99. Contest A House. High Energy Density Physics Experiments with Atlas, contributed poster at essay the APS Centennial meeting, Atlanta, GA, 3/25/99. On Future. Surface Cratering Behavior of High Power Ion Beams, contributed poster at the International Conference for High Power Particle Beams, Haifa, Israel, 6/10/98.

High Energy Density Physics Experiments for Atlas, contributed poster at the IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science, Raleigh, NC, 6/3/98. Ion Beam Technologies for Surface Modification, invited talk at the AVS International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films, San Diego, CA, 4/30/98. Plasma Source Ion Implantation to Increase the trip Adherence of Subsequently Deposited Coatings, invited talk at the First International Symposium on Applied Plasma Science, UCLA, CA, 9/24/97. There was an accompanying paper in the conference proceedings. Rpi Required. Plasma Produced Erbia Coatings for Waste Reduction in Plutonium Casting Operations, contributed talk at the IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science, San Diego, CA, 5/22/97. Erbia Coatings to Contain Molten Plutonium, contributed talk (with Jim Treglio) at the AVS International Conference on Metallurgical Coatings and Thin Films, San Diego, CA, 4/22/97. Experiments in Conformal Metal Plasma Ion Implantation, poster presented at the IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science, Boston, MA, 6/3/96. Microwave Interferometry of a Cathodic-Arc Metal Plasma, contributed talk at the 42nd AVS National Symposium, Minneapolis, MN, 10/17/95. Implantation and Deposition of Metal-Oxide Ceramic Coatings from a Cathodic-Arc Metal Plasma, contributed talk at the IEEE International Conference on new york, Plasma Science, Madison, WI, 6/8/95.

Metal-Ion Plasma Source Ion Implantation, contributed talk at the 2nd International Workshop on Plasma Based Ion Implantation, Sydney, Australia, 2/14/95. Carbon and Nitrogen Implantation in a Large-Scale PSII Facility, contributed talk at the 41st AVS National Symposium, Denver, Co, 10/27/94. Plasma Source Ion Implantation Research at LANL, invited talk at the Ion Implantation Technology '94 International Conference, Catania, Italy, 6/14/94. Design and Operational Issues in Large-Scale PSII, invited talk at the 30th Annual Symposium of the NM Chapter of AVS, Albuquerque, NM, 4/20/94.

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Road Trip from New York to Florida Essay Example for…

Part 8 - Examples of Good and Bad Writing. Learning to write often works best by example. The following are excerpts from nine first-year student essays. Most of the examples are bad, although I did find a two good examples in the bunch. In most cases, the names and dates from the essays have been changed to not compromise the subject matter for future students (in other words, don't use any of the apparent research information here in your papers). Trip Essay? I have tried to categorize the errors as best as I could. Dream Essays Nature? Errors or bad portions are usually bolded to help you identify them. Smith was a religious, Christian man.

His notion of new york monads included contextual references to God. He believed that God controls the harmony of dilthey's dream essays on human life through these monads. The essay then goes on to discuss these monads in a Christian context. Had the student omitted the above sentences, however, the discussion of religion would have been completely out of place, given the essay's topic. Essay? But since the person being discussed had religious views that affected his theories and work, it is relevant to mention the religious aspect.

Had Smith's religion not been a direct influence on his work, it would have been irrelevant. Similarly, you wouldn't mention other things about dilthey's on human nature, someone in an essay if it wasn't relevant to the topic. New York? For example, it is irrelevant to mention a scientist's race in an essay about their discovery unless the race impacted the kaufmann discovery. Trip Essay? An example of this might be if a black scientist's prime motivation to find a cure for sickle cell anemia was because that disease strikes black people in proportionally higher numbers. If the same scientist was researching some aspect of physics, it would probably not be relevant to mention the race at all. An introductory paragraph:

On March 4, 1849, John Smith was born to Anna Bradcock Smith and James Smith. Montpellier? Although certainly not of new york humble origins, John was acquainted with several prominent and influential men of politics with whom he discussed matters of tech that mathematics, history, science, logic, law, and trip theology. Smith was brilliant in each of dilthey's dream essays and culture these fields, but he became known particularly for his contributions in the fields of philosophy, mathematics, and logistics. This paper will not only shed light on some of new york essay Smith's theories and words regarding these three areas, but will also tell of the career plans events in his life that made him the trip new york man that he was. This is the introduction to a chronologically-ordered essay about Smith's life and discoveries. As such, the choice to begin with his date of birth is dessay kaufmann montpellier, a good one. The paragraph summarizes the fields touched by Smith and also mentions the key areas he studied. The paper sets up an expectation for the reader of both a detailed explanation of Smith's discoveries and anecdotes describing his personality. The sentence structure is grammatically sound and flows well.

In the trip new york essay late 1650's , Smith's mother returned to London , she then pulled him out of school with the intent to make him a farmer . Apostrophes indicate possessiveness or contractions, not plurality. The decade is the 1650s. The sentence is rpi required, a run-on. Trip New York Essay? It should either end after London, beginning a new sentence with She then, or the she then should be changed to and. To make someone a farmer is to essays, create a farmer for them. The student meant: to trip, turn him into a farmer or to contest a house, encourage him to trip new york essay, be a farmer. Smith invented the widgetiscope and paved the way for future widget watching. All-the-while remaining a simple and humble man who considered himself to be part of a team working for the greater good. The bolded part is not a complete sentence. The entire thing should be one sentence.

All-the-while does not require hyphenation. The two differing approaches of development already described, eventually led to the development of the two original branches of widgetry; fingleish and dream on human fnordleish. This sentence is trip new york, mispunctuated. The comma is confusing and should be removed, and the semicolon should be a colon. Another of Smith's ideas was the method of differentiation. The university re-opened after the plague in rpi required essays 1667. Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, and new york awarded a major fellowship after he received his Master's Degree (Bogus 4). After the realization that Calculus was important, and was being recognized, a document to record all of the dilthey's essays nature and culture theories became a necessity. The Methodis Differantium, the trip new york document that contained the elements of the contest a house theory of differentiation, was created in new york essay 1667. Smith believed he was being pulled in two directions when it came to publishing his theories and making his work known.

He felt a need for fame and fortune, yet on the other hand he had an abundant fear of rejection. To the dismay of many future mathematicians, it was never published because of someone Smith's fear of criticism. Since he was not focusing on publishing his work, Smith pursued his career as a professor. This so-called paragraph is an utter mess. New York Essay? There are far too many ideas in it, all of essay career which are strung together haphazardly without any logical flow. I'll try to dissect and trip essay rewrite it, but I won't make errors bold because the that entire paragraph would be bold if I did. First, let's pick out the different topics being addressed: the method of differentiation the university re-opening after the plague Smith's ascension through the university ranks the need of a document detailing differentiation, which was eventually created Smith's mental state, desires and fears. Now, if we replace each sentence with the trip essay number of the corresponding idea, we can see what a jumbled mess this is: 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 4, 3. Don't introduce a paragraph with one topic and then leap to another topic in the next sentence. Essay On Future Career? While it may sometimes be necessary to mention something as an aside to complement the topic, the return to the topic should be swift and easy to understand. Don't bounce around within the new york essay paragraph as this student has done.

Another problem: there doesn't seem to be a coherent timeline within the paragraph. Did the university re-open in georgia tech essays that worked 1667, or was the new york essay plague in 1667? Is the dilthey's nature student saying that Smith was elected to a minor fellowship that year or another year? Similarly, when did the major fellowship and Master's Degree come in? It's unlikely to new york, have all happened in one year, though it is possible. The document was created in 1667, it seems, but when did Smith decide not to publish and seek work as a professor instead? Also 1667?

It sounds like that was a very busy year for essay career poor Smith! The sentences themselves are also awkwardly constructed, making the entire thing hard to understand. I'll make some assumptions regarding the confusing date information. Here is how this information should have been presented: Smith's ideas on trip, the method of differentiation were gaining recognition in the mathematical community, which made it necessary for him to produce a document detailing all of his theories on the subject. Thus, when the rpi required university re-opened in 1667 following the plague and Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, he wrote Methodis Differantium. Although Smith wished to attain fame and fortune, he also feared rejection. This dichotomy resulted in his failure to publish Methodis Differantium; a failure that would be mourned by mathematicians well into the future.

Still, Smith was awarded a major fellowship after receiving his Master's Degree in [insert year]. Since he was not interested in publishing his work, he concentrated instead on pursuing a position as a professor. Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705 to be given the title of Sir Joe Smith, which made him the new york essay first scientist to be so honored for his work (Bogus) . The phrase to be given is awkward here. It would be better written: Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705, which gave him the title of Sir. Who else could be honoured for dessay montpellier Smith's work other than Smith? It should say: . which made him the first man to be honored for trip scientific work.

There probably should be a page number listed in the citation. Jones had a main idea of analytic geometry. What does this mean? Does the career student mean that one of Jones' main ideas concerned analytic geometry? Does he mean that one of the main ideas of analytic geometry was conceived by Jones? Or does he mean something else entirely? This makes little sense and essay is very awkward.

Whether Smith made no use of the dream and culture manuscript from which he had copied abstracts , or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope, are questions on which at this distance of time no direct evidence is trip essay, available . If Smith made no use of the manuscript, he can't have used it to copy abstracts. This is a very awkward way of saying that the events in question happened so long ago that there is no longer sufficient evidence to answer certain questions. It would be better written: Questions as to montpellier, whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from essay, which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the georgia tech essays widgetiscope are rooted so far in the past that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. This is still a bit awkward. New York Essay? It's best when broken up into smaller sentences: There are still questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope. Such questions are rooted so far in the past, however, that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. Smith formed a political plan to try to persuade the Germans to attack the French due to him not agreeing with their political agendas and this proved the means of his visiting Hamburg.

Due to him not agreeing with is a very awkward way of saying: because he disagreed with. The second bolded part should be a separate sentence. Proved the means of his visiting is a very awkward way of saying is why he visited. Jones explained ideas too enormous to understand, and simplified problems too complex to approach. Not only is this hyperbole, it's also logically impossible. Rpi Required Essays? If the ideas were too complicated to understand, Jones couldn't have understood them himself. If the problems were too complex to approach, Jones could not have approached them. Mismatched Words, Phrases, and Pronouns. After marrying Elizabeth, Smith's father fell ill for several months. After no sign of recovery, a lawyer was summoned to the manor.

A will was drawn up, including one hundred acres of new york land, the manor house, livestock, grain, and Smith Senior's death (Bogus 10). His mother gave birth to georgia essays worked, Smith three months after Smith senior died. He was premature after suffering from illness due to the shock of trip new york her husband's passing during the fall . The phrase after no sign of dilthey's dream essays on human recovery is not properly attached to Smith's father. Instead, it is saying that the lawyer did not recover from something. A will does not include land, a house, etc. It states to whom such things are bequeathed. This should say: A will was drawn up leaving one hundred acres of land, the manor house, livestock and trip new york essay grain to [whomever]. I don't even understand how and Smith Senior's death fits into this sentence. Someone To Write A Paper? His in the sentence His mother gave birth. refers to the antecedent Smith Senior. Thus, Smith Senior's mother gave birth to Smith Senior's son.

That would necessitate incest, and is clearly not what the trip student meant to say. They should have simply said Elizabeth gave birth. Who else but someone's mother gives birth to them anyway? Given the and culture confusions regarding the various Smiths, it would have been better if the student had used first names during this part of the essay. Trip Essay? There is inconsistency in capitalization. It is georgia essays, Smith Senior once, and Smith senior another time. The he in he was premature again refers to the wrong antecedent.

Smith Senior was not premature. Smith did not suffer illness due to new york, the shock of Smith Senior's passing. Elizabeth did. This sentence says that Smith suffered the illness. The student suddenly introduces the tech that worked phrase during the fall when no other mention of the trip season has been made. This could be confused with Smith Senior dying from rpi required essays, a fall. Lastly, the essay inverse relationship between area and the tangent were never attained. The relationship is singular, even though it refers to multiple elements. Thus, the verb were should be singular as well, and changed to was. It was this century where many of the contest worlds most honorable and trip highly respected mathematicians created what we know today as calculus.

A century is not a place, it is essay plans, a section of time. Say it is trip new york essay, a place where. or a time when. In this case, It was this century when. Georgia Tech Essays That? Adding an 's' without an apostrophe in this case is new york, pluralization, not indicative of possession. The student means world's. But perhaps the largest obstacle , which the Greeks could not overcome, were their insufficient number and measuring system . Were is essays that worked, plural, but obstacle and system are singular. New York Essay? It should be was. Tragically at hiring someone a paper the age of six, Smith's father died. This says that Smith's father died at trip essay the age of six.

The student means: Tragically, when Smith was six years old his father died. Jones, now familiar with Smith's discoveries, wrote Smith a letter soon after the publication of his discoveries. After the publication of whose discoveries: Jones' or Smith's? Jones reasoned that if he could calculate the essay contest angles of the projected colour, a new law of refraction could be made . People can make legal laws, but natural or scientific laws are discovered. To make a new law of refraction, Jones would have to essay, alter physics. During the seventeenth century, the inhabitants of England did not realize the essay importance of scientific advancement. Inhabitants could well mean non-human creatures, and is thus a poor choice of a word. New York Essay? Are we to understand that ALL of the people in dessay England failed to trip new york, realize the importance of montpellier scientific advancement for an entire century? It would have been better if the student had said most people in England. At the current time, the dominant belief was that light traveled in trip essay wave . The current time is the a paper moment the reader is reading the sentence.

The student meant to say that the belief was such during the historical time period being discussed. Current should be omitted. The phrase in trip new york wave has an error. It should either be in waves or in a wave. Georgia Tech Essays That? Both may be correct, but such an error can be misunderstood if one is incorrect. This would likely have been caught if the student had read the paper out trip new york essay loud. Secondly, Jones' reliance on geometric algebra rather than symbolic notation created considerable impedance to someone a paper, the identification of solutions of computational features found frequently to different problems. Here is an example of a student not knowing the proper meaning of a word.

Impedance means opposition to the flow of electric current. Trip? It does not mean the same as to impede, which is to be an obstacle. This could be an someone to write instance where a student used the thesaurus in trip a word processor to come up with a word without bothering to dessay kaufmann montpellier, check if the word fit the context. It could also simply be that the student had mislearned the word themselves. Incidentally, a quick check of MS Word 97 shows synonyms to trip, impedance to be obstruction, block, baffle, hindrance, breakwater, fin, and maze. So here is direct proof that you shouldn't always trust what a word processor thesaurus tells you is an equivalent word. Rpi Required Essays? Be diligent and look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary before using them in trip new york your essay. In studying widgetry, it serves as great importance that one is aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and tech essays that worked fnordleish.

Something does not serve as great importance, and one being aware doesn't fit either. This is a student trying to sound fancy but instead making no sense. The sentence should read: In studying widgetry, one should be aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and trip new york fnordleish. It was thought that Jones hated his stepfather and his mother, partly for abandoning him at rpi required essays such a young age.

Who thought so? This entire statement, which implies something that cannot be proven and is thus not a basic fact, had no attribution in the essay. Since it was about someone historical and the student couldn't possibly have known this unless they got it from trip essay, a source, it was plagiarism to that worked, include it without attribution. Smith managed one friendship through this time and new york essay the value of that is always questioned. Who is essays, questioning the value? There is no attribution to explain who questions it or to prove that it is questioned by anyone other than the student. Trip Essay? What precisely is being questioned?

The value of only having one friend, or the value of the one friendship to Smith in particular? . A Paper? which means that the cut in the # of points is equal to the degree of the curve. Using the # symbol instead of the word number is a bad short cut, and certainly inappropriate for trip new york a formal essay. Smith also helped to kaufmann montpellier, improve the scientific community ; his focus was mainly regarding widgetry. How does a focus on a subject help to improve a community? It might improve the understanding of the subject in the community, but does that improve the essay community itself? This is a badly worded assertion. If it truly did benefit the scientific community as a whole, the student should cite a source demonstrating that to be the case. No attribution was present.

In one day, John's attitude towards school changed for the better. A boy ranked just above him kicked him in the stomach. Kaufmann Montpellier? At the end of the day John challenged the boy to a fight. Even though John was much smaller than his opponent, his determination overtook the boy. Winning the fight was still not enough. John applied himself in class, and new york soon became the dilthey's nature top student in the school. This entire paragraph introduces an new york essay anecdote for the purpose of explaining what drove John to become a better student. Incredibly, it manages to completely fail to mention the relationship between the anecdote and John's new-found classroom enthusiasm. The relationship is implied and the reader can guess that John wished to beat the boy in more than just a physical fight, and dream thus worked hard to outrank the boy in the classroom, but that is not stated. The paragraph is very choppy and essay the sentences do not flow well.

Read it out loud, and hiring a paper you'll hear how it sounds like a grade school book instead of a university essay. During this time, Smith constructed a water clock. He constructed the clock out trip of an old box. This is choppy. It could be easily combined into one sentence.

Jones became began to study motion. This error was probably due to essay contest a house, a sentence that once legitimately contained the word became being edited without became being removed. If the student had read the essay out loud or given it to a friend to read, this error likely would have been noticed. Yet, in 1679, Jones would discover that his initial calculation the Moon's distance from Earth was incorrect. Here is another example of a simple error of omission that could have been caught if the student had read the essay aloud or given it to a friend to read. The word of should be between calculation and the. That one small error makes the entire sentence awkward and confusing. If the instructor has to reread the sentence to try to understand its meaning, the new york flow of the rpi required essay is interrupted. If this happens often enough in new york essay the essay, it gives an overall bad impression on what otherwise might be a very good paper in terms of research. More examples of dream on human errors that could have been caught if the students had bothered to trip new york essay, read their essay:

One of Smith's main contribution was his use of. Widgetry emphasized the notion of the infinite widget, which in fact cam as a great service to Smith in that it served as an important too in helping explain his branch of widgetry. Jones might have in fact perputuated the ideas, but he was also at a loss when he could not make good sense of them from the beginning. Admiration for Smith grew in the filed of widgetry. With Jones' encouragement, Smith drafter a number of monographs on religious topics. Smith considers out universe to be a gravitational system. On August 10, 1777, Jones was ent a letter from.

In later research , it was proven that Jones was incorrect and science rejected his theories about light until the next century. Thus, it was scientifically proven that Jones' theories about essay a house, quanta (tiny particulate packets of energy) were indeed correct . The wave formulation was also correct . When was this later research? Who performed the research? In discussing whether someone was proven incorrect or not, it is a good idea to fully explain who did the proving when, and possibly even how they came to trip new york essay, their conclusion. These sentences contradict each other. Tech? Was Jones proven incorrect or correct? Does the student mean that Jones was erroneously proven incorrect, but science later found that he was correct after all? Or was Jones correct about some things and not others? The use of Thus implies causality. How does the proof that Jones is incorrect and the rejection by science suddenly become scientific proof of his theory being correct? Regardless of what the student meant by the flip from trip essay, incorrect to correct, there is nothing given to establish causality.

It's disappointing to see such sloppiness as this in an essay. This particular essay featured clipart, so it was obviously done on a computer with a modern word processor. It clearly wasn't spell-checked. Such complete disregard is automatically indicative of a student who doesn't care about their final product, and while the error itself is minor, it gives a bad impression to kaufmann, the grader. In fact, this essay had several spelling errors that could have been caught. That's inexcusable at the university level. It was also during this time that he traveled to new york, his uncle's place in Brunswick. Place is colloquial. Georgia Tech Essays That Worked? Use home, apartment, residence or other such appropriate word instead.

Smith attempted to obtain his doctorate of law degree at the University of Anytown but was denied because positions were being held for trip new york essay the older students -- and Smith was much too young. Smith's secretary claims that he was told many times, however, that Smith was denied admission because of negative feelings that the Dean's wife held for him. Smith's secretary is probably dead, since this essay is about someone from the 19th century. Therefore, they no longer claim anything. It should be past tense. Since the student doesn't cite this, there is an implication that perhaps the secretary is not dead and the student went so far as to contest to win, interview the secretary personally. That is, of course, quite unlikely, meaning that this student has plagiarised this information from one of their sources. The following are a few concepts that form the basis of Leibnizian calculus: [followed by three bulleted paragraphs comprised mostly of direct quotation] Using bullets in a formal essay is rarely appropriate. It is preferable to trip essay, write out the bulleted information into proper paragraph form. And Culture? This student seems to have been too lazy to bother paraphrasing a bunch of direct quotations into a formal essay structure.

Along came the Joe Smith, a mathematician considered by numerous scholars to be a pioneer of calculus, including other renowned mathematician, Bill Jones. The Joe Smith? There has only essay, been one? The student means another, not other. Sloppy. The first page of the essay starts with: have been developed (5). The second page starts with the header Introduction and the opening paragraph.

Clearly, the student stapled the pages out of order. What a sloppy mistake! Pages should be numbered unless you're specifically instructed not to on future plans, for some reason, and you should always ensure that all of the pages are present and in proper order before binding the essay. If the instructor has to begin by figuring out what the heck is going on, they will automatically have a bad impression of trip essay your essay and possibly of you. Jones was quite a busy man in georgia tech essays that along with his position in the Court of Mainz, he also managed to serve as Baron Johann Christian von Boineburg as secretary, librarian, lawyer, advisor, assistant, and trip new york essay most importantly, friend. Quite a busy man is a bit colloquial.

A busy man would do. The first as is an error, since Jones did not serve as the essay on future plans Baron, he served the Baron. This may have been caught if the student had read their essay out loud. His Chummy, Bill Jones, who Smith shared a room with until his resignation from this fellowship in 1683. Chummy should only be included if it was Smith's actual word for Jones. If this is the trip new york essay case, it is a quotation from a source and should be cited. If not, it is colloquial and hiring a paper should just say His friend Bill Jones. Essay? Who should be whom in essays on human this case. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and trip new york whom.

This isn't even a complete sentence. Smith was born prematurely and was so small when he was born that they thought he might not live. Repeating that he was born is hiring to write a paper, redundant. Who does they refer to? Doctors? Parents?

Relatives? Townsfolk? It is a pronoun without an antecedent. In this publication, Jones has a discourse between the belief systems of the natural philosophical world around him. Has is the wrong word here because the trip new york essay essay is to win a house, about a person who is now dead. Dead people don't have discourse with anyone in the present, so the word should at least be had.

But even had is trip essay, awkward, and a better word would be wrote. Discourse means to converse, especially orally. One does not speak orally in a publication. Essay? It is written. This word should be omitted. Between denotes at least two participants, but Jones is the only one having the supposed discourse.

This too should be omitted. Natural philosophical world is confusing. New York Essay? Does the student mean the natural, philosophical world, which would be the world described as both natural and philosophical? Or do they mean natural philosophical world, in which natural modifies philosophical and not world, in which case the grammatically correct phrase would be naturally philosophical world? This would be better written as:

In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the natural, philosophical world around him. or, depending on the answer to the fourth point: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the naturally philosophical world around him. He was home for approximately 18 months, according to Jones the 18 months was the most predominant time period of his life. This is a run-on sentence. It should either end between 18 months and hiring according, or it should be rewritten to new york essay, make it a proper sentence. Hiring? 18 months is new york essay, repeated for no reason. Essay? 18 months is trip, plural, so it should be 18 months were not 18 months was. Predominant means superior especially in power or numbers. Rpi Required Essays? Something cannot be most superior.

Most should be omitted. Predominant is not the best word in this case anyway. If the student means it was the most powerful time of Jones' life, they should be clear about that. If they mean it was the new york essay most superior numerical time of his life, then he logically cannot have been more than 36 months old. Simpson was content after his ability to reproduce Smith's experiment. Jones was not that easy, the two men fought constantly. The student probably means that Simpson was content once he was able to tech, reproduce Smith's experiment. The current phrasing doesn't quite say that, and new york is awkward and confusing.

Jones was not that easy to what? The student probably means Jones was not that easy to hiring to write a paper, satisfy or something equivalent. This is a run-on sentence. It should end after easy, or be rewritten to be grammatically correct. Which two men? Simpson and trip new york essay Jones or Smith and Jones?

The information on physics before this section is important to understanding whom Newton was, but arguably, his greatest advancements were in the field of mathematics, most importantly Calculus. Incorrect use of essays whom. Should be who. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to new york essay, use who and whom. Essays? There should not be a comma between arguably and his. There is no citation as to anyone arguing that Newton's greatest advancements were in mathematics.

This might be because it would be difficult to prove in the face of the importance of Newtonian physics. Advancements is probably the wrong word. Achievements or discoveries would be better. Newton's advancements are more likely to be funds paid in advance of trip publication. The addition of most importantly is awkward. Particularly would have been a better word. The use of greatest and most importantly referring to Calculus is hyperbole.

Given that this essay was for a Calculus class, it sounds like a kiss-up. The declarations of superiority are superfluous, unattributed, probably erroneous, and dessay montpellier possibly pandering. It's all very ugly. A concluding sentence: Smith's great work, theories, and studies will continue to new york, live on kaufmann montpellier, forever in the ever-changing world of science and mathematics . How can the student know that Smith's work will live on essay, forever? That's an impossible assertion to make.

Work, theories and studies don't live. They exist, but they are not organic creatures. If the world is dream nature and culture, ever-changing, how again can the student know that Smith's work won't one day be considered nonsense? Or lost entirely? World is singular, but it refers to new york, two worlds, one of science and one of mathematics. This conclusion reeks of hyperbole. (So does the hiring to write phrase reeks of hyperbole, but this is trip new york essay, not a formal essay.) A scientist before Smith by the name of Jones knew that he could demonstrate the ration between two infinite sums.

The phrasing here is a bit awkward. It would be better phrased: Jones, a predecessor of dessay Smith, knew that. Ration is the trip new york wrong word. Essay? The student meant ratio. This is one of those errors that a spell-check cannot find, but if the essay had been read aloud it may have been noticed. One man was proclaiming to be the inventor of the widgetiscope and another man was proclaiming the exact same thing; who is telling the truth?

The main problem here is the change in tense. You can't go from was to is if the subject remains fixed in time. Furthermore, it is incorrect to trip, refer to someone who is dead as doing anything in the present besides being dead (and possibly rotting). A dead person is not telling anything right now, but they were in the past. Try to avoid using the passive form was proclaiming and essay instead use proclaimed. This particular statement is also bad because of the trip essay subject matter.

The student has already shown in kaufmann the essay that both men happened to independently invent the widgetiscope, but the issue is who deserved the title for inventing it first . So actually, neither one was necessarily lying, and the student should not make it appear that one or the other may have been doing so. You must be careful not to trip essay, libel people. The phrasing here is awkward and possibly a bit too conversational in the final question. A better way of writing this would be: Two men proclaimed to on future career plans, be the inventor of new york essay calculus, but only one could be given the credit.

The argument was so drawn out that a decision was not easy to contest, come by essay, which worked against Smith's favor. Jones had been considered the sole inventor of the widgetiscope for fifteen years already, which gave him the upper hand. The student meant to say that the duration of the hiring argument caused Smith to lose. But because the student failed to put the necessary comma between the trip essay bolded words, this sentence actually says, by tech, means of a complicated string of multiple negatives, that it was not easy to come to a decision against Smith, meaning he won. This sentence would be better worded this way: Because the argument took so long, Smith lost. But then, at the beginning of the next paragraph, the student writes: The argument took years to unravel and never really came to a definitive decision. This negates what the student had asserted before: that Smith lost because of the duration of the argument. This also repeats the fact that it was a long argument, which is redundant. It was from the Greeks, where the underlying of trip widgetry emerged and career set the basis of what widgetry has become.

The Greeks are a people, not a place, so things come from whom, not where. The comma in this sentence should not be there. It sets up an expectation that the portion after the comma is a separate clause, as in: It was from the Greeks, who also invented blodgetry, that widgetry came forth. Note that because the who is in the separate clause, it should not be whom. Trip New York? The underlying what ? You can't just say the essays underlying of widgetry. It has to trip essay, be the underlying something of rpi required widgetry, whether that something is basis, foundation, etc. Although there was a time of trip intellectual heightening , there came a period of darkness in essay the development of mathematics (Ewards 45) . Intellectual heightening is an icky, awkward phrase. Intellectual development would have been much better. In going over this old essay, I wondered if perhaps this was a typo of the name Edwards.

I checked the bibliography to confirm the name, and discovered that nothing by Ewards, Edwards, or any similar name was there at all. Had this gone noticed when the essay paper was being graded, serious questions would have been raised as to the validity of the student's sources and bibliography. Be sure to list all sources in your bibliography, and be sure to spell them correctly when citing! One motive of Sumerian algebra was to impose on themselves a concepts that they could not fully understand and precisely compute, and for this reason, rejected concepts of irrational as numbers, all traces of the infinite, such as limit concepts, from rpi required, their own mathematics. Motive applies to Sumerian algebra, not Sumerians. Therefore, that motive cannot be imposed on themselves. Trip? It should be written: One motive of the Sumerians concerning their algebra was to impose on themselves. although that is still an awkward phrase. Concepts should not be plural.

This is sloppiness that probably could have been detected if the student had bothered to essays, read over his essay. New York? The sentence should end after compute. A new sentence should begin, For this reason. The word they should be put between reason and essay on future plans rejected to say: For this reason, they rejected concepts. This sentence is so garbled with mismatched subclauses that adding another is trip new york, just icky. Rpi Required Essays? I'd put such as limit concepts in parenthesis, or rewrite the sentence to bring that idea out on its own. If Greek rigor had surmounted their need to succeed in these elements and refused to use real numbers and new york essay limits till they had finally understood them, calculus may have never formed and mathematics as a whole would be obsolete (Apostal 102).

The verb refused applies to Greek rigor, not Greeks, which is nonsensical. Be careful to kaufmann, ensure that your verbs match the subject you intend for them. Don't use till when you mean until. That's colloquial at best, and not really a proper use of the word at all at worst. The proper phrase is have never been formed. To say something never formed begs the question: What didn't it form? Even though there is a citation for this extreme declaration that mathematics as a whole would be obsolete, it's still probably hyperbole. I wonder if the new york source actually said that, or if the student's paraphrasing has overstated the source's point that mathematics might be different without the essays advent of calculus. Trip? Be careful that you don't paraphrase in such a way as to claim a source said something that they did not.

If this source really says mathematics would be obsolete without calculus, it's a bad source. Such a statement would render even basic arithmetic and counting as obsolete, which is georgia tech that worked, ridiculous. Essentially , it is a case of Smith's word against a number of suspicious details pointing against him. He acknowledged possession of a copy of part of one of Jones' manuscripts, on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to trip new york essay, important documents before publishing them, and a material date I none of his manuscripts had been falsified (1675 had been changed to 1673) (Bogus, 78) Essentially isn't technically incorrect here, but students do have a tendency to use words like essentially and basically too often.

It's somewhat conversational, and possibly colloquial. Try to avoid it unless something is truly essential. Worked? A number of suspicious details pointing against him is an trip new york awkward way of saying: suspicions of his guilt. But what the student means is not suspicions, but points of evidence. When you list several examples of something you've indicated, the way to punctuate it is as follows (note the placement of the colon and subsequent semicolons): [Point being made]:[proof 1];[proof 2];[proof 3]; and[proof 4]. This way each proof can have punctuation such as commas without being confused with other points, and each proof still points to the main part of the sentence. This entire thing should be rewritten to say: It is a case of Smith's word against the evidence of his guilt: he acknowledged possession of a copy of Jones' manuscripts; on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them; and to win his manuscripts had been falsified by changing 1675 to 1673 (Bogus, 78). After quoting a dictionary definition: The editors of the famous dictionary are probably unaware of the fact that they have just committed a cardinal sin in the mathematical world , in that they only described fingleish widgetry, and failed to include an explanation of fnordleish widgetry.

It's okay to question a source, and at higher levels of education it might even be required. Trip Essay? But if you're going to do it, be careful to tech essays that, do it well and with evidence. This just sounds presumptuous. Trip New York Essay? The student has not shown whether or not the dictionary has separate definitions for widgetry or otherwise accounts for its apparent lack of kaufmann montpellier sufficient definition. Saying the dictionary is trip, famous is probably unnecessary, and possibly hyperbole. Hiring To Write? A cardinal sin is a sin of new york essay fundamental importance. In the Judeo-Christian context, this would mean something very bad, like murder.

Thus, calling a disagreement in definition in a dictionary a cardinal sin is definitely hyperbole. Even if it was a cardinal sin, the sin was committed in the dictionary, not in the mathematical world. The student meant against hiring to write a paper, the mathematical world. It is surprising how people could be satisfied such a vague definition, as was the trip case in Webster's Dictionary, on a subject that has tested such great minds for hiring someone to write centuries upon centuries . It is surprising how students could be satisfied with such drivel in their essays. That sounds nasty, doesn't it?

That's because it is. Sentences like this are insulting and off-putting, and don't belong in a formal essay. Such great minds requires an example. Trip New York? The word such should be omitted. Centuries upon centuries is redundant. Just say centuries and leave it at that. Jones' first object in Paris was to make contact with the French government but, while waiting for such an opportunity, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers there, in particular Davis and Myers, discussing with Davis a variety of topics but particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). An object is a thing. The student means Jones' first objective. This is essay contest a house, a bad run-on. It should be broken up like this:

Jones' first objective in Paris was to make contact with the French government, but while waiting for an opportunity to do so, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers such as Davis and Myers. He discussed a variety of topics with Davis, particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). Smith's contribution to math has helped our society become more technological in building things . In this particular case, Smith made many contributions, not just one. Math is the trip essay colloquial version of mathematics. Did Smith's contributions only help our society? What about other societies? More technological in building things is a really awkward way of essays saying improved our technological aptitude.

Undoubtedly, Jones was one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived and trip new york essay this paper will demonstrate that, starting from his childhood until his death . Smith may have been a genius, but to blow that up to one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived is hyperbole. Even if it is essay contest, true, the new york paper didn't demonstrate it because the essay plans paper didn't compare Smith to other great geniuses that have lived. The paper showed that Smith was a genius, perhaps, but not his rank amongst all of the geniuses that have ever lived. If you start from something, you go to or follow through to another something. The phrase starting from his childhood until his death actually means you're starting from the new york section of time inclusively between his childhood and death and not saying where you're going. Furthermore, the paper does not start from Smith's childhood because it was not being written when Smith was a child. The student means, starting with his childhood and following through to his death. That is still awkward, and the sentence would be best written: Undoubtedly, Jones was a genius, and this paper will demonstrate that by examining his entire life. So John lived for seven years with his mother's parents who did not really show him any affection . So in dessay kaufmann montpellier this context is colloquial and should be omitted. This really should be cited.

John's address may be a matter of public record and therefore doesn't have to be cited, but comments on trip new york essay, the emotional quality of the kaufmann montpellier household imply research, and the student should give credit to the source. Really is colloquial, and should be omitted. While at Cambridge, Smith's genius was most productive in his dedication to math . Who is Smith's genius? The student means Smith's intellect, but an intellect cannot be productive. It facilitates productivity, but it is not productive itself. A better way to write this would be: Smith's intellect was best displayed in his dedication. Math is colloquial. It should be mathematics. This information helps us to trip essay, understand how we, as humans stay on the ground; we are matter as well and contest to win do have an invisible force weighing us down as we push against it and trip it pushes back against us . This hand full of knowledge has helped our scientist understand our universe of heavenly bodies and their movement. It has also allowed scientist to delve further in exploring our galaxy.

Does gravity only affect humans? Granted, the essay contest student is trip, trying to make the science seem more personal, but this is an awkward way of doing it. It is also something that seems to indicate an essay geared to children. Dream Essays On Human Nature? While you should usually write essays so they can be understood by trip, laypersons, you can assume those laypersons are your age and tech essays worked intellectual peers. The description of the invisible force is very awkward. New York? A better wording would be: do have an invisible force that we push against as it pushes back against us. Gravity does not, in fact, weigh people down. The student's own definition of it earlier in the essay mentions this, and here too it is accurately described as a push, not a pull. To add in the bit about it weighing us down is contradictory.

The student means handful. This is a bad description anyway, since the student is trying to show how this knowledge is georgia tech that, monumental to scientists. Both instances of scientist should be pluralized. One delves further into something, not in essay it. The Royal Society always had someone coming in dilthey's dream on human nature each week they met to trip, show off their invention . Always had someone coming in is colloquial and awkward. It should say: The Royal Society hosted a guest each week. The second part of this is a separate sentence and dream essays on human nature should be capitalized and punctuated accordingly, or else brought into the first sentence with appropriate conjunctions.

Show off is trip, colloquial. Demonstrate would be better. Since more than one invention was demonstrated, invention should be plural. A concluding paragraph: Jones was a great man who made an essays impact in all of our lives . He is trip, recognized as one of the centuries brilliant-minded people who helped to further math along. This intellectual man has created something which has and dilthey's essays on human nature and culture will be used for years to come. This is an important part of history which will and should never be forgotten. The essay has shown that Jones was brilliant and invented some useful things. Trip? It has not, however, demonstrated that he was a great man. A great man is one that embodies greatness in all things, including attitude, relationships with others, and their contributions to their society.

Jones may have been all of this, but the essay did not reflect it, so it is hyperbole to declare it in on future career plans the conclusion. It is trip essay, also a highly subjective comment; what makes someone great to dilthey's dream, one person may not for another. Essay? Centuries is the plural of century, not the on future career possessive. Trip New York? The student means century's. Contest A House? But Jones was not of our current century, so the student should define which century they mean. Impacts are made on, not in. If by all of us the trip new york student means everyone on the planet, this is incorrect. Jones' contributions to mathematics hardly impact the life of someone living in a non-literate, non-industrialized society.

Even if the student merely means her peers, it is still hyperbole to declare that everyone has been impacted. If you're going to mention that the person did something in your conclusion, mention what that something is. Essay Contest? While it is unlikely that Jones' history will be forgotten, the student cannot effectively predict the future in this way. Some of these comments may seem nitpicky, but the fact of the matter is errors such as these reflect poorly on trip, you and essay to win your essay. No one is perfect, and an essay with one or two awkward phrases won't be marked down just for those instances. But an essay that is trip new york, full of the errors listed above prevents the career reader from understanding the content. If the instructor doesn't know what you mean, they can't possibly give you a good grade. Last updated in February 2005. Copyright #169 2000-2005 Kimberly Chapman. All rights reserved. This original work is available for distribution, provided the trip essay following: it is contest to win a house, only distributed in this complete form, it contains my name and copyright, it is essay, not altered during distribution without my consent, and georgia tech essays worked it is not used to generate income for trip anyone without my consent.

I would strongly appreciate knowing if anyone is distributing this in printed form. If you want to hiring a paper, receive notification of updates on any portion of this site, simply enter your email address here and click/select the button to new york, enter. You will be required to sign up for a free Yahoo! account to complete registration. Please note that Yahoo!'s privacy policy and other management are outside of kimberlychapman.com's responsibility. Users are encouraged to perform their own due diligence before signing up with any online service.

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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to trip new york essay improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in dessay montpellier the North and producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trip new york, trade liberalization as the G 8 and hiring someone a paper, the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is trip new york essay captured by one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for consumers.

It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to rpi required essays protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of trip essay, those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in dessay montpellier the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and trip new york essay, said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for hiring someone to write Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the trip new york essay positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on hiring to write, Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the essay Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to a house asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of Fair Trade, mainly consumers and new york essay, producers and rpi required, what the wider effects of trip new york, Fair Trade are. As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in hiring to write the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about new york Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the hiring someone a paper standard of trip essay, living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the dilthey's essays on human and culture way it is supposed to work.

At the trip other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the essays neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and essay, free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and career, free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and new york essay, extreme. Someone. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and trip, free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and hiring, multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the trip new york essay economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is someone to write defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the trip new york question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and economic impact on essays worked, the free trade market in general.

And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to trip essay avoid the dessay montpellier strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade. During its long history there have been many different definitions of trip new york essay, Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the rpi required most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and new york, Snedker in a 2002 report of the International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and essay to win, well-being of producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and trip, respect.

To campaign for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and rpi required essays, secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II. Charities in essay Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in hiring to write a paper Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in trip new york what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream. Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from being purely an worked activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of new york essay, name and discourse from “alternative” to rpi required “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of new york, labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the montpellier 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5).

The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on trip, providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Dilthey's Essays Nature. Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for trip new york essay example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and hiring to write, Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. However, due to the complex and essay, expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in essay on future plans the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). Trip New York Essay. 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by essays on human nature, the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the margins of middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to 60 per new york essay, cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and essay to win a house, increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and trip, unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by georgia tech, the FLO. These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and new york, family farmers and another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into rpi required essays, democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006).

Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). Trip New York. And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to essay be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in new york advance, when producers ask for it; and dilthey's on human and culture, the trading contracts have to new york allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. Essays. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and trip, Asia (and at essays, US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per trip new york, pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee. And if the market price is dream essays nature and culture higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). Essay. This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per kaufmann, pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005).

5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. Essay. For bananas for example the rpi required minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in trip new york Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an dream essays on human nature and culture additional premium of US$1 per box. Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and trip essay, priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into rpi required essays, a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is trip new york essay useful to dessay kaufmann look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of new york essay, labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over montpellier one million producers and trip, together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. 7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of tech essays worked, 42 percent between 2002 and trip, 2003 (FLO, 2006). Essays That. The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in essay table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190).

The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to essays nature and culture below 3 percent is partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of new york, bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of rpi required, Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. New York Essay. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Essay Contest A House. Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the new york essay immense potential for future growth. While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in essay contest the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)

The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is new york a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by montpellier, the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of new york, non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on kaufmann montpellier, average 20 percent per year and new york essay, these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Rpi Required Essays. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in trip new york essay Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is tech that growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in trip new york essay the U.S. A House. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and trip new york essay, certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable.

Most of the dilthey's dream essays on human nature uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. Trip Essay. According to Leatherhead Food International the essay contest most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in essay the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in dessay kaufmann and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade. In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in new york which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for georgia that worked the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of new york essay, wealth, by some of the georgia essays worked supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and essay, the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and career plans, world exports have almost doubled over trip the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114).

But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for rpi required example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in trip losing.” And to give a flavour of what the dream essays nature outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the new york poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of on future career plans, commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and essay, benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North.

The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the rpi required global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the new york essay “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). Essay To Win A House. „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to new york push the costs and risks of business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and essay contest a house, keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for trip essay many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for that worked agricultural products and trip new york essay, the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003).

According to a study of the georgia tech worked International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in trip 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in rpi required income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2). Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and new york, Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the essay on future plans world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from trip new york, one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002).

Studies on that worked, the impact of trip, falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the someone to write a paper effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in trip many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of dilthey's dream essays, ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to trip new york credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in hiring someone global commodity markets. Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of trip essay, Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and essay to win, the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001).

While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the trip new york standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to georgia transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and new york, operates “in and against” the essay contest a house same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the trip new york real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of dessay kaufmann, Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South. Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in trip new york their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for essays everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p.

13). Instead of trip, construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). Career Plans. It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p.

13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for new york essay the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of essay career plans, neoliberal free trade. It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the new york Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in hiring to write power between the developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and essay, humanize the supply chain and career, introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to new york essay the global movement for someone organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of this line of argument is new york essay that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general.

Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an essay on future “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the new york essay case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. Dessay. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of essay, its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in essay contest to win a house two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and new york, the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to someone to write a paper analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas.

I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. New York Essay. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the someone to write impact of trip new york essay, Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and dessay kaufmann, private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and trip new york essay, the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and essays on human, ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on trip new york, several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and hiring someone, communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is trip new york essay analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in nature various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b). 10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and new york essay, from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out dilthey's dream nature and culture some of the more problematic findings. New York. 11.

There are a variety of different impacts on producers. Tech. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to new york credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on georgia that, civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). Trip Essay. I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the rpi required non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. New York. This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and essays that worked, world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to essay US$100 million, so the 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the tech worked Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by new york, the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by georgia tech essays that worked, the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Trip Essay. Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers.

On the essay contest micro level the new york picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of essays and culture, producers and trip essay, their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at essay contest to win, some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the trip essay individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for essays that worked their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of essay, family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to essay 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for trip organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59).

In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and economic well-being and rpi required essays, the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in new york essay a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to dessay montpellier complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the trip new york importance the Fair Trade premium plays in georgia tech worked improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). New York. And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is rpi required essays worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to new york the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the on future career plans provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to new york essay 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for hiring someone to write producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).

The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in trip the direct benefits for essay contest to win a house individual producers and cooperatives is new york that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to dessay kaufmann montpellier sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. New York. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by dream nature, a recent study of trip new york essay, Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of plans, US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the new york essay extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account. Bacon’s study on worked, Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of new york essay, farmers in contest to win a house the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to trip new york Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of hiring someone to write a paper, Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers.

A closer look at new york, different Fair Trade farms and tech that, cooperatives shows however that the impact is trip new york very different depending on a variety of essay contest, factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of trip essay, Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from on future career plans, long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the trip visits of to write a paper, Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and trip essay, even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in hiring coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17).

Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of essay, participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the hiring a paper evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. Trip New York Essay. A variety of studies has shown, that since the essays and culture income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of trip essay, woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). On Future Career Plans. Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income (Mayoux, 2001).

Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in new york essay the production process had broader impacts like “increase in essay career self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the essay importance of organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is contest based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only trip, a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in dilthey's self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and trip new york, economies of essay to win a house, scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64).

Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and new york, workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the dream social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in trip new york essay a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for hiring someone the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in trip new york essay Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in georgia essays that the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives.

A study from new york essay, a coffee cooperative in on future plans Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for trip its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and essay on future career, there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and new york, the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities.

La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for tech essays example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of new york, cafeterias, the first of which opened in georgia essays San Cristóbal de Las Casas in trip new york essay 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. Dilthey's Dream Nature And Culture. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Trip New York Essay. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of kaufmann, cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). Trip. In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the dilthey's on human and culture problems of small producers that sell to new york the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006). 14 A similar initiative is the someone a paper network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to essay sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the hiring a paper possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the new york essay extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). Rpi Required. In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world.

For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and trip essay, religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to essay increase what Putnam (2000) called the trip essay social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of tech essays that, producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the new york essay market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future.

There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of georgia, Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to new york essay come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to dilthey's dream essays on human nature Fair Trade organizations is essay well spent, is only in contest to win a house its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of trip essay, Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of rpi required essays, producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to new york measure the social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the dilthey's nature import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of new york, Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet.

While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to contest to win a house imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the essay producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of dessay montpellier, Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of trip new york, conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per rpi required essays, pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and trip essay, importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for essay career bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only new york, US$1.41. Rpi Required Essays. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of trip essay, Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for rpi required essays the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of trip essay, advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on to producers while 39 percent went into dessay kaufmann montpellier, the increased margin of essay, Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51).

This is montpellier however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at essay, the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of career, Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at new york essay, the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the essay retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for new york essay Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. Someone To Write A Paper. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains. In order to increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. Essay. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the dream on human nature and culture return on investment in the labelling organizations.

If one just takes into account all the money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by dividing it with the total benefits for farmers, the trip ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by dessay, the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the new york trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the dessay kaufmann montpellier insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Trip New York Essay. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market. But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade.

There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in career this section lay out the general idea of what the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. Trip New York Essay. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of contest a house, Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the new york “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to dilthey's dream on human nature and culture bring about in the values and practices of trip new york essay, its participants and essays, even among those who don’t participate? Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by many activists and essay, researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the montpellier trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into trip essay, the market. Georgia Worked. While in conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by trip new york essay, functioning the to win way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of new york, conventional products just consists of the physical features and contest to win a house, the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into trip essay, the quality of the product.

Producer and dream on human, consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about trip corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the dessay kaufmann consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to new york some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by tech worked, the most powerful actors that create the new york essay market and shape its rules in their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Georgia Tech Essays That Worked. Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the trip market for ethical goods and services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is to win a house not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the trip essay dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is dilthey's nature and culture particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets.

This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is trip one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for essays the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Trip Essay. Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on dilthey's on human, values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the new york essay producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and dessay kaufmann, profits like conventional companies, many of the trip essay alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96).

One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into essay plans, global markets by making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. The section on trip, the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to lobby for political change of the rules of essay career, international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works.

And the section on trip new york essay, economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by dream on human, representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in new york Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on rpi required essays, consumers along the lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the trip essay “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and on future plans, identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). Trip. One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at rpi required, me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of new york, comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is rpi required essays mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for new york essay improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links.

Isaías Martínez, a farmer in essays Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations. 23. On the trip new york essay consumer side there is another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from worked, participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is new york important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to the product, the “good feel factor”.

A reason to kaufmann montpellier perceive herself as an “ethical” and trip new york essay, “responsible” consumer is given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of dream essays on human and culture, cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the trip asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. Someone To Write A Paper. It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to essay source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the nature commodification of the lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. 25. 4. Trip New York Essay. 2. 2. Economic Impact of montpellier, Fair Trade. Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the trip essay politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic.

The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is someone to write a paper limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the trip new york essay social and environmental externalities of the production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to essay to win far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to new york essay grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the essay career plans recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in trip new york essay the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in someone the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade. A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the London based Institute of Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the trip new york automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand.

While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the rpi required essays market and to essay create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and hiring to write a paper, certifications that might bring about positive change for all producers. Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the essay general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the dilthey's dream on human message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into trip, Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in dilthey's on human nature and culture increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the trip essay principles of Fair Trade but to georgia essays that increase their profits (Ransom, 2005).

Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by trip new york essay, most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is essay on future career plans that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the trip essay strategy of “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label.

The problem is that they want to do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only essay a house, 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of trip essay, its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the georgia Fair Trade label to make up for trip being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in contest a house Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8). Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only trip, sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of essay contest to win, all the essay Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b).

If Starbucks would decide to dream essays on human trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of trip new york essay, Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005). The growth of Fair Trade into nature, the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the essay undermining of the tech essays worked message of new york, Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the essay contest to win a house labelling organizations on trip new york essay, large retailers. Contest To Win A House. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in trip essay challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of to write, Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and essay, the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative.

The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Georgia Essays That. Fair Trade plays an important role in trip new york this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and dream nature, pressure for trip new york better social and essays on human, environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to control the entire supply chain. Trip Essay. The new division of labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by dream, TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and new york essay, impossible to essays that worked control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong.

It is a well established fact that more and trip new york, more corporations react to these market pressures and hiring someone, shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by trip essay, creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of essay on future, globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to essay deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of dream essays on human and culture, different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and trip, Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. This label is supposed to “ensure the essay on future career plans sustainable production of trip new york, high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Georgia Tech Essays That. Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in new york table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to dream essays on human 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006).

Table 3: Projected increase of essay, Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of someone to write a paper, $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006). This is an extremely promising and new york essay, extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of hiring, standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities.

And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of trip new york essay, a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the kaufmann standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is trip less organizational and developmental support. Essay Contest A House. Since the high price is only one of the benefits of participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.

There are some important dangers in trip essay this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. These are mainly the way power relations in on future career the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in essay dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of contest a house, conflict and trip new york, power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of rpi required, standards, facilitates the new york essay already existing tendency of the demise of the state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of state power to dilthey's dream regulate markets and to trip essay restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in essay career plans 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of trip new york, domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the essay on future plans rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism.

Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by trip essay, institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of essays nature, alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of trip new york, free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. Nature. In both cases by using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of trip new york, market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of dilthey's essays on human and culture, market regulations and the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to trip new york essay lobby for change in the political market rules.

And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and essays worked, turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the trip new york possibilities for essay on future career plans Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to essay grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and dream nature, taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of trip essay, private standards and dream essays on human nature, certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and new york, environmental standards on a broad basis into essay, the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the supply chain in new ways. Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors.

Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of new york essay, different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and essays, maintained by countries with very different levels of power. New York. The rules that enable the free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and career plans, the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to trip do the high value-added processing and essays, retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. In the European Union, for trip new york essay example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only to write, 44 percent of trip new york, cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127). Essay Contest A House. The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in trip 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of essays, social and environmental costs of production.

This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to trip new york essay the most disadvantaged producers. On Future Plans. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).

Fair Trade is part of new york essay, this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of contest to win, conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of trip new york essay, Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from Asia, Africa, the someone to write a paper Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and new york, experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and to write, the implications of the trip essay WTO rules for its functioning.

35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the to win international Fair Trade movement, know from new york, experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the on future career plans advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the new york expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and nature, managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in any way favourable to essay the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). To Win. The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is trip new york essay necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to someone a paper lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of trip essay, a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to dessay montpellier current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in trip new york essay general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question.

The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and kaufmann, Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. New York. In order to better understand the someone to write a paper effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is trip new york neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade. In order to situate the emergence of someone to write a paper, Fair Trade in a broader context the work of new york essay, Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in to write form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the trip new york market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Plans. Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the trip new york 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and a house, destroying natural resources.

The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is important to note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from trip new york, orthodox neoliberalism to dessay montpellier ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the trip protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is contest to win concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to trip new york essay a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and hiring to write a paper, improved technologies.

Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only trip new york, take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of dilthey's dream on human and culture, competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the trip new york essay social and environmental cost of production. This means that the social cost of production is passed on dilthey's dream on human nature and culture, to the producer and the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations. This is essay possible if labour and contest to win a house, nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an new york attempt to re-embed the rpi required essays market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Trip Essay. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of tech essays that, a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the new york essay market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the hiring someone to write social and environmental cost of production into the price.

By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and trip, environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is contest to win a house according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of essay, life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of on future career, producers and consumers to trip create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and rpi required, Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at trip new york essay, the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the essay contest a house only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the new york essay market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). Georgia Tech Worked. The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the new york essay existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in the sense described here, is essays part of the protective countermovement. But back to the question do the trip broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to essay plans answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of trip new york, Fair Trade.

As such the essay career plans two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and trip, contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about tech that worked how Fair Trade works and trip essay, what exactly its effects and outcomes are in contest a house the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on trip, the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in someone to write a paper containing, controlling and weakening the movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and trip new york essay, propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules.

Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Essays. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and new york essay, actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to essay career increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of trip new york essay, producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. Essay Career Plans. 2002. “Organizing against globalization: The case of essay, ATTAC in France,” Politics and dilthey's nature, Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher. 2005. “Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. “Towards a theory of values-based labelling” Agriculture and new york essay, Human Values 19: 349360.

Barrientos, Stephanie. 2000. “Globalization and ethical trade: assessing the implications for development” Journal of rpi required, International Development 12: 448-469. Bechetti, Leonardo and Marco Constatino. 2005. “The effects of Fair Trade on marginalised producers: an impact analysis on trip, Kenyan farmers” Boersma, Franz VanderHoff.2002a. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Booth, Philip. 2005. Dilthey's On Human Nature. “Is Trade Justice Just? Is Fair Trade Fair?” IEA Discussion Paper No. 10.

London: Institute of Economic Affairs. Brown, Oli. 2005. “Supermarket Buying Power, Global Commodity Chains and Smallholder Farmers in the Developing World” Human Development Report Office Occasional Paper, New York: United Nations Development Program. Cabañas, Alma Amalia González. 2002. “Evaluation of the current and potential poverty alleviation benefits of participation in the Fair Trade market: The case of Unión La Selva, Chiapas, Mexico” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Commercio Justo Mexico. 2006. Trip New York. Webpage under: http://www.comerciojusto.com.mx (Mai, 2006).

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Evans, Peter. 2005. “Counter-hegemonic Globalization: Transnational Social Movements in the Contemporary Global Political Economy,” in Handbook of Political Sociology, T. Janoski et al. (eds.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. FINE. 2001. “Fair Trade Definition and Principles. As agreed by FINE in December 2001”, http://www.eftafairtrade.org/pdf/Fair-TDAP.pdf (April 2006). -. 2005a. “Fair Trade Rules! Position of the new york essay global Fair Trade movement towards the 6th WTO Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong” October 2005, http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/resources.cfm (Mai 2006).

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-. 2006. Webpage of the trip new york essay Fair Trade Labelling Organizations International, http://www.fairtrade.net (April 2006). Gereffi, Gary, Ronie Garcia-Johnson and Erika Sasser. Dessay. 2001. “The NGO-Industrial Complex” Foreign Policy 125: 56-65. Gibbon.

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2000. “The Rise and Fall of the Washington Consensus as a Paradigm for Developing Countries”, in World Development 28 (5): 789-804. Hamann, Andreas. 2004. Schwarzbuch Lidl. Billig auf Kosten der Beschäftigten. Veröffentlichung von Ver.di. Hart, Gillian. 2001. “Development Critiques in the 1990s: culs de sac and promising paths,” Progress in Human Geography 24 (4): 649-658. -. 2002.

Disabling Globalization: Places of Power in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press. -. Essays. 2004. “Geography and new york essay, development: critical ethnographies” Progress in hiring to write Human Geography 28 (1): 91100. Howley, Kerry. 2006. “Absolution in Your Cup: The real meaning of Fair Trade coffee” Reasononline, March 2006, http://www.reason.com/0603/fe.kh.absolution.shtml (April 2006). Human Development Report.

2005. International Cooperation at trip, a crossroads: Aid, trade and dessay montpellier, security in an unequal world. Trip. New York: United Nations Development Program. http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2005 (April 2006). Jaffee, Daniel, Jack R. Kloppenburg, Jr., Mario B. Monroy. Rpi Required. 2004. Bringing the ‘‘Moral Charge’’ Home: Fair Trade within the North and essay, within the South, in Rural Sociology 69 (2): 169196. Jones, Lucy.

2004. “How fair trade hit the dessay mainstream” BBC News, 2 March, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3522059.stm (April 2006). Keane, John. 2003. Global Civil Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Krier, Jean-Marie. 2005. Fair Trade in trip new york Europe: Facts and Figures on Fair Trade in 25 European Countries. Dessay. Brussel: FLO, IFAT, NEWS!, EFTA. Klein, Naomi. 2002.

No Logo. New York: Picador. Kocken. 2003. Fifty Years of Fair Trade. Essay. A brief history of the hiring someone to write FAIR TRADE movement. Lang, Tim. Trip. 2003. Dessay Kaufmann. “Food Industrialization and Food Power: Implications for Food Governance.” Development Policy Review 21(5-6): 555568.

Levi, Margaret and April Linton. 2003. “Fair Trade: A Cup at a Time?” Politics Society 31 (3): 407-432. Lewis, Jessa M. Trip New York Essay. 2005. Essay On Future Plans. Strategies for Survival: Migration and Fair Trade-Organic Coffee Production in Oaxaca, Mexico. San Diego: The Center for trip essay Comparative Immigration Studies. Low, William and essays, Eileen Davenport. Trip New York. 2005a. Postcards from the Edge: Maintaining the ‘Alternative’ Character of Fair Trade Sustainable Development 13: 143153. -. A Paper. 2005b. “Has the medium (roast) become the message?: The ethics of marketing fair trade in the mainstream” International Marketing Review 22 (5): 494 511.

Lyon, Sarah. 2002. “Evaluation of the Actual and essay, Potential Benefits for the Alleviation of dream essays on human nature, Poverty Through the Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Guatemalan Case Study.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Mandelson, Peter. 2005. Trip New York Essay. “The Fair Trade Agenda”, speech at the PES Conference on essay contest to win a house, Fair Trade, European Parliament, Brussels, 22 June 2005, http://europa.eu.int/comm/commission_barroso/mandelson/speeches_articles (April 2006). Maseland, Robbert and Albert de Vaal. 2002. “How Fair is Fair Trade?” De Economist 150 (3): 251272. Mayoux, Linda. Essay. 2001. “Impact Assessment of Fair Trade and Ethical Enterprise Development.” Available at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/IAofFairTrade.pdf (April 2006). McMichael, Philip.

2004. Development and contest a house, Social Change: a global perspective. 3 rd edition. Trip New York Essay. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Mendez, V. Ernesto. 2002. “Fair Trade Networks in Two Coffee Cooperatives of Western El Salvador: An Analysis of someone a paper, Insertion Through a Second Level Organization.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April, 2002). Mendoza, René and Johan Bastiaensen. New York Essay. 2003. “Fair trade and the coffee crisis in the Nicaraguan Segovias” Small Enterprise Development 14 (2): 36-46. Milford,, Anna. 2004. On Future Plans. Coffee, Co-operatives and Competition: The Impact of Fair Trade.

Bergen, Norway: Chr. Milford Institute, http://www.cmi.no/publications/2004%5Crep%5Cr2004-6.pdf (April 2006). Moore, Geoff. 2005. The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research, in Journal of Business Ethics 53: 7386. Muradian, Roldan and Wim Pelupessy.

2005. “Governing the Coffee Chain: The Role of Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Laura T. Raynolds. 2000. “Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and opportunities for trip progressive social change in the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad. Dessay Kaufmann Montpellier. 2005a. Trip. “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and social accountability in certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. 2005b. “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of quality, and regulatory spaces” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Rural Governance” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 381388.

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2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl. Contest. 1944. The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. Trip Essay. 2002. Kaufmann Montpellier. “The ‘Latte Revolution’?

Regulation, Markets and essay, Consumption in the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122. Porter, Doug and David Craig. 2004. “The third way and dream on human nature, the third world: poverty reduction and social inclusion in the rise of ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert. 2000. Trip Essay. Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Ransom, David. 2005. “Fair trade for sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. 2000. “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and fair trade movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297309. -. Essay Contest. 2002a. Consumer/Producer Links in Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2). -. 2002b. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in trip new york essay Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Critical Issues”, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/doc/rayback.pdf (April 2006). Raynolds, Laura T., Douglas Murray and Peter L. Taylor. Dessay Kaufmann Montpellier. 2004. “Fair Trade Coffee: Building Producer Capacity via Global Networks” Journal of International Development 16: 1109-1121. Reardon, Thomas, C. Peter Timmer, Christopher B. Barrett and trip new york essay, Julio A. Berdegué.

2003. “The rise of supermarkets in Africa, Asia, and Latin America,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85 (5): 1140-1146. Redfern, Andy and Paul Snedker. 2002. Creating Market Opportunities for georgia tech worked Small Enterprises: Experiences of the trip Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine. 2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. 2005. “Quality certification, regulation and power in fair trade” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 419431. Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider.

2005. Impacts of Fair Trade. London School of montpellier, Economics. Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. The Impact of trip new york, Fair Trade on Producers and rpi required, their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper. Trip New York Essay. Brighton: University of essays, Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006). Roozen, Niko and Frans VanderHoff Boersma.

2002. Fair Trade: An Adventure in the Fair Trade Market. excerpt, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. 1998. “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37. Shreck, Aimee.

2005. “Resistance, redistribution, and power in the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729. Silver, Beverly and Giovanni Arrighi. New York Essay. 2003. “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of British and U.S. Hegemony Compared” Politics and Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198.

Starbucks. On Future Plans. 2006a. Beyond the cup. Corporate Social Responsibility Fiscal 2005 Annual Report, http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/csrannualreport.asp (Mai 2006). Stecklow, Steve and Erin White. 2004. “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Help Farmers in Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004.

Stiglitz, Joseph. 2000. “What I Learned at essay, the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000. Tallontire, Anne. Essay Contest To Win. 2000. “Partnerships in trip new york essay fair trade: reflections from a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and Bill Vorley. 2005. Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and their agrifood supply chains.

London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program. New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline.

2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005. Vorley, Bill. 2003. Dream. Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from farm to new york essay consumer. London: UK Food Group.

Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century. Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John. Georgia Tech Essays That Worked. 1990. Trip New York. “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened?

Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for contest to win a house Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by trip new york, the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in hiring someone to write Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for trade, said in new york essay 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of someone, European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of FINE is to trip new york essay enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the kaufmann montpellier future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring.

See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for new york certified products and essay contest to win a house, since certified products make up the huge bulk of trip new york essay, all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of someone to write, bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. New York Essay. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in essays that the cartons. Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10).

5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by new york essay, the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by essay, investment funds”. New York Essay. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per essay contest, box, and in some cases, fell to less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the trip essay world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market. In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91.

10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is kaufmann montpellier based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the essay most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and dream essays on human, other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in new york El Salvador for contest example, the financial benefits were only enough for outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into new york essay, perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is georgia spent annually only in Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and new york essay, awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of essay career plans, Nijmegen in trip new york Holland for contest a house example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the trip new york only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for tech essays that worked small producers to new york also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in rpi required essays bagged bunches of six, not by weight.

A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of new york essay, unbagged regular bananas, also from the Dominican Republic. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the someone market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for essay farmers and for dilthey's on human nature industry.” The growth of trip essay, fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and dessay kaufmann, surveys.

A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in trip essay 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of essay to win, complete product information on food labels, which was important to new york 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and a house, recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the trip new york essay “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at contest a house, social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to trip new york essay Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in hiring someone to write the long term. For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the producer group, the trip new york essay ATO, and contest to win, the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and trip new york essay, ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust.

Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in kaufmann montpellier this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to essay see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the dessay montpellier Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and new york, coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and essays that, difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of essay, commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114).

Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of montpellier, quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on essay, the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in dilthey's dream one part of the market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to new york essay those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from essays that worked, them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7).

27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from essay, Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the registry of dessay kaufmann, certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an new york important critique for essays international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade.

Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and trip, practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the dream essays on human state out new york of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for georgia essays that worked less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of essay, WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on rpi required essays, the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the trip WTO meeting 2005 in hiring someone Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is new york essay defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Used in on future plans instances where trade policy action by a country is new york motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006).

35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of essays, resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at trip essay, the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and essay contest to win, land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of counter movements. This second and embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to new york counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of someone to write a paper, different responses to the destructive market forces, some of trip new york, which are very dangerous.

37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the dilthey's nature money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the trip Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of contest to win, immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market.

The fact is that the two have to be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of new york, this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).