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Case Study Template - American …
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How is Mr Birling Portrayed in the play An Inspector Calls Watch. Also, what else is most likely to come up? Priestly presents Mr Arthur Birling and template for writing a business, a ignorant and essay trees english, foolish character with us use of Dramatic Irony. As Mr Birling was delivering his speech at his daughter, Sheila's engagement, he mentioned that the titanic, was ''unsinkable, absaloutley unsinkable''. As the play was written in 1945, we know that this bold statement is for writing a business study, far from correct. Instantly, Priestlys use of new york essay dramatic irony not only proves that it is a mistaken view, but it allows the audience to understand that Arthur Birling is not wise, but infact a rather stupid and for writing a business study, injudicious character. Priestly is also conveying that Arthur is very narrow minded. He is only intrested in oral test essay the present, and template for writing a business study, does not look to phd thesis the future, Mr Birling does not have a open mind. Like most men at that time, they believed that nothing could change. For Writing A Business Study. They believed that the rich would always rule over the poor, that the writing prompts, labour ''cranks'' could never be a ruling government, and Arthur Birling represents these views.
Moreover, Priestlys use of repetition on the word ''unsinkable'' suggests that Mr Birling in certain that he is correct, when infatc he is far from template for writing a business it, making him appear to translation services be foolish. On the for writing a business case study, other hand, not only does Priestlys use of the infamous titanic make Arthur look stupid, but it is also a symbol of arrogance. The titanic was a ship for the rich aristocrats of essay trees friend english 1912, those who thought they were the hierarchy of society, much like what Mr Birling would like to see himself as. So for priestly to use the titanic as a example suggests that Birling is also a arrogant and template a business case study, pompous chracter. Alternitavely,the dramatic quote ''unsinkable, absaloutley unsinkable'' is Priestly foreshadowing the Birlings sinking fate. Mr Birling is translation services, so certain that he knows about everything, yet he is not aware that soon he will have a mysterious visitor at the door. Also, the play was set in template for writing 1912, 2 years before the first world war, Priestly uses this small time frame to display Arthur as a injudicious character. Priestly was aiming to use the post word war vulnerability of the audience to opress capitalist views and project his socialist views. In 1912, the inter search essay, rigid class and gender boundaries ensured that nothing would change, however by 1945, these divisions had been breached. The writer is aware that audience to not want another war, and template for writing, from watching this play, do not want times to be like 1912, so he used mr birling as a catalyst to project these negative views. Priestly id also saying that capitalists are also like Mr Birling, they all think they are correct, when infact they are far from it.
Moreover, the writer uses the dramatic quote about ''war'' to remind the trip new york, audience of what happens when certain individuals seek power for themselves rather than caring for others. A Business Case. His message is to services thesis encourage the people of 1945 to seize the opportunity the war had given them to build a better, more caring society. As Inspector Goole says, ''we are all members of for writing study one body'', dont you agree? Secondly, in 1912 it was uncommon to marry somebody out of your social class, Birling was aware that his family were slightly lower on the social scale than ''Crofts Limited''. However, he made sure that Gerald Croft was aware that he was soon to be added onto prompts personal, the ''honours'' list, so that the Crofts would not dismiss him. Even when the inspector left, Arthur did not show any sign or sorrow for Eva Smith, but he was rather more worried about study it ruining his reputation. He did not want it to essay friend become a ''public scandal''. Despite the fact that Geral Croft commited a sinful act against Mr Birlings daughter, Arthur still ''toasted'' with Gerald when he discovered Inspector Goole was a fraud. Arthur was so happy and relieved that it would not become a ''public scandal'' that he would even drink with someone who caused his daugher pain and distress. Alternitavley, the study, fact that he ''toasted'' with Gerald suggests that he still wants to trip hold a relationship with him because of his social status.
Arthur would use any excuse not to loose a bond with the son of ''Sir George Corft'', and not to template a business case loose the potential chance of going in buisness with the succesful ''Crofts Limited''. In 1912, witholding a relationship with a aristocrat meant that you could climb up the services thesis, social ladder, there would be no risk of a business case study going on the streets, Eva Smith's summer affair with Gerald Croft is a clear example of services thesis this. Priestlys purpose was to again, opress capitalists, and he used Mr Arthur Birling as a catalyst. Arthur was not willing to template case take responsiblity for his actions, but he infact only services thesis, cared about template for writing a business study how he would look to society. He does not care for people, or in oral test essay this case, his employees. Priestly used Mr Birling to represent capitalists. He is template a business case study, presenting the message that like Mr Birling, they are not willing to creative prompts personal change, and only care for themselves, not their supporters. As Mr Birling says '' a man has to look after himself''. As a reader, i do not empathise with Arthur Birling as he seems to template for writing a business study fail to connect with the writers message of fairness and humblesness. The author portrays him as a foolish character and inter essay, also uses dramatic irony that capitalists are the template case study, cause of diasaster such as war. Birling showed no remorse for a dead girl and even toasted with a adulterer.
However, Priestlys use of conveying arthur as a pompous, imprudent and search, imperious character allowed me to understand socialist views, and to for writing a business case study belive that we a''are all responsible'' for eachother, and that ''we are all members of friend one body''. Btw, it took me 2hours to write this! Any suggestions on how time saving techniques? span Follow 140 followers 13 badges Send a private message to Nirgilis. span Follow 14 followers 11 badges Send a private message to template for writing a business case study GetOverHere.
- Your quotes aren't consistently well-selected. Essay. What does 'public scandal' or 'honours' list add to what you're trying to template a business say? - Your clarity of expression sometimes needs working on. British. You describe Arthur as the 'leader of the contemptuous Birling family'. Contemptuous how? Are they contemptuous to the Inspector? To themselves? To the audience? Do you mean that the template for writing case study, Birling family are contemptuous, or that we look upon them in phd thesis a contemptuous way? Making this clear will make your argument stronger as you address how Priestley shapes meaning. - Never, never, NEVER, ask the a business case study, examiner a question, like when you say 'dont you agree?'.
The examiner has given you a question, so don't answer their question with a question. Your job is to inter search answer it. A lot of the exam is about jumping through the hoops that the for writing a business study, examiner has put in front of essay trees you. A Business Case Study. If you patronise them like that, there's a higher chance that they won't try to find that extra mark that could shift you a whole band. span Follow 0 followers 4 badges Send a private message to jamillatijani. A few critiques from an AS Lit student: - Your quotes aren't consistently well-selected. What does 'public scandal' or 'honours' list add to what you're trying to say? - Your clarity of phd thesis expression sometimes needs working on. Study. You describe Arthur as the 'leader of the contemptuous Birling family'.
Contemptuous how? Are they contemptuous to translation thesis the Inspector? To themselves? To the case study, audience? Do you mean that the search, Birling family are contemptuous, or that we look upon a business, them in a contemptuous way? Making this clear will make your argument stronger as you address how Priestley shapes meaning. - Never, never, NEVER, ask the examiner a question, like when you say 'dont you agree?'.
The examiner has given you a question, so don't answer their question with a question. Your job is to answer it. A lot of the exam is phd thesis, about jumping through the hoops that the for writing a business study, examiner has put in front of you. If you patronise them like that, there's a higher chance that they won't try to find that extra mark that could shift you a whole band. Thankyou so much! I guess i have got alot of improving to do! span Follow 14 followers 11 badges Send a private message to GetOverHere. Thankyou so much! I guess i have got alot of improving to do! span Follow 13 followers 2 badges Send a private message to Kiytt. You're welcome c: Well, sorta, but to be honest, you come up with some good points and interpretations which is oral test essay, good, it's just ensuring that you're relevant with what you say, and that you write it in a way that comes off as fluent and natural.
Remember, they're asking you to comment upon the writer's use of template a business study language and friend, structure, but they're also assessing yours. Template For Writing A Business Study. The better you write, the more impressed the examiners will be. Services Thesis. If you want, you could rewrite this question and I'll take a look at it, and tell you what I think you've done better? • Keep in template concise ; this will help you to write more in oral test essay the little time you're given. A Business. For example, writing not aware instead of writing personal narrative unaware is such a small change but can make a big difference! It'll also help your essay to flow better. • Analyse keywords ; the quotations you made on for writing a business study the whole were relevant and oral test essay, supported your point, but it's just as important to for writing a business pick out key words and talk about the type of essay word, its connotations and the effect it has. For example, the use of the case study, noun 'scandal' in your quotation public scandal has a different effect to the word 'misconduct', which could've been used instead. • Avoid repeating adjectives ; the adjectives you did use were impressive—however, you're going to trees our best need to template a business expand on your knowledge of synonyms to avoid sounding repetitive and give off the creative prompts personal narrative, impression that you're out of ideas. • Spelling ; it might be due to for writing study the fact you were typing quickly, but please make sure you spell correctly!
It makes such a huge difference, both to how coherent your essay is and the mark you'll get. Mr Birling is the father , and leader of the contemptuous Birling family. He is described by Priestly (Priestley) as a '' P ortentous'' man. Throughout the play, we see Arthur Birling being conveyed by the play write (playwright) as a rather pompous and translation services, injudicious character. For Writing A Business Study. He shows no remorse or concern for search essay his wrongful actions, unless they affect his social status. Birling is also portrayed as a defiant capitalist and extreamly (extremely) narrow minded (narrow-minded) . and humblesness.
The author portrays him as a foolish (selfish) character and case, also uses dramatic irony that capitalists are the cause of diasaster such as war. Birling (who) showed no remorse for a dead girl and even toasted with a adulterer. However, Priestlys (Priestley's) use of writing prompts narrative conveying (portrayal of) a rthur as a pompous, imprudent and template for writing case study, imperious character allowed me (causes us) to understand (gain insight into the) socialist views (perspective) , and to belive (believe) that we a ''are all responsible'' for our best english eachother (each other) , and that ''we are all members of one body''. span Follow 14 followers 11 badges Send a private message to GetOverHere. Hello fellow AS lit student! That's some good critique you gave, and I agree with all the points Just to add in template my few cents: • Keep in concise ; this will help you to write more in the little time you're given. For example, writing not aware instead of oral test essay unaware is such a small change but can make a big difference! It'll also help your essay to flow better.
• Analyse keywords ; the quotations you made on the whole were relevant and supported your point, but it's just as important to pick out key words and for writing, talk about the type of trip new york word, its connotations and case, the effect it has. For example, the oral test essay, use of the noun 'scandal' in for writing your quotation public scandal has a different effect to essay the word 'misconduct', which could've been used instead. • Avoid repeating adjectives ; the adjectives you did use were impressive—however, you're going to template for writing a business case need to expand on writing personal narrative your knowledge of template for writing synonyms to essay friend english avoid sounding repetitive and give off the impression that you're out of template for writing ideas. • Spelling ; it might be due to the fact you were typing quickly, but please make sure you spell correctly! It makes such a huge difference, both to how coherent your essay is and the mark you'll get. span Follow 13 followers 2 badges Send a private message to Kiytt. Thank you! I was feeling a little guilty because I thought I was being a tad mean, but thank you for search assuring me that you agree haha. Template For Writing Case. Those are also some very good points, you clearly have much more time on translation services your hands to go through and edit the essay xD. span Follow 14 followers 11 badges Send a private message to GetOverHere. Purely procrastination.
I have a psychology exam on Monday and I'm trying to for writing a business get my mind off it. span Follow 13 followers 2 badges Send a private message to Kiytt. Haha tough times for you, when you'd gladly edit an essay instead of services revise xD. Ahh fair enough, I just remember this extract from when I did it last year. What board and for writing a business case, course are you doing this year?
span Follow 0 followers 4 badges Send a private message to new york essay jamillatijani. You're welcome c: Well, sorta, but to a business case study be honest, you come up with some good points and interpretations which is good, it's just ensuring that you're relevant with what you say, and that you write it in a way that comes off as fluent and phd thesis, natural. Remember, they're asking you to comment upon the writer's use of language and structure, but they're also assessing yours. The better you write, the more impressed the examiners will be. If you want, you could rewrite this question and I'll take a look at it, and tell you what I think you've done better? span Follow 0 followers 4 badges Send a private message to template case jamillatijani. Hello fellow AS lit student! That's some good critique you gave, and I agree with all the services, points Just to template for writing add in my few cents: • Keep in essay friend english concise ; this will help you to study write more in the little time you're given. For example, writing not aware instead of translation thesis unaware is such a small change but can make a big difference! It'll also help your essay to flow better.
• Analyse keywords ; the quotations you made on the whole were relevant and template for writing case, supported your point, but it's just as important to oral test essay pick out key words and talk about the type of word, its connotations and case, the effect it has. For example, the phd thesis, use of the noun 'scandal' in your quotation public scandal has a different effect to the word 'misconduct', which could've been used instead. • Avoid repeating adjectives ; the adjectives you did use were impressive—however, you're going to need to expand on a business study your knowledge of synonyms to avoid sounding repetitive and give off the impression that you're out of ideas. • Spelling ; it might be due to services thesis the fact you were typing quickly, but please make sure you spell correctly! It makes such a huge difference, both to how coherent your essay is and the mark you'll get. span Follow 0 followers 4 badges Send a private message to jamillatijani. Purely procrastination. For Writing A Business Study. I have a psychology exam on essay Monday and I'm trying to template a business get my mind off it. span Follow 13 followers 2 badges Send a private message to oral test essay Kiytt. Also, what grade would you give this? span Follow 14 followers 11 badges Send a private message to for writing a business case study GetOverHere.
I'm doing OCR F661/F662, for poetry I'm doing Robert Browning and Henry James' ' The Turn of services The Screw ' for prose. How about you? span Follow 0 followers 1 badge Send a private message to theama. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to study ottokindaworks. Like many of trip new york you, i also have my english lit edexcel exam on for writing a business Monday , anyway, some people are saying that Mr Birling may be on trip essay the exam, so please can you mark this and for writing a business case study, give me feedback! Also, what else is most likely to come up? Priestly presents Mr Arthur Birling and a ignorant and foolish character with us use of writing prompts narrative Dramatic Irony. As Mr Birling was delivering his speech at his daughter, Sheila's engagement, he mentioned that the titanic, was ''unsinkable, absaloutley unsinkable''. As the play was written in 1945, we know that this bold statement is far from correct.
Instantly, Priestlys use of dramatic irony not only template for writing case study, proves that it is a mistaken view, but it allows the audience to essay understand that Arthur Birling is not wise, but infact a rather stupid and template study, injudicious character. Priestly is also conveying that Arthur is very narrow minded. He is only intrested in the present, and does not look to creative personal the future, Mr Birling does not have a open mind. Like most men at that time, they believed that nothing could change. Template For Writing A Business Case Study. They believed that the rich would always rule over the poor, that the labour ''cranks'' could never be a ruling government, and Arthur Birling represents these views. Moreover, Priestlys use of repetition on oral test essay the word ''unsinkable'' suggests that Mr Birling in certain that he is template for writing a business case study, correct, when infatc he is far from it, making him appear to be foolish. On the other hand, not only oral test essay, does Priestlys use of the infamous titanic make Arthur look stupid, but it is template a business case, also a symbol of arrogance. Our Best Friend English. The titanic was a ship for a business the rich aristocrats of 1912, those who thought they were the hierarchy of society, much like what Mr Birling would like to see himself as. So for essay priestly to use the titanic as a example suggests that Birling is also a arrogant and pompous chracter. Alternitavely,the dramatic quote ''unsinkable, absaloutley unsinkable'' is Priestly foreshadowing the Birlings sinking fate. Mr Birling is so certain that he knows about everything, yet he is not aware that soon he will have a mysterious visitor at template a business study, the door.
Also, the services thesis, play was set in template a business case study 1912, 2 years before the first world war, Priestly uses this small time frame to thesis display Arthur as a injudicious character. Priestly was aiming to use the post word war vulnerability of the template for writing a business study, audience to oral test essay opress capitalist views and a business study, project his socialist views. Oral Test Essay. In 1912, the for writing a business, rigid class and gender boundaries ensured that nothing would change, however by 1945, these divisions had been breached. The writer is aware that audience to services not want another war, and a business case, from watching this play, do not want times to be like 1912, so he used mr birling as a catalyst to project these negative views. Priestly id also saying that capitalists are also like Mr Birling, they all think they are correct, when infact they are far from it. Moreover, the writer uses the dramatic quote about ''war'' to remind the friend english, audience of what happens when certain individuals seek power for themselves rather than caring for others. His message is to template for writing a business case study encourage the people of 1945 to seize the opportunity the war had given them to build a better, more caring society. As Inspector Goole says, ''we are all members of one body'', dont you agree? Secondly, in oral test essay 1912 it was uncommon to marry somebody out of your social class, Birling was aware that his family were slightly lower on for writing case study the social scale than ''Crofts Limited''. However, he made sure that Gerald Croft was aware that he was soon to phd thesis be added onto the ''honours'' list, so that the Crofts would not dismiss him.
Even when the inspector left, Arthur did not show any sign or sorrow for template for writing study Eva Smith, but he was rather more worried about it ruining his reputation. Services. He did not want it to become a ''public scandal''. Despite the fact that Geral Croft commited a sinful act against Mr Birlings daughter, Arthur still ''toasted'' with Gerald when he discovered Inspector Goole was a fraud. Arthur was so happy and relieved that it would not become a ''public scandal'' that he would even drink with someone who caused his daugher pain and template case study, distress. Alternitavley, the fact that he ''toasted'' with Gerald suggests that he still wants to hold a relationship with him because of his social status. Creative Narrative. Arthur would use any excuse not to template case loose a bond with the prompts narrative, son of ''Sir George Corft'', and for writing, not to inter search loose the potential chance of going in buisness with the succesful ''Crofts Limited''.
In 1912, witholding a relationship with a aristocrat meant that you could climb up the social ladder, there would be no risk of going on template case study the streets, Eva Smith's summer affair with Gerald Croft is a clear example of this. Priestlys purpose was to again, opress capitalists, and he used Mr Arthur Birling as a catalyst. Arthur was not willing to take responsiblity for his actions, but he infact only creative prompts personal narrative, cared about how he would look to template a business society. He does not care for people, or in this case, his employees. Priestly used Mr Birling to represent capitalists.
He is presenting the search essay, message that like Mr Birling, they are not willing to change, and only care for themselves, not their supporters. As Mr Birling says '' a man has to look after himself''. As a reader, i do not empathise with Arthur Birling as he seems to template case fail to trip new york connect with the writers message of a business study fairness and essay friend, humblesness. Template For Writing A Business Study. The author portrays him as a foolish character and inter, also uses dramatic irony that capitalists are thsikhe cause of for writing a business diasaster such as war. Birling showed no remorse for services thesis a dead girl and even tarseoasted with a adulterer. However, bindiPriestlys use of conveying arthur as a pompous, imprudent and imperious character allowed me to study understand socialist views, and to belive that we a''are all responsible'' for eachother, and translation services, that ''we are all members of one body''.
Btw, it took me 2hours to for writing a business case study write this! Any suggestions on how time saving techniques? span Follow 0 followers 4 badges Send a private message to jamillatijani. Waaayyyyyyyy tooooooo loooonnnnngggggggg. Seriously, it should be like a third of that! span Follow 9 followers 2 badges Send a private message to Samistrawberry.
reallly!? i heard that to services thesis get a A* it needs to be 5-6 points. span Follow 0 followers 0 badges Send a private message to Terribletwins13. We have a brilliant team of more than 60 Support Team members looking after discussions on The Student Room, helping to make it a fun, safe and useful place to hang out. 0 new posts Ionic bonding - is my textbook incorrect Started by: xxNoodlezxx Forum: A-levels Replies: 6 Last post: 1 minute ago The Official University of East Anglia (UEA) Applicants Thread 2018 Started by: Doonesbury Forum: University of East Anglia (UEA) Replies: 17 Last post: 1 minute ago Universities give contradictory information?? Started by: quadruplepancake Forum: Applications, Clearing and a business, UCAS Replies: 5 Last post: 1 minute ago Ammeter between 2 branches parallel resistors Started by: alvan15 Forum: Physics Replies: 1 Last post: 1 minute ago The Official Cambridge Applicants 2018 Thread Started by: Banana00 Forum: University of Cambridge Replies: 2422 Last post: 2 minutes ago The Student Room meet up. Writing Prompts Narrative. Started by: Anonymous Forum: Advice on everyday issues Replies: 32 Last post: 2 minutes ago Mental Health Support Society XIX Started by: Sabertooth Forum: Mental health Replies: 259 Last post: 3 minutes ago Newcastle Medicine Partners Scheme 2018 entry Started by: hopefulmedic101 Forum: Medical Schools Replies: 50 Last post: 3 minutes ago Girls Vs Boys (Part 27) Started by: spotify95 Forum: Forum games Replies: 8002 Last post: 3 minutes ago Is it worth applying to Cambridge natural science with two science a levels? Started by: Student_17362929 Forum: University of Cambridge Replies: 1 Last post: 3 minutes ago A-Level Chemistry and Biology Youtube Channels? Started by: tlsp Forum: A-levels Replies: 1 Last post: 4 minutes ago CTAM: Count to a million (Part 16) Started by: spotify95 Forum: Forum games Replies: 5389 Last post: 4 minutes ago Dushman/Enemy Kill By+91-9660627641*(Muthkarni*)Black magic specialist molvi ji Started by: kkmssd158 Forum: Football Replies: 3 Last post: 5 minutes ago ukcat result and for writing a business case study, chocies of medical schools Started by: christineq Forum: Medicine Replies: 16 Last post: 5 minutes ago The Liverpool FC Thread XV Started by: Zerforax Forum: Football Replies: 5048 Last post: 6 minutes ago White men have committed more mass shootings than any other group Started by: zezno Forum: News and current affairs Replies: 33 Last post: 7 minutes ago cuberoot(3)cosx-sinx=1 Started by: AxSirlotl Forum: Maths Replies: 1 Last post: 8 minutes ago Girl is nice in person, ignores messages. Started by: Anonymous Forum: Relationships Replies: 45 Last post: 8 minutes ago How was your sleep last night ? Started by: 04MR17 Forum: Chat Replies: 156 Last post: 9 minutes ago Medicine at Glasgow vs Edinburgh?
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How to Write a Business Case 4 Steps …
12 Best Online Resume Builders Reviewed. Have you ever considered using an online resume builder to case study, create your resume? They can save you the time, blood, sweat, and tears that come with laying out a resume solo. That’s why using a professional resume builder online is an excellent choice for anyone who wants a nice looking resume fast. But which online resume builder should you choose? Well, that’s harder than it sounds. Some have amazing resume templates but cost an arm and british a leg. Others take a hand-holding approach and will virtually write your resume for you. This article reviews 14 of the best resume builders online. You can check out the prices, functionality, and template a business study the number of templates and features.
And that way, you can choose the one that best fits your needs. Translation Thesis? Uptowork is our online resume builder (here) . So, we aren’t going to review ourselves as that would be self-promotional. We won’t tell you that we’re awesome because our quick resume builder is easy to use. We will skip the part where we say we provide you with lots of tips and template case study the best resume templates. No. Instead, we will just encourage you to see for writing prompts personal narrative, yourself. Go ahead.
Try out for writing a business our professional resume builder online. Here’s an example of what our easy resume builder is capable of: Starter Version $4.99 for search essay, 30 days non-recurring payment Premium Version $9.99 for for writing case, 30 days non-recurring payment. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Yes - can match your cover letter to every available resume builder template. You can make your resume on Resumonk’s online resume builder either for free or for a yearly fee of $19.
That makes it one of the cheapest CV makers at just over trees, $1.50 a month. You can move resume format sections around as you see fit and for writing a business use the writing tips inside the translation services thesis, platform. Template Case? The premium plan comes with resume tracking, unlimited PDF downloads, and a cover letter builder. Free Version (4 branded templates) Premium Version $19 per year full features Lifetime Version $59 one time payment full features for life. Number of british Professional Resume Templates. Pro: The professional CV builder has an easy-to-use interface. Template A Business Case? Resumonk has built tips into the platform so you don’t have to leave the page. Con: Using the resume builder for free means getting branded resume builder templates and the ability to download your resume format as a PDF.
SlashCV is a free online resume builder with 28 basic, pre-designed PDF templates. Once you’ve created your resume, you can export it to search, Dropbox so that it’s easy to save and send. The free resume builder is minimalistic with no fuss and no extras - you put in a business study, your information and it spits out oral test essay a resume. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: If you’re looking for a resume builder free download with no bells and whistles, this is study it. Trip? SlashCV is scaled-down and for writing a business case has slashed its online resume builder down to the basics. Con: A lot of features don’t exist here. Phd Thesis? There is no cover letter builder, no tracking, no tips if you get stuck, and no fancy templates. If you’re not sure how to build a resume on a business study your own, this platform might not be for you.
To start, you have the trip new york essay, option to import your Word or LinkedIn resume. Or you can choose a pre-written resume from template for writing a business study your field. Or maybe you’re feeling like a boss? Well, you can also import and overwrite Richard Branson or Sheryl Sandberg’s resume. After working on the resume builder template, you can save, share, and track your resume to see how many views it gets.
Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: There is an option to get free feedback on your resume before you share it. Thesis? You can also export your resume as a Google Doc or pay for personal domain name inside the platform. Con: There are no tips inside this online resume maker. For Writing A Business Case? You can see full resume samples, but there is no guidance on how to create a resume for yourself. Trees Our Best Friend English? Cvmaker gives you two choices. A basic text editor for free, giving you a printable resume template.
Here you have the option to move sections, add sections, and add your information with no fuss. Or a paid version that upgrades you to a more advanced rich text editor with more fonts and a business case colors. Once you’re finished you can download your resume as a PDF, TXT, or HTML document. Services Thesis? So, it’s a choice between color or ‘my resume woke up like this.’ Number of Professional Resume Templates. Template For Writing A Business Case Study? Pro: Cvmaker is services a simple, free tool that saves you from for writing case choosing a resume format . If your sole reason for trip new york, using an for writing case study, online CV builder is to new york, avoid making margins in Word, Cvmaker has you covered. Con: There are no tips inside this online resume generator so you’re on your own. Cvmaker also adds a pre-packaged reference section that you can’t delete.
It comes complete with the phrase “References available upon template a business study request.” (You can delete the phrase.) When it comes to inter search essay, what you should put on your resume , lose the reference section and this phrase. You can tell that a lot of design work has gone into Resumup’s templates. Using creative resume builder templates is a way of template a business making your resume unique. Creative Prompts Personal? Much like putting hobbies and interests on your resume to show that your personality is a good fit for template a business study, a company. The functionality of the essay, online resume builder changes depending on which template you choose. Some templates allow you to case study, fill in blanks and others don’t.
With Resumup, it’s important to get attached to a resume builder template. After all, that’s what you’re buying here. Free Version (2 templates Facebook and Plain Text for Notepad) 1 Template for 1 Month $15 for 1 month access to 1 template 1 Template for 1 Year $6 per month ($72 per year) Any Template for creative prompts personal narrative, 1 Month $20 for template a business study, 1 month for access to any template Any Template for a Year $8 per trip essay, month at ($96 per for writing, year) Lifetime Plan $149 for lifetime access to any template. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Two templates are free. They include a Facebook ad and inter essay an ATS-friendly plain text version of your resume for Notepad. There are no free resume builder templates that download as regular documents. Most templates make you upgrade to add basic sections like skills or achievements. For Writing A Business? Premium version only.
Not for all resume builder templates. Pro: The CV creator has a lot of fancy templates including an inter search, infographic template. A lot of them are also mobile friendly. So, if you want a resume that stands out, you’ve got options. Con: A lot of these resumes have heavy design elements. That means they are not all fill-in-the-blank deals like everything else on the Internet. It’s best if you’re savvy at manipulating graphics. Otherwise, you may find the functionality on template for writing this online CV builder a bit challenging. 7. Resume Genius and Resume Companion. The Resume Genius and services Resume Companion online resume builders are the same, with minor branding and template a business case study template differences. Choose a resume builder template to get started.
The easy resume builder will give you instructions on how to fill in new york, each blank space. You pay at the end before downloading your resume. You’ll want to be careful. Resume Genius and Resume Companion will charge you full price after the 14-day trial run. 14-day Access $1.95 for 14 days which self-renews to $39.95 per month ($479.40 a year) Annual Payment $95.40 a year ($7.95 per month) Number of Professional Resume Templates.
Pro: The easy resume builder gives you prompts and tips as you go along so you know what to put in each space. It also gives you pre-written responsibilities matched with “job keywords” that you choose. Con: You can’t leave fields blank when you’re working on a section. The resume wizard will prompt you to fill them in before allowing you to move to the next section. So, you shall not pass without filling in the blanks. Resumebuilder will onboard you by asking for your field, title, and level of expertise. Much like the Myperfectresume platform. Once you’ve done that, you have to log in using either your email, Facebook, or Google+ details. Yes, they’ve integrated Resumebuilder with Google+. This is for writing case study another online resume builder where you can’t leave fields blank. The resume generator will prompt you to fill them in before allowing you to move to the next section.
Number of Professional Resume Templates. Free: None Paid: 28 paid templates in new york essay, different colors (only 3 with text aligned left) Pro: The online resume maker includes tips. You can also find pre-written responsibilities if you do not want to write your resume on your own. The resume generator is template a business great for Google + enthusiasts, who can log in with their account. Con: The CV builder asks for a lot of information. It does not let you move forward until you’ve filled in all blanks with information.
So, if you get writer’s block, prepare yourself for a locked room experience. Prompts Narrative? Resume Baking - “ a resume builder that’s easy as pie .” This is a free resume builder, and it’s the only free online resume builder accompanied by template a business case study a free cover letter builder. You can import information from LinkedIn and inter essay Facebook. The sections are easy to move around (drag and drop) and template case fill in, but there are no tips inside the CV creator. British? Instead, there are lots of resume samples, objectives, and cover letters. You choose your template at the end. You can share your resume across various social media (Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Google+).
The site will tell you how many views your resume has. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: Resume Baking is the only free resume builder online that lets you write cover letters. It also lets you download your resume, track your resume, and conduct a job search. For Writing Case? The CV maker has examples for job seekers who struggle with how to write a resume objective or how to make a cover letter . Translation Thesis? Con: The resume builder templates use colors, fonts, and layouts that may not be appropriate. Template For Writing Case Study? Try to match modern resume templates with the type of job. Pair more traditional resume builder templates with traditional jobs and creative resume templates with creative jobs.
Starting from the dashboard, you’ve got the option to create a cover letter or a new resume. Translation? The cover letter is already written for you. All you have to do is fill in the blanks if you don’t want to a business case, try writing your own. Inter Search Essay? The easy resume builder is straightforward and for writing study provides you with tips. Once you’re ready to publish, you can pay for a proofreading service. You also need to pay to print, send, or export your resume as a PDF or Word document.
Free Version Plain Text only downloaded to Notepad 7-day Access $5.95 for creative writing prompts, 7 days access self-renews to $29.95 per month. For Writing A Business? Proofreading Service $38 and includes 7 day access to phd thesis, download your resume. Number of template for writing Professional Resume Templates. Pro: The easy resume builder’s functionality is straightforward. Once you’re done, you can save your resume as a PDF and as a Word doc. Oral Test Essay? Tou can request proofreading services if you want a real person to check your resume for you.
Con: The trial period for access to the premium version is a week shorter than it is on template for writing case study other online resume builders. That means you have less time to access your resume or create alternative versions. Translation? Enhancv will assign you a resume builder template based on your field and experience. You can’t choose your own adventure here. It is good about showing you what’s locked until you upgrade. So, you can see what’s on offer and not choose it by accident. For Writing A Business? The upgrade includes new colors, backgrounds, icons, and fonts. Essay Trees Our Best Friend? The idea is to for writing case, let you can enhance your CV as much as you want. Free Version You can test drive unlocked features and download resumes for one month for services thesis, free. Premium Version $14.90 per month ($178.80 for a year) Annual Version $11.92 per month for a year ($143.04 for a year) Student Rates $2.90 per month annually ($34.80 for a year) Number of Professional Resume Templates. One template with 2 unlocked layouts and one locked layout.
Pro: Enhancv will soon add an option to template a business, customize your resume to individual jobs. That way, you can tailor your resume to creative writing narrative, specific jobs inside the resume creator. Another nice touch is a video that you can watch before buying a package that shows you premium perks. Enhancv is template a business a good resume builder for students as it is the only one on prompts personal this list that offers student rates. A Business Study? Con: You only have one pre-assigned resume builder template. If you don’t upgrade your account, you get a branded version. Trip Essay? Kickresume kicks out the registration information. It spares you by giving you immediate access to the online resume builder. You choose your resume builder template and get started.
You have the ability to chat with assistants in for writing case, real-time as you go. Search? Also, if you’re into details, notice the witty John Snow and Jane Vader template mockups. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: One of the only resume creators on the list that has a proofreading service. It will cost you around 20 bucks but it’s always a good idea to have an actual person proofread your resume. Con: There are only five cover letter templates. So, choosing a fancier resume builder template means that you might not find a cover letter that matches. Choosing an for writing a business study, online resume builder format is british phd thesis all about finding one that feels comfortable. The one thing to keep in mind is that not all CV templates are good for for writing study, all jobs.
You may find lots of great resume templates, but you will need to decide if they’re going to help or hurt your chances of landing an interview. But if you’re interested in saving yourself time and frustration an online resume builder is a handy tool. One that can provide you with a neat and presentable resume in no time flat. Not sure how to match the search, design of your template to your profession? We can help! Let us know your most pressing template questions in the comments, and template for writing a business we will help you figure out how to choose the best one. Oral Test Essay? Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.
She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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coa resume builder Ancora imparo -- Michelangelo Buonarroti. (I am still learning) What information consumes is rather obvious: it consumes the attention of template for writing its recipients. Hence a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention, and a need to phd thesis allocate that attention efficiently among the overabundance of template for writing a business study information sources that might consume it. The nation that makes a great distinction between its scholars and its warriors. will have its thinking done by cowards and its fighting done by fools. Fantasy, abandoned by reason, produces impossible monsters; united with it, she is the mother of the arts and the origin of marvels. When a task cannot be partitioned because of sequential constraints, the translation thesis, application of more effort has no effect on template a business case the schedule. The bearing of a child takes nine months, no matter how many women are assigned. — Frederick P. Oral Test Essay? Brooks, Jr., The Mythical Man-Month.
Some ideas are so stupid that only intellectuals could believe them. Intelligence is like a four-wheel drive. It allows you to get stuck in more remote places. Do one thing every day that scares you. My ability to keep cool in a crisis is based entirely on study not knowing all the inter search, facts. The one common experience of template for writing a business case study all humanity is the challenge of search essay problems. — R. Buckminster Fuller. The intuitive mind is a sacred gift and the rational mind is template for writing a business case, a faithful servant. We have created a society that honors the servant and has forgotten the gift.
The development of general ability for independent thinking and judgment should always be placed foremost, not the acquisition of special knowledge. It a person masters the fundamentals of his subject and has learned to think and work independently, he will surely find his way and besides will better be able to adapt himself to progress and oral test essay, changes than the person whose training principally consists in the acquiring of detailed knowledge. — Albert Einstein, in Ideas and Opinions , p. Template A Business? 62. It is not enough to teach a man a speciality. Through it he may become a kind of useful machine but not a harmoniously developed personality.
It is essential that the trip essay, student acquire an understanding of and a lively feeling for values. He must acquire a vivid sense of the beautiful and of the for writing a business case, morally good. Otherwise he – with his specialized knowledge – more closely resembles a well trained dog than a harmoniously developed person. He must learn to understand the motives of human beings, their illusions, and their sufferings in order to acquire a proper relationship to the individual fellow-men and to creative writing prompts personal the community…Overemphasis on the competitive system and premature specialization on the ground of immediate usefulness kill the spirit on study which all cultural life depends, specialized knowledge included. It is also vital to a valuable education that independent critical thinking be developed in the young human being, a development that is greatly jeopardized by overburdening him with too much and with too varied subjects. Overburdening necessarily leads to superficiality.
— Albert Einstein, in Ideas and Opinions , p. Oral Test Essay? 66-67. Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and template for writing study, knowledge without integrity is translation thesis, dangerous and dreadful. Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information upon it. Iron rusts from template study disuse, stagnant water loses its purity and in narrative cold weather becomes frozen; so does inaction sap the vigors of the mind. — Leonardo da Vinci. Thinking is the hardest work there is, which is the probable reason why so few engage in a business case study it.
In the field of observation, chance favors the prepared mind. We shall not cease from exploration, and the end of all our exploring will be to arrive where we started and know the place for the first time. The other terror that scares us from new york self-trust is our consistency; a reverence for template case our past act or word, because the trees our best, eyes of others have no other data for computing our orbit than our past acts, and for writing case, we are loath to disappoint them. A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds, adored by creative little statesmen and philosophers and divines. With consistency a great soul has simply nothing to do. He may as well concern himself with his shadow on the wall. Speak what you think now in hard words, and to-morrow speak what to-morrow thinks in hard words again, though it contradict every thing you said to-day. — 'Ah, so you shall be sure to be misunderstood.' — Is it so bad, then, to be misunderstood?
Pythagoras was misunderstood, and Socrates, and template for writing a business case, Jesus, and Luther, and Copernicus, and Galileo, and Newton, and every pure and wise spirit that ever took flesh. To be great is to be misunderstood. — Ralph Waldo Emerson, in trip his essay “Self-Reliance” How to Do Research, briefing by Grant Hammond, USAF Center for Strategy and Technology (CSAT) Analogy as the case, Core of Cognition, by Hofstadter, 2006 Stanford Presidential lecture and a text by Hofstadter from The Analogical Mind: Perspectives from Cognitive Science , by trees our best Gentner et al, MIT Press, 2001 interesting and entertaining pieces on analogy, human cognition, and communicating within a language/culture group -- much of it very applicable to teaching and learning. How We Think: Thinking Critically and Creatively and How Military Professionals Can Do it Better, by McConnell et al, in Small Wars Journal , 16 Sep 2011 This essay will summarize how cognitive theorists have described critical and creative thinking in general, and how some military practitioners have applied them. Template Case Study? In doing so, this essay will propose principles of new york critical and creative thinking applicable to the military profession to provide a common vocabulary that describes the type of thinking we do. Template For Writing A Business Case Study? To expand and improve critical and new york essay, creative thinking, military professionals need a common vocabulary that accurately describes the very thinking we are to expand and template for writing a business case, improve on. Critical Thinking and inter search essay, Intelligence Analysis ( local copy, 1.4 Mb low res ), by Moore, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC) occasional paper no.
14, March 2007 ( local copy, 12.1 Mb high res ) - includes generic and intel-specific discussion, as well as an appendix which is the NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus - incudes plans for 10 classes, as well as a template for summarizing articles/readings. -- very good examination of many elements of critical thinking, with examples ( PDF version ) Check out template for writing a business case study Part III - Cognitive Biases. How to Do Research, briefing by Grant Hammond, USAF Center for Strategy and Technology (CSAT) UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the essay, Red Team Handbook), v. 8.1, Sep 2016 ( local copy ) We educate people to develop a disposition of curiosity, and help them become aware of template a business case biases and behavior that prevent them from real positive change in the ways they seek solutions and engage others. UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the trip essay, Red Team Handbook), v. 7.0, Jan 2015 ( local copy ) Our methods and education involve more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. We believe that good decision processes are essential to good outcomes. A Business? To that end, our curriculum is rich in divergent processes, red teaming tools, and trip new york essay, liberating structures, all aimed at decision support.
UFMCS Red Team Handbook, Apr 2012 ( local copy ) Each section can almost stand alone, and Section XI – Structured Analytic Techniques – has a large variety of tools/techniques for overcoming “mind-sets” – including “9 Step Cultural Methodology” and “String of Pearls” tool and “Analysis of template study Competing Hypotheses” and a passel of phd thesis others. Action Learning Guide ( local copy ), from Presidential Management Fellows (PMF), posted by OPM - check especially the template study, appendices for items/tools such as inference ladder, four frames, conflict management, stakeholder mapping, force field analysis, and more. Mind Tools, a GOOD site for quick pass at a whole slew of writing prompts narrative stuff -- problem solving, analysis, memory improvement, creativity, stress management, time management, planning skills, comm skills, improved reading skills, shareware tools Mind Tools, site map showing all the options. Peirce, Pragmatism, and The Right Way of Thinking ( local copy ), by Campbell, Sandia National Labs, Aug 2011 Peirce is known as the founder of the philosophy of pragmatism and template for writing a business case, these lectures, given near the end of his life, represent his mature thoughts on the philosophy. Peirce’s decomposition of thinking into abduction, deduction, and induction is among the trip new york, important points in the lectures. and not everything that counts can be counted. Nine-tenths of tactics are certain and taught in the books; but, the irrational tenth is like the kingfisher flashing across the for writing a business case study, pool.
This is the test of generals. Success can only be ensured by instinct sharpened by thought. At the crisis, it is as natural as a reflex. — T. Trees? E. Study? Lawrence, in essay The Science of Guerilla Warfare. The nation that makes a great distinction between its scholars and template case study, its warriors. will have its thinking done by new york essay cowards and template case, its fighting done by fools. See also the essay english, strategic corporal and template case study, the three-block war regarding the need for strategic thinking at all levels in today's and essay, tomorrow's conflicts The lines separating the levels of war, and distinguishing combatant from non-combatant, will blur, and adversaries, confounded by our conventional superiority, will resort to asymmetrical means to redress the imbalance.
Further complicating the situation will be the ubiquitous media whose presence will mean that all future conflicts will be acted out before an template study, international audience. [Krulak] The perils of bad strategy, by Rumelt, in the McKinsey Quarterly , (2011, 1) Another sign of bad strategy is fuzzy strategic objectives. One form this problem can take is british, a scrambled mess of things to accomplish—a dog’s dinner of template for writing case goals. A long list of things to oral test essay do, often mislabeled as strategies or objectives, is not a strategy. It is just a list of things to do. Such lists usually grow out of planning meetings in which a wide variety of stakeholders suggest things they would like to template case study see accomplished. Rather than focus on trees a few important items, the group sweeps the whole day’s collection into a business, the strategic plan. Then, in recognition that it is a dog’s dinner, the label “long term” is added, implying that none of thesis these things need be done today.
Bad strategy has many roots, but I’ll focus on two here: the inability to choose and template-style planning—filling in the blanks with “vision, mission, values, strategies.” Developing Air Force Strategists: Change Culture, Reverse Careerism ( local copy ), by Bethel et al, Joint Force Quarterly , 3rd Quarter 2010 How we got to the point where our best and brightest are able to offer only template a business study tired and uncreative strategies is not as important as what we need to do now. We must develop, nurture, and promote strategic thinkers. We define strategic thinkers as those officers who understand the inherent linkages between the abstract and concrete, between thinking and doing, and who eschew old checklists for new ideas and apply those ideas to potential future situations. The Air Force should seek out our best those officers who have a balanced brain—those who can not only intuit well and rapidly, but who also understand when it may be necessary to look for theories that can be generalized. Instead, the Service teaches “people, processes, and for writing a business case study, products” that make up the Air Operations Center at its command and staff college. There is no career path for strategists or strategic thinkers, and essay friend, indeed there appears to be a trend away from intellectualism. Rather than disdaining intellectualism, senior leaders should be encouraged to read recent scholarship on strategic decisionmaking and ask themselves if they can learn something there.
In addition to the long list of histories of command and leadership, Air Force senior leaders should have to read Scott Page’s The Difference , Malcolm Gladwell’s Blink and Outliers , James Surowiecki’s The Wisdom of Crowds , and template for writing a business case study, most importantly, Alec Fisher’s The Logic of Real Arguments . Phd Thesis? The balance between Gladwell and Surowiecki should be lessons that all senior officers learn en route to becoming strategists. Giovanni Gavetti and Jan Rivkin, in How Strategists Really Think , tell us that one of the template case study, greatest mistakes leaders make is applying the wrong experiential analogies to the situation at hand. In today’s military, senior leaders disdain empirical evidence for “gut-based” decisions made quickly in trip essay high-visibility situations. Template For Writing A Business Case? As Watts mentions, too many of our leaders go on experience and apply lessons from the past to the problem at hand. Phd Thesis? The current problem, however, is rarely like any they previously faced; thus, the lessons they bring forward are not relevant. Experience is important, but for for writing study senior leadership we should seek out those who can adapt to the situation no matter what it is. Effective strategists also use academic and intellectual rigor en route to solving problems—not just effective gut-checking. Creative Writing Prompts Personal? We mentioned earlier the trend toward relying on experience rather than critical thinking and inductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning is not hard merely for military officers, but for almost everyone.
In Taleb’s The Black Swan , he argues that because humans rely so much on past experience, they cannot conceive of a situation that has not happened before. Inductive reasoning is only one attribute of successful strategists. They must also exhibit: creativity curiosity confidence high intelligence without subject fixation ability to collate and make sense out of massive amounts of data great and diverse intellect thorough knowledge of the means intuitive understanding of the ends. We place creativity at for writing case the top because crafting strategies, like war itself, is an art. We posit that educating an officer to be a strategist is for naught if the creative personal, first four traits are not present. We must demand more of our officers—not in template for writing terms of time or energy (most give more than their fair share whether they have it or not), but in terms of how they think . Let us be clear on one point: deductive thinking is required in campaign planning and in creative writing narrative airpower theory, especially when it comes to establishing quantifiable metrics and template for writing a business case study, measuring against them. Pressed up against the realities of war, deductive thinkers do a great job killing the enemy, but it is british, inductive thinkers who master how to discourage enemy forces from wanting to continue to fight. Template? And it is inductive thinkers who are best able to personal determine how to template a business case achieve victory on a variety of battlefields against innumerable conflicts and challenges. The metrics to phd thesis measure each are very different. One is an empirical count while the other cannot be measured. Research, Writing, and the Mind of the Strategist ( local copy ), by Foster, in case Joint Force Quarterly , Spring 1996 Ideas and the ability to generate them seem increasingly likely, in fact, to be more important than weapons, economic potential, diplomatic acumen, or technological advantage in determining who exercises global leadership and enjoys superpower status.
Thus it is imperative to trip develop, nurture, and engage strategic thinkers at template a business all levels—critical, creative, broadgauged visionaries with the intellect to search dissect the status quo, grasp the for writing study, big picture, discern important relationships among events, generate imaginative possibilities for action, and prompts narrative, operate easily in template for writing a business case the conceptual realm. Almost by definition, strategic thinkers are broadly educated, not narrowly trained. Inter Search Essay? They seek not simply direction but to grapple with the underlying questions of whether, why, and template for writing study, what if. A broad-based education expands—and fuels the self-guided growth of—one’s horizons. It develops the intellect and creative writing prompts, inculcates the spirit of inquiry for a lifelong pursuit of for writing case learning. The measure of education, far from being the level or even the sum of formal schooling, rests more in the degree of trees our best friend open-mindedness and active mental engagement it engenders. Keeping the Strategic Flame ( local copy ), by Builder, in Joint Force Quarterly , Winter 1996-97 The current demand by the military for welldefined objectives is eloquent evidence of for writing a business case how far our thinking has drifted toward the oral test essay, tactical domain. The insistence on operationally planning based on enemy capabilities, while tactically prudent, is the antithesis of a business case study strategic thinking, which should concentrate on enemy vulnerabilities. Although defeating enemy forces may sometimes be necessary to achieve our objectives, it is not always the Nation’s or the military’s best option. Charting the Course for Effective Professional Military Education - 10 Sep 09 testimony before the House Armed Services Committee - local copies of transcripts below Lieutenant General Dave Barno, USA (ret.) - Director, Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies Given the inter, notable shortcomings many ascribe to U.S. For Writing Case Study? strategic thinking over essay the last decade -- some deeply involving senior military leaders -- we must seriously question whether our program of PME today is on the right track.
In my estimation, we are drifting off course, and template for writing case, if uncorrected, our marked advantage in the intellectual capital of warfare, in the face of an inter, increasingly uncertain future, is at risk. Thus, for almost all senior officers -- all our generals and admirals -- the final fifteen to twenty years of their career is almost entirely largely lacking in extended developmental experiences. This fact becomes more troubling when correlated with the reality that decision-making and complexity at study the senior levels -- especially regarding strategic and grand strategic issues -- is immensely more complex and uncertain than the relatively simpler worlds of tactics and operations. So-called wicked problems unresponsive to set-piece solutions abound. Dr. Williamson Murray - Senior Fellow, Institute for Defense Analyses The cost of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan suggests that the United States can no longer afford an approach resting on oral test essay the comfortable assumption that commanders can acquire skills on the fly to deal with the new and template, different complexities that each conflict will bring in its wake. As General James Mattis suggested in an email to a professor at National War College, “We have been fighting on this planet for 5,000 years and we should take advantage of that experience. ‘Winging it’ and filling body bags as we sort out what works reminds us of the new york, moral dictates and a business case study, the cost of competence in our profession.” The depressing story of new york essay our flawed efforts to handle a burgeoning insurgency during the post-invasion period in case Iraq suggests that too many senior officers had never studied the lessons of Vietnam, much less the british, experiences of the template for writing, British in their efforts to defeat the 1920 insurgency in Iraq. Dr.
John Allen Williams - President, Inter-University Seminar on the Armed Forces and Society Given the complexity of the future threat environment and the importance of the issues involved – military threats and the proper relation between the military and the society it serves –the Skelton Report’s call for creative writing prompts narrative the development of strategists and the encouragement of strategic thinking is case study, increasingly relevant. One should note that these are not quite the same thing. Only a small number of officers will develop into strategists of the first rank, but these are so important that the PME system must do as much as it can to translation services encourage them to develop their talents to the maximum degree possible. Prospects for Strategic Thinking and Innovation: a Survey of War College Students ( local copy ), by case study Snow, Army War College, 15 Mar 2006 The survey reveals room for improvement in current levels of dialogue, critical, innovative and strategic thinking. Unless changed, the current time and resource constraints will likely frustrate deep thinkers, stifle the creative and hinder the inter essay, process of organizational learning and adaptation. The goal of achieving advantage through transformational processes is at risk.
Learning from the Stones: a Go Approach to Mastering China's Strategic Concept, Shi ( local copy ), by Lai, Strategic Studies Institute, May 2004 The author introduces a new approach to template a business case learning about the friend, different ways of strategic thinking and interaction in Chinese culture. For Writing Case Study? It is through learning the british phd thesis, Chinese board game called go . A Business? This game is a living reflection of inter search essay Chinese philosophy, culture, strategic thinking, warfare, military tactics, and diplomatic bargaining. The author also sheds light on the remarkable connection between go and the strategic concepts in Sun Tzu’s Art of War . A modest claim is template a business study, made in this writing that a little knowledge of go will take U.S. leaders a long way in understanding the british, essence of the Chinese way of war and diplomacy. Strategic Thinking chapter from Strategic Leadership and Decision Making , from National Defense University A leader can develop more effective strategic thinking skills. This is done by exploiting any opportunity to better understand yourself, how you think about complex problems, and how to go about a business making decisions. This understanding of oral test essay yourself is critical, since this information that forms the foundation for developing your strategic thinking capabilities necessary in the strategic environment. The more you understand yourself, the more control you have over both the process, and the products you produce.
Virtually all of you will be required to serve in template for writing a business case strategic environments. Essay Our Best Friend English? This means there will be many opportunities for you to function as a strategic thinker or advisor. You must, therefore, continue to template case study develop a new and broader set of thinking skills. The SLDM course, and the overall ICAF experience have been designed to trees our best help you understand and develop effective strategic thinking skills to solve the complex, fast changing, unstructured problems you will soon encounter. Attack by Stratagem, from The Art of War , by Sun Tzu Hence to template a business case study fight and conquer in all your battles is our best friend english, not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy's resistance without fighting. Hence the saying: If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle. Disruptive Thinking Disruptive Thinking and how the iPad changed Close Air Support in Afghanistan, by Christman, for Small Wars Journal , 15 May 2012 uses an template for writing a business case study, example of an inter search essay, Army captain giving his Cobra helicopter a moving GPS map function, using an iPad I would argue the template a business case, Marine Corps is search, going to need more of these types of Marines as we enter the for writing case, next 10-15 years of search fiscal austerity. As is often quoted, “we’re out of money, its time to think”.
We as Marines, especially the Staff NCOs and company grade officers, need to template case do better at taking responsibility for our own organization. The following are some ideas of how Disruptive Thinkers can be more effective. [ed. - all are expanded in the article] Be a Disruptive Doer, not just a Disruptive Thinker. Be ready for a bureaucratic knife fight. Don’t forget that the Marine Corps is a warfighting institution, not a think tank. Sometimes you can do more good outside of the military. Search? With that being said, some responsibility does lie on for writing case leadership. Translation Thesis? We do a very poor job at leveraging our best minds and our most talented leaders. The Marine Corps leadership can change this in several different ways: Bring “centralized command, decentralized control” back to the Marine Corps. Innovation is often a bottom up process, where those closest to the fight have the for writing a business case, best solutions. Personal? Giving subordinate commanders flexibility to make these decisions will allow the for writing, most creative junior leaders to search develop innovative solutions to existing problems.
Strive to keep the best and brightest officers and SNCOs in the Marine Corps. . If you want effective Colonels and Generals you need to keep effective Lieutenants and Captains. Disruptive Thinkers: Defining the Problem, by Munson, for Small Wars Journal , 9 Apr 2012 - response to and expansion of the Kohlmann article above. Matt Ridley: When ideas have sex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) At TEDGlobal 2010, author Matt Ridley shows how, throughout history, the engine of human progress has been the for writing a business, meeting and personal, mating of for writing ideas to make new ideas. It's not important how clever individuals are, he says; what really matters is how smart the collective brain is. Matt Ridley argues that, through history, the trip new york, engine of human progress and prosperity has been, and is, ideas having sex with each other. Riley Crane: Crowdsource win - 17 minute video - a Pop Tech Talk Riley Crane, a postdoctoral fellow at the MIT Media Lab, found out about the DARPA Red Balloon Challenge four days before it started (find ten balloons placed in ten different locations around the country). Four days, eight hours, and template a business case, 52 minutes later his team had won the competition. Watch him talk about writing how they did it and the challenges they encountered in template for writing a business case the process. He also talks about other uses of the techniques - including rescues in translation services thesis Haiti - and about how our communication paradigms are broken and a business case study, how they need to translation change. Capturing the for writing a business, Potential of Outlier Ideas in the Intelligence Community ( local copy ), by Watts and Brennan, in Studies in creative personal narrative Intelligence Vol.
55, No. 4, Dec 2011 What are outliers in template the context of the intelligence profession? Outliers are data and hypotheses that analysts may too quickly dismiss. They may be the imaginative, even prescient analyses policymakers cannot bring themselves to believe. Intelligence analysts generally possess healthy doses of skepticism to writing prompts narrative help them avoid the pitfalls of hubris and self-delusion, but, sadly, this is insufficient, for the outliers that ultimately prove to be the seeds of surprise are outlandish, unthinkable, and a business case study, wholly anomalous. Building a Wise Crowd ( local copy ), based on James Surowiecki's bestseller The Wisdom of Crowds , from Ask the translation services thesis, Academy at for writing a business case study NASA Academy, 24 Feb 2006 - showing how a group of people's diverse answers to a question, when put together, can be better than the expert's - in some cases, not all Surowiecki identifies four characteristics of wise crowds: The crowd must be diverse, which allows the individual members to bring different pieces of relevant information to the table. It needs to be decentralized so that no individual member is dictating what the british phd thesis, answer should be. Template For Writing A Business Case? It needs a mechanism for distilling the trees, group’s opinion into a collective verdict. The individual crowd members have to be independent, so they remain true to their own information and perspective while not worrying about what the for writing study, other members of the creative prompts narrative, group think of template for writing them. Surowiecki explains: The paradox of the wisdom of creative crowds is that the best group decisions come from lots of a business case study independent individual decisions.
Wikiwar – Where Campaign Design Unite With The Wisdom Of Crowds ( local copy ), by Demers, USMC Command and Staff College – School of Advanced Warfighting (SAW), 2008 We live in an interconnected world where information is becoming the currency of the realm. Phd Thesis? According to UC Berkeley School of template a business case Information we produce more than 550,000 Terabytes of data each year and our current adversaries are leveraging this wealth of information into concrete operational advantages better then we can. By shying away from traditional operational security principles and essay our best, moving to what could be described as open source warfare, they can adapt more quickly to a given situation. A striking example of open source can be found in the Iraqi insurgency. It took only 12 months to reach (and surpass) capabilities for the deployment of the full spectrum of IEDs in Iraq that took over 30 years for the IRA to achieve under more rigorous operational security (OPSEC) conditions in case Ulster. This paper will propose that a concept of open source warfare will be far more effective in supporting a campaign design methodology during complex emergencies as opposed to the traditional compartmentalized approach favoured in today’s military planning process. Creative Prompts Personal Narrative? First of all, we will look where this concept can be employed and why it would work. Having identified where open source can be useful for template the military, we will turn our attention to the need of changing our understanding of OPSEC.
Finally, we will propose an open source planning model which will allow us to oral test essay better leverage information during campaign design and execution. Universal Access to and Use of Information ( local copy ), from FEMA-sponsored Strategic Foresight Initiative , May 2011 In the last decade, technological advances in for writing a business study both computer hardware and oral test essay, software have greatly enhanced people?s access to and use of information, particularly via the internet and for writing case, mobile devices. Based on this capability and essay english, access, the following trends and drivers have the potential to impact emergency management activities: Internet access expansion People as both producers and template a business case study, consumers of information Spontaneous reporting Crowdsourcing Increased emergency management use of the internet and social media. Hunting for essay trees our best friend Foxes: Capturing the Potential of Outlier Ideas in the Intelligence Community ( local copy ), by Watts and Brennan, in CIA's Studies in Intelligence , Dec 2011 Outliers are data and case, hypotheses that analysts may too quickly dismiss. They may be the imaginative, even prescient analyses policymakers cannot bring themselves to believe.
Intelligence analysts generally possess healthy doses of skepticism to help them avoid the pitfalls of hubris and self-delusion, but, sadly, this is insufficient, for the outliers that ultimately prove to be the seeds of surprise are outlandish, unthinkable, and wholly anomalous. Our interest in outliers was born out of Internet-based surveying that Clint Watts undertook on 2 January 2011. The purpose of that survey was to test the ability of crowds to make accurate hypotheses about future counterterrorism issues in the event of Usama Bin Laden’s death. Would you like to play a game? Solving real problems using game mechanics. by Garten, at HHS Center for New Media, 27 Sep 2011 This is an example of crowdsourcing, collaboration, game mechanics and social networking at its best. Instead of essay our best friend doing each of template for writing a business study these activities in isolation, these elements were brought together as a powerful tool to solve a real world problem. “The researchers noted that much attention has been given to the possibilities of crowd-sourcing and game playing in new york scientific discovery. Their results indicate the for writing a business study, potential for essay integrating online video games into template study, real-world science.” In cases where we have the basics of social/new media covered, let’s keep advancing and level up to thinking about oral test essay game mechanics as another tool in our problem solving toolbox. Not only can we apply the idea of for writing case study gaming to our citizen engagement strategies on the communications level, but perhaps we can pave the way in helping others see the value in applying game mechanics to essay their own areas of for writing a business case study responsibility.
Blaise Aguera y Arcas demos Photosynth, a talk from search essay TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the template for writing a business, TED.com version won't run on your computer) Blaise Aguera y Arcas leads a dazzling demo of Photosynth, software that could transform the way we look at digital images. Using still photos culled from the Web, Photosynth builds breathtaking dreamscapes and lets us navigate them. Collaboration .Collaboration - Affect/Possibility: Ken Blanchard at trees friend TEDxSanDiego 2012, Published on Dec 27, 2012 Stating that no one of us is as smart as all of us, Ken Blanchard teaches us three aspects of template a business case study successful collaboration: 1. if you meet someone who wants to accomplish something, and you want to accomplish something, the experience is meant to be dynamic; 2. rely on the different skills and experience people bring to the table; 3. essence and form are the two characteristics of a solid collaboration. Clay Shirky on institutions vs. New York Essay? collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on for writing study YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In this prescient 2005 talk, Clay Shirky shows how closed groups and companies will give way to looser networks where small contributors have big roles and essay trees, fluid cooperation replaces rigid planning. Howard Rheingold on for writing study collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Howard Rheingold talks about the coming world of british collaboration, participatory media and collective action -- and how Wikipedia is really an outgrowth of our natural human instinct to work as a group.
Team/Collaborative Critical Thinking Team Critical Thinking: Foundations Research Directions, briefing by Freeman and Serfaty, at 2002 conference Collaborative Critical Thinking, briefing by Freeman et al, Collaboration and template case study, Knowledge Management Workshop, 2003. Why Wikis at translation thesis NASA? ( local copy ), by Verville et al, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 44, Fall 2011 Wikis are used across NASA for collaboration Some of the critical practices and principles for successful wikis are listed below. Template For Writing A Business? Wikis work best when they solve a problem that is evident to most of british phd thesis a group. Wiki use needs to replace an template for writing case study, existing work process, not add to work. Wikis need advocates and advertising. Seeding the wiki with valuable content helps jump-start the process; with a blank page, no one knows where to start. Gradual growth is fine, and starting small helps a core group of users become accustomed to the wiki (think pilot study). A wiki that serves a niche need is our best friend english, okay; it does not need to template case be all things to all people.
Developing Adaptiveness Achieving Adaptability through Inquiry Based Learning ( local copy ), by writing narrative Duffy and template, Raymer, ARI report, Apr 2010 This report presents inquiry based learning (IBL) as an instructional strategy addressing the Army’s need for training flexible and adaptive leaders. Distinguishing tenets of IBL are characterized in contrast to english the Army’s current direct instruction strategy. Elements of IBL, including characterization of the template for writing case, orienting problem, learner support by the instructor, and assessment of learner outcomes are outlined. Considerations for search essay developing an IBL curriculum are addressed, and details of an example of an Army IBL course of instruction are provided. Adaptive Thinking Training For Tactical Leaders ( local copy ), by study Lussier and Shadrick, ARI paper presented at the RTO HFM Symposium, Oct 2003 This paper reports a series of research efforts embodied in the U.S. Essay? Army’s Think Like a Commander training program. The work is interesting because it seeks to for writing a business case train a cognitive behavior – thinking – using methods that have traditionally been applied to oral test essay training more observable and measurable behaviors, e.g., marksmanship and template for writing, gunnery, sports performance.
In short, it does not greatly respect a traditional distinction between such things as physical movements, perceptions, and oral test essay, cognitions when it comes to training, rather treats these all as behaviors that are amenable to the same training methods and principles. Deliberate practice techniques were applied to template case develop exercises to train the task of new york essay adaptive thinking in tactical situations. Developing Leaders to Adapt and Dominate for the Army of Today and template for writing case study, Tomorrow ( local copy ), by prompts personal narrative Davis and Martin, Military Review , Sep-Oct 2012 Change in the College comes in how we accomplish our educational mission, as well as within the content of our courses. This change is an active, evolutionary educational process that drives the for writing a business case study, institution to reexamine itself on translation thesis a frequent basis. The operational environment is dramatically different than in previous times. Template For Writing A Business Case? Additionally, there has been a tremendous growth in understanding of trip essay adult learning and professional education, and CGSC is leveraging this new science. We are educating a different generation of template for writing a business study emerging leaders who bring incredible experience to creative personal the classroom to share. Our teaching methods account for this shift in our students’ background and experience. The most obvious difference over the previous 30 years is that more than 90 percent of our Army students have recent combat experience and nearly 70 percent have multiple combat tours. Based on this background, and the ever-changing operating environment that is our world, it is easy to see that change remains a constant in the process of leader development and education for the Army.
Creativity and Innovation Logic will get you from A to B. Imagination will take you everywhere. Reasonable people adapt themselves to the world. Unreasonable people attempt to adapt the world to themselves. All progress, therefore, depends on unreasonable people. — George Bernhard Shaw. If the world were perfect, it wouldn’t be. A good hockey player plays where the for writing, puck is. A great hockey player plays where the puck is going to be.
Creativity is thinking up new things. Innovation is doing new things. The only thing harder than getting a new idea into new york essay, the military is getting an old one out. Anxiety is the hand maiden of template for writing a business case study creativity. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinions. — James Russel Lowell. As the births of living creatures, at first, are ill-shapen: so are all Innovations, which are the births of time.
He that will not apply new remedies must expect new evils; for time is the greatest innovator. In times of essay friend english change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves equipped to template for writing a business case study deal with a world that no longer exists. The world owes all of inter search essay its onward impulses to men ill at ease. The happy man inevitably confines himself within ancient limits. I want to stay as close to the edge as I can without going over. Out on the edge you see all kinds of for writing a business study things you can't see from the center. — Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.
In the age of information sciences, the most valuable asset is knowledge, which is a creation of human imagination and creativity. We were among the last to comprehend this truth and we will be paying for this oversight for many years to come. — Mikhail Gorbachev, 1990. Innovation by definition will not be accepted at first. It takes repeated attempts, endless demonstrations, monotonous rehearsals before innovation can be accepted and translation services, internalized by for writing study an organization. This requires 'courageous patience'. See John Boyd and the OODA loop - especially the inter essay, articles and template a business case study, briefings by Osinga. Eric Berlow and Sean Gourley: Mapping ideas worth spreading - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on oral test essay YouTube if TED videos are blocked) What do 24,000 ideas look like? Ecologist Eric Berlow and physicist Sean Gourley apply algorithms to the entire archive of TEDx Talks, taking us on a stimulating visual tour to show how ideas connect globally. “Doing the right thing” versus “Doing things right” – A Framework for Post-ORI Innovation ( local copy ), by template case Gillen, in Air Force Print News Today, 22 Aug 2012 Unfortunately, we're more focused today on doing things right than doing the right thing. Trip? This has become apparent as we prepare for the upcoming inspection.
Doing things right means being tactically focused on our compliance with Air Force Instructions and adherence to checklists. Doing the right thing involves a more strategic perspective and a more critical analysis of activities to ensure the outcomes are meeting our intended purposes. Through a process of strategic innovation we can transition from doing things right to doing the right thing, a shift which will ultimately result in template case organizational efficiencies and increased job satisfaction. Keith Yamashita: The 3 Habits of Great Creative Teams, a 99 u video When the your team is faced with adversity does it stand strong and act boldly or does it crumble under pressure? Based on his work with over 1000 teams, Keith Yamashita shares his insights about great collaborative environments including: have an awareness beyond your day-to-day, respect the unique talents of your team members, and actively cultivate meaningful one-on-one relationships. “Adapt or Die” - The Imperative for a Culture of british phd thesis Innovation in the United States Army ( local copy ), by template a business study Fastabend and Simpson, U.S. Army Our “competitors” are living, thinking, and adaptive adversaries who mean to destroy us and the society we defend.
Our choice is quite clear: “Adapt or Die.” Failure does not mean Chapter 11 and an updated resume. Failure means death and destruction for ourselves, our comrades, and all that we cherish. The Creativity Conundrum ( local copy ), by services Buser - downloaded from for writing case US Naval War College, /luce.nt/ , A Journal of National Security Studies, 2012 The ability to essay our best be creative, or think creatively, has long been recognized as a core component to successful leadership at study all levels of command. Especially at translation services the strategic level, the for writing a business study, ability to think creatively and adapt to changing circumstances is often the essay english, difference between life and template, death, victory and defeat. British? . And despite general agreement to this fact by most senior leaders, the military on the whole is ill-equipped for producing leaders who are adaptable, flexible, and who can think creatively. Study? Rather, its personnel makeup, focus on inter operations, and sheer bureaucracy all combine to create and reward leaders who are risk-averse, conformists, and good at maintaining the status quo. Center of Innovation (CoI), US Air Force Academy The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate funded Center of Innovation (CoI) at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) was established in 2008 and has become a leader in championing game-changing innovations for the US Government (USG) by leveraging unique public-private partnerships. The CoI has become the 'sandbox' for government agencies, private industry giants, and academia to perform collaborative research, share expertise, and template for writing case, shape technologies within the private sector to fit government needs DHS pamphlet talking about the CoI ( local copy ) NASA Center of Excellence for Collaborative Innovation Established in 2011, the CoECI serves to advance the use of creative personal open innovation methods across the federal government, in particular, the use of prizes and challenge. The CoECI provides guidance to other federal agencies and a business case, NASA centers on implementing open innovation initiatives from problem definition, to incentive design, to post- submission evaluation of solutions. Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC) Navy Center for Innovation (NCFI) Shaping Navy Culture: A Campaign Plan for 2025 ( local copy ), by Tyler, NWDC White Paper, 14 Feb 2012 This white paper introduces a concept to change Navy organizational culture into an innovative, intellectually agile institution.
This paper examines current conditions, introduces an approach, identifies themes, and proposes actions to build momentum for the concept. Innovator’s Guide ( local copy, 3.8 Mb ), from the Navy Center for Innovation, Navy Warfare Development Command, 29 Aug 2012 From Navy Warfare Development Command Public Affairs: Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC) has published The Innovator's Guide, Aug. 29, to help innovators of all ages - but particularly the Navy's junior leaders - become more innovative and facilitate the transformation of good ideas into oral test essay, real warfighting capabilities. As the Navy Center for template for writing Innovation, NWDC is spearheading a campaign to reinvigorate a culture of innovation within the inter search, Navy, and the guide is an important component of that endeavor. In addition to defining innovation and why it is important, the guide provides advice on how to identify and define problems that need solving, proven techniques for finding creative solutions, and how to move these ideas through a large organization to drive towards implementation. Template A Business Study? Junior leaders are often uniquely positioned to recognize emerging problems, and employ new technologies to solve them. Inter Search Essay? It's up to for writing case study us to give them the tools and the open channels to be successful, said Rear Adm. Terry B. New York? Kraft, commander, NWDC. In his introduction, Kraft challenges the junior leaders to think deeply, question continuously, debate vigorously, read broadly, write boldly and never give up on template case study a good idea. To download The Innovator's Guide, visit https://www.nwdc.navy.mil/default.aspx.
Videos and transcripts from NWDC's Maritime Innovation Symposium and translation services, Junior Leader Innovation Symposium are also available at for writing a business case the website. If file size is an issue, Innovator’s Guide - Final Draft ( local copy, 321 Kb ), from the Navy Center for Innovation, Navy Warfare Development Command, 4 June 2012. Will It Work Here? A Decisionmaker’s Guide to Adopting Innovations ( local copy ), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Sep 2008 medical focus, but contains many questions every organization should ask about adoption of potential innovations. Military Innovation in the Rise and Fall of Great Powers: Lessons for America ( local copy ), by Taylor, NPS thesis, June 2011 A military‘s ability to adapt its organization, doctrine, and technology strategy to meet the trees our best, threats of template a business its time influences the state‘s capacity to thesis maintain great power status. This thesis uses a historical overview of for writing a business case study military innovation among great powers throughout history to trees our best friend draw lessons for the U.S. military today. . Finally, and most importantly, this study finds it essential to foster a climate and institutional culture receptive to innovation. A true meritocracy would allow leaders to promote the most promising soldiers and officers despite their inability to meet any time-in-service requirements.
The year-group promotion system codifies a rigid bureaucratic structure that ensures slow change and for writing case study, little innovation. How PowerPoint Stifles Understanding, Creativity, and Innovation Within Your Organization, by Zweibelson, in oral test essay Small Wars Journal , 4 Sep 2012 - includes eight recommendations at the end, to restore the briefer as a critical thinker PowerPoint provides a useful vehicle for sharing and developing concepts among military professionals in template for writing study a variety of venues. Unfortunately, the writing personal narrative, U.S. A Business Study? military tends to lose track of the supportive context for PowerPoint and instead shackles organizations to institutional processes and rigid ‘group-think.’ We tend to burden our military professionals with an exhausting and high-maintenance requirement to churn out repetitive and non-explanatory slide decks for nearly every conceivable information requirement. Rarely do we conduct a meeting without the ever-present bright projection of PowerPoint upon a screen. British Phd Thesis? When you attend a briefing and the majority of slides and a business case, material attempt to reduce, measure, categorize, or describe something, we are often merely admiring the problem.
Instead of thinking about why something is occurring, we are usually required to answer precise information that satisfies a descriptive (WHAT-centric) procedure instead of translation services thesis a critical line of inquiry. Many military professionals refer to this as “feeding the beast” in PowerPoint-centric organizations, where we openly acknowledge that our own hierarchy often demands volumes of often meaningless or irrelevant information for illusionary pretexts. If descriptive thinking blinds your organization to critical and template a business case study, creative thinking, then PowerPoint is the drug of translation services choice for continuing the reductionist and highly tacticized mentality across an organization that fears uncertainty. Additionally, a recent trend of cramming four slides onto template a business, one “quad chart” slide is another work-around that compresses a larger slide show into inter, fewer yet more cluttered slides and supports the ‘quantity over template for writing a business case study quality’ tension. This recent staff technique defeats the purpose of a quadrant chart that uses two separate tensions in an overlapping geometric structure to demonstrate patterns and explore complex relationships. Essay? ‘Quad charts’ are not interrelated if you apply one simple test. By removing one quadrant of a true ‘quad chart’, you will render the entire slide incomplete. Each quadrant in template a business study a quad chart should systemically relate to the other quadrants in terms of context. If you are only removing one component while the prompts personal, three remaining quadrants maintain their coherence, your staff has merely shoved ten pounds of dirt into a five pound bag for you, by condensing four slides into one. This reduces total slide numbers, but does little to improve organizational learning. Many military organizations use ‘read-ahead’ packets that provide an advanced copy of the for writing study, PowerPoint briefing slides in advance of the briefing. In theory, this implies an alternate route for essay friend information sharing that, when combined with a briefing, could function in tandem.
In practice, this requires two commitments that are rarely met. Template For Writing Case Study? First, all attendees must endeavor to actually read the ‘read-ahead’ packet. This prepares an phd thesis, audience to enter a briefing cognizant of the topics, context, and prepared to offer relevant discourse to drive emergent thought. Secondly, the briefer must resist using any slides in the ‘read-ahead’ except for ancillary or expository reasons during the brief. Template For Writing Case Study? Simply following the exact slide format as the ‘read-ahead’ drags those that invested time to read it earlier back through redundant information, and reward those that came to the meeting unprepared. Innovating the Future: From Ideas to Adoption, by Denning, in The Futurist , Jan-Feb 2012 - Futurists and innovators can teach each other lessons to help their ideas succeed. - discusses the items below and more Three most common methods used by futurists Revelation of current realities Extrapolation of trends Scenarios Eight innovation practices Sensing Envisioning Offering Adopting Sustaining Executing Leading Embodying. NASA's ASK magazine The Innovation Paradox ( local copy ), by Hoffman, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 41, Winter 2011 - Sometimes organizational 'support' kills good new ideas. Many organizations live and die by good new ideas. The challenge they face is to cultivate good ideas by giving innovators just the right blend of freedom and support. One simple approach that is not taken often enough is to let the innovators themselves decide how the organization can help them develop their ideas. A manager asking, “What do you need from me?” has a good chance of finding the sweet spot between no support (“Do what you want as long as I don’t know about it”) and idea-killing interference.
Expecting the Unexpected ( local copy ), by Frasqueri-Molina, in creative personal narrative NASA's ASK magazine, issue 43, Summer 2011 - creating a mitigation plan to deal with unexpected risks The author developed a risk-mitigation plan to reestablish order from chaos. Remain calm. Halt the entire project or just the affected work momentarily and let everyone take a break. Immediately gather the resolution team, which consists of the project manager and template a business, any of the trip essay, people who can offer solutions; meet privately. For Writing Case Study? Assess risk impact. Brainstorm solutions. Choose a solution. Obtain project sponsor approval. Communicate the solution to the entire team, resume project, resolve risk. Why Wikis at NASA? ( local copy ), by Verville et al, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 44, Fall 2011 Wikis are used across NASA for collaboration Some of the critical practices and creative writing prompts personal, principles for successful wikis are listed below.
Wikis work best when they solve a problem that is evident to most of a group. Template For Writing Case? Wiki use needs to replace an existing work process, not add to work. Wikis need advocates and advertising. Seeding the wiki with valuable content helps jump-start the process; with a blank page, no one knows where to start. Gradual growth is fine, and starting small helps a core group of phd thesis users become accustomed to template the wiki (think pilot study). A wiki that serves a niche need is okay; it does not need to writing narrative be all things to a business study all people. Innovation Versus Adaptability: Seizing the Initiative Through Creative Thinking Versus Reacting to the Enemy ( local copy ), by Grothe, SAMS paper, 2009 Leadership must be committed to learning, underwrite experimentation, and create an translation services, environment that generates creative thought and innovation. Doctrine must incorporate more aspects of innovation, creative and critical thinking and innovative leadership.
The Army’s training constructs produce adaptive leaders, but must start to assess innovation as well, in template for writing a business case study order to generate this within the force as well. Essay Friend? The most critical area the a business case, Army must focus change in is within Professional Military Education for field grade officers. Understanding Innovation ( local copy ), by Williams, in Military Review , Jul-Aug 2009 Field Manual 1-0, The Army, states that “Army leaders are continuing to foster creative thinking.” They are “challenging inflexible ways of thinking, removing impediments to institutional innovation, and underwriting the risks associated with bold change.” Perhaps this statement is true, but given the contemporary use of the word “innovation,” it is also meaningless. Creative? Claiming to be innovative carries about as much weight as declaring a love for puppies; it’s easy to template for writing a business say and unpopular to challenge. When words represent some indistinct idea, they are susceptible to reinvention or distortion with potentially significant unintended consequences. Innovation Starvation, by Stephenson, in World Policy Journal , Fall 2011 Still, I worry that our inability to essay trees friend match the achievements of the template case, 1960s space program might be symptomatic of a general failure of our society to get big things done. Personal? Innovation can’t happen without accepting the for writing a business study, risk that it might fail. The vast and radical innovations of the mid-20th century took place in a world that, in retrospect, looks insanely dangerous and search essay, unstable. For Writing Study? Today’s belief in ineluctable certainty is the true innovation-killer of translation thesis our age.
In this environment, the best an audacious manager can do is to develop small improvements to existing systems—climbing the case study, hill, as it were, toward a local maximum, trimming fat, eking out the occasional tiny innovation—like city planners painting bicycle lanes on the streets as a gesture toward solving our energy problems. Any strategy that involves crossing a valley—accepting short-term losses to services thesis reach a higher hill in the distance—will soon be brought to a halt by the demands of a system that celebrates short-term gains and tolerates stagnation, but condemns anything else as failure. In short, a world where big stuff can never get done. How We Think: Thinking Critically and Creatively and How Military Professionals Can Do it Better, by McConnell et al, in Small Wars Journal , 16 Sep 2011 This essay will summarize how cognitive theorists have described critical and creative thinking in general, and template for writing case, how some military practitioners have applied them. Writing Personal? In doing so, this essay will propose principles of a business case study critical and creative thinking applicable to the military profession to provide a common vocabulary that describes the creative writing, type of thinking we do. To expand and improve critical and template a business study, creative thinking, military professionals need a common vocabulary that accurately describes the very thinking we are to new york expand and improve on. Sir Ken Robinson Sir Ken Robinson: Do schools kill creativity?, a TED.com video, 2006 - EXCELLENT 20 minutes Sir Ken Robinson makes an for writing a business study, entertaining and profoundly moving case for trip new york essay creating an education system that nurtures (rather than undermines) creativity.
Changing Education Paradigms, video animation of Sir Ken Robinson's key concepts over time - EXCELLENT 12 minutes Sir Ken Robinson: Bring on the learning revolution!, a TED.com video, 2010 follow-up to the 2006 talk - EXCELLENT 20 minutes In this poignant, funny follow-up to template a business case study his fabled 2006 talk, Sir Ken Robinson makes the case for search essay a radical shift from template for writing a business standardized schools to personalized learning -- creating conditions where kids' natural talents can flourish. Sir Ken Robinson: How to escape education's death valley , a TED.com video, 2013, from the TED TV special on education Sir Ken Robinson outlines 3 principles crucial for phd thesis the human mind to template for writing case flourish -- and how current education culture works against them. In a funny, stirring talk he tells us how to get out essay of the educational death valley we now face, and template study, how to nurture our youngest generations with a climate of possibility. There are three principles on which human life flourishes, and they are contradicted by the culture of education under which most teachers have to labor and most students have to endure. The first is trip essay, this, that human beings are naturally different and diverse. Education under No Child Left Behind is based on not diversity but conformity. What schools are encouraged to do is to find out what kids can do across a very narrow spectrum of achievement. Template For Writing Study? The second principle that drives human life flourishing is curiosity. So in place of curiosity, what we have is a culture of compliance. Our children and teachers are encouraged to follow routine algorithms rather than to creative writing personal narrative excite that power of imagination and curiosity. Template A Business Case Study? And the third principle is oral test essay, this: that human life is inherently creative.
We all create our own lives through this restless process of imagining alternatives and possibilities, and what one of the roles of education is to awaken and develop these powers of creativity. Instead, what we have is a culture of standardization. Seth Godin Seth Godin: Quieting the Lizard Brain, a 99 u video Bestselling author and entrepreneur Seth Godin outlines a common creative affliction: sabotaging our projects just before we show them to the world. A Business Case? Godin targets our lizard brain as the british phd thesis, source of template these primal doubts, and implores us to thrash at the beginning of projects so that we can ship on time and on budget. Oral Test Essay? he states that everyone is creative; the important thing is to template for writing study ship (your product, i.e., do something with your idea) Seth Godin: How to get your ideas to spread - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In a world of too many options and too little time, our obvious choice is to just ignore the ordinary stuff. Marketing guru Seth Godin spells out why, when it comes to getting our attention, bad or bizarre ideas are more successful than boring ones other TED.com videos - most are 6-15 minutes Matt Ridley: When ideas have sex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on translation services thesis YouTube if TED videos are blocked) At TEDGlobal 2010, author Matt Ridley shows how, throughout history, the engine of human progress has been the meeting and mating of ideas to make new ideas. It's not important how clever individuals are, he says; what really matters is how smart the for writing case, collective brain is.
Matt Ridley argues that, through history, the engine of oral test essay human progress and prosperity has been, and is, ideas having sex with each other. Erik Brynjolfsson: The key to growth? Race with the for writing case, machines - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) As machines take on more jobs, many find themselves out of work or with raises indefinitely postponed. Creative Prompts Personal? Is this the template a business, end of search growth? No, says Erik Brynjolfsson -- it’s simply the growing pains of a radically reorganized economy.
A riveting case for why big innovations are ahead of us … if we think of computers as our teammates. Be sure to watch the a business case study, opposing viewpoint from writing personal narrative Robert Gordon. Robert Gordon: The death of innovation, the case, end of growth - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on british YouTube if TED videos are blocked) The US economy has been expanding wildly for a business case study two centuries. Essay Trees Our Best Friend? Are we witnessing the end of growth? Economist Robert Gordon lays out 4 reasons US growth may be slowing, detailing factors like epidemic debt and template a business study, growing inequality, which could move the US into a period of stasis we can't innovate our way out of. Be sure to watch the opposing viewpoint from Erik Brynjolfsson. Phd Thesis? Elizabeth Gilbert: Your elusive creative genius - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Elizabeth Gilbert muses on the impossible things we expect from artists and case, geniuses -- and shares the radical idea that, instead of the rare person being a genius, all of us have a genius.
It's a funny, personal and surprisingly moving talk. TEDxBerkeley - Carl Bass - The New Rules of Innovation has five trends he believes are driving innovation David Kelley: How to build your creative confidence - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Is your school or workplace divided into creatives versus practical people? Yet surely, David Kelley suggests, creativity is not the domain of only a chosen few. Telling stories from his legendary design career and his own life, he offers ways to build the confidence to create. (From The Design Studio session at TED2012, guest-curated by Chee Pearlman and David Rockwell.) Adam Savage: How simple ideas lead to scientific discoveries - a TED talk (you may need to translation thesis watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Adam Savage walks through two spectacular examples of profound scientific discoveries that came from simple, creative methods anyone could have followed -- Eratosthenes' calculation of the Earth's circumference around 200 BC and Hippolyte Fizeau's measurement of the speed of light in 1849. Regina Dugan: From mach-20 glider to humming bird drone - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) What would you attempt to do if you knew you could not fail? asks Regina Dugan, then director of DARPA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
In this breathtaking talk she describes some of the extraordinary projects -- a robotic hummingbird, a prosthetic arm controlled by thought, and, well, the internet -- that her agency has created by not worrying that they might fail. Steven Johnson: Where good ideas come from - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on template for writing case study YouTube if TED videos are blocked) People often credit their ideas to individual Eureka! moments. But Steven Johnson shows how history tells a different story. His fascinating tour takes us from the liquid networks of London's coffee houses to Charles Darwin's long, slow hunch to today's high-velocity web. - he finishes with chance favors the connected mind Bart Knols: Cheese, dogs, and search, pills to end malaria - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) We can use a mosquito's own instincts against a business case study, her. At TEDxMaastricht speaker Bart Knols demos the imaginative solutions his team is developing to fight malaria -- including limburger cheese and creative writing narrative, a deadly pill.
Edward Tenner: Unintended consequences - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Every new invention changes the template case study, world -- in ways both intentional and unexpected. Historian Edward Tenner tells stories that illustrate the under-appreciated gap between our ability to innovate and our ability to oral test essay foresee the consequences. Charles Leadbeater: The era of template for writing case open innovation - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In this deceptively casual talk, Charles Leadbeater weaves a tight argument that innovation isn't just for professionals anymore. Passionate amateurs, using new tools, are creating products and paradigms that companies can't. A researcher at the London think tank Demos, Charles Leadbeater was early to oral test essay notice the rise of amateur innovation -- great ideas from outside the traditional walls, from people who suddenly have the tools to collaborate, innovate and make their expertise known. Clay Shirky on institutions vs. collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In this prescient 2005 talk, Clay Shirky shows how closed groups and companies will give way to looser networks where small contributors have big roles and fluid cooperation replaces rigid planning. Howard Rheingold on collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Howard Rheingold talks about the coming world of collaboration, participatory media and collective action -- and how Wikipedia is for writing study, really an outgrowth of our natural human instinct to trip essay work as a group. Sunni Brown: Doodlers, unite! - a TED talk (you may need to template a business case study watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Studies show that sketching and oral test essay, doodling improve our comprehension -- and our creative thinking. So why do we still feel embarrassed when we're caught doodling in a meeting? Sunni Brown says: Doodlers, unite!
She makes the template study, case for unlocking your brain via pad and pen. Jonah Lehrer: The Science of Insight Creation, 40 min. video from Jonah Lehrer - contributing editor of Wired and inter search essay, author of How We Decide Science is getting harder. Finding notable, new facts is getting harder. So how can we increase our capacity for breakthroughs and insights? What can new disciplines like neuroscience teach us about the innovation process? Jonah Lehrer explores creativity from template a business case study a scientific perspective and discusses questions such as why we have our best ideas in trip essay the shower. talks about the feeling of knowing such as the tip of the tongue phenomenon talks about why brainstorming doesn't work - cites studies showing that allowing criticism leads to 7 times the for writing, number of useful ideas 24 hours later after folks have had time to think on their own outside the group we can all imagine more, if only we know how. 21st Century Enlightenment, RSAnimate talk by narrative Matthew Taylor - how the idea of a new enlightenment can help us meet the template, challenges we now face. Creativity Techniques - short descriptions of a whole passel of techniques. Roots of essay Innovation ( local copy, 2.7 Mb ), eJournal USA , State Department, Nov 2009 ( lower resolution, 800 Kb ) what is it? which cultures foster it? the case, global geography of innovation how do complementary skills help? secrets of phd thesis collaboration 2009 innovation index by country ranking.
Predicting Military Innovation, by Isaacson et al, RAND, 1999 Although military technology is for writing study, increasingly available and affordable, not all states have the capacity to improve military effectiveness by acquiring hardware. Integrative difficulties — in command structures, doctrine and tactics, training, and trip new york essay, support — are common in the developing world, and many states will have to find some level of innovation to overcome such difficulties if they are to use military technologies effectively. This annotated briefing documents a research effort aimed at understanding and predicting how militaries may improve their battlefield effectiveness. The briefing first analyzes military innovation conceptually and study, then formulates a framework for predicting the essay trees friend, likelihood of innovative success. The research synthesizes a broad literature on innovation and for writing case, provides a useful tool for assessing future military developments.
Brain and Creativity Institute, University of Southern California The mission of the Brain and search, Creativity Institute is to gather new knowledge about the human emotions, decision-making, memory, and a business, communication, from a neurological perspective, and to apply this knowledge to the solution of phd thesis problems in the biomedical and sociocultural arenas. From Stone to template case study Silicon: A Brief Survey of phd thesis Innovation, by Husick, Foreign Policy Research Institute, Oct 2008 - top 25 innovations of all time. Toward More Innovative Program Management ( local copy ), by Perino, in Defense Acquisition Review Journal, Feb-Mar 2005 - results of template case study research into the science and psychology of innovation - using MBTI and FourSight assessment tools - includes formula for services MBTI Creativity Index. Stimulating Innovation ( local copy ), by Kostoff, Office of Naval Research Science and Technology Innovation ( local copy ), by Kostoff, Office of Naval Research - compares literature-based and workshop-based approaches for stimulating innovation. Communication, Management Benchmark Study ( local copy ), Dept of Energy -- includes chapters on networking, alliances, organizational culture, and innovation Innovation, especially organizational, short chapter, covers a lot Creativity, how to cultivate, short chapter, covers a lot.
Creativity Web, resources for creativity and innovation 10 Kick Starts to Your Creativity Creativity Basics. Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and Creativity, National Academies Press, 2003 - addresses issues such as what makes people creative and how creative people work Leadership That Gets Results, by Daniel Goleman, in Harvard Business Review , - describes six leadership styles: Coercive, Authoritative, Affiliative, Democratic, Pacesetting and Coaching. - Should emotional intelligence play a role in the workplace? -- some questions to stimulate discussion Emotional Intelligence Resource List ( local copy ) EQ.org directory of internet Emotional Intelligence sites. EQ Emotional Intelligence tests online - mixed quality, try several and glean tidbits from the narratives. Jonah Lehrer: The Science of Insight Creation, 40 min. video from Jonah Lehrer - contributing editor of Wired and author of template for writing study How We Decide Science is getting harder. Finding notable, new facts is getting harder. So how can we increase our capacity for breakthroughs and insights? What can new disciplines like neuroscience teach us about the innovation process? Jonah Lehrer explores creativity from a scientific perspective and discusses questions such as why we have our best ideas in the shower. talks about the oral test essay, feeling of knowing such as the tip of the tongue phenomenon talks about for writing a business case why brainstorming doesn't work - cites studies showing that allowing criticism leads to 7 times the number of useful ideas 24 hours later after folks have had time to think on their own outside the group we can all imagine more, if only we know how. The Idea Center, with IdeaFisher software, commercial brainstorming tool, with modules for strategic planning, speeches/presentations, conflict resolution, and creative writing Memory Skills Joshua Foer: Feats of thesis memory anyone can do - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) There are people who can quickly memorize lists of thousands of numbers, the order of all the cards in for writing a business case a deck (or ten!), and inter search essay, much more.
Science writer Joshua Foer describes the technique -- called the memory palace -- and case, shows off its most remarkable feature: anyone can learn how to use it, including him. Changing Minds in the Army: Why It’s So Difficult and What To Do About It ( local copy ), by Gerras and Wong, U.S. Army War College, June 2013 The following pages discuss why it is oral test essay, so hard for Army senior leaders to change their minds. We do this by first introducing the concept of frames of reference and then discuss how neuroscience sheds some light on why changing one’s mind is not so easy. We then examine the role of for writing case organizational variables on this process. Finally, we propose how strategic leaders might apply this knowledge to enhance the likelihood that as the environment evolves, they are able to actually change their minds. In large hierarchical organizations such as the Army, consistency of thought is the oral test essay, norm, and not the exception. No leader wants to appear as vacillating or be accused of hemming and hawing on template for writing key issues. Yet history abounds with negative examples of leaders failing to change their minds despite new evidence or fresh information. Thinking in a Foreign Language Makes Decisions More Rational, by Keim, in phd thesis Wired online journal, Apr 2012 A series of experiments on more than 300 people from the U.S. and Korea found that thinking in a second language reduced deep-seated, misleading biases that unduly influence how risks and benefits are perceived. The researchers believe a second language provides a useful cognitive distance from automatic processes, promoting analytical thought and reducing unthinking, emotional reaction.
Deadly Mind Traps, by Wise, Psychology Today , Jan 2012 Simple cognitive errors can have disastrous consequences—unless you know how to watch out for template case study them. [The article has specific examples of each of the errors below.] Redlining. Anytime we plan a mission that requires us to set a safety parameter, there's a risk that in the heat of the moment we'll be tempted to search essay overstep it. A Business Case? The Domino Effect. In stressful situations, you see a failure in oral test essay the working memory, which is for writing, involved in oral test essay inhibiting impulses, says Sian Beilock, a psychology professor at the University of for writing Chicago. People lose the ability to think about the long-term consequences of their actions. Situational Blindness. Full situational awareness requires incorporating outside information into a model of your environment, and using that model to predict how the situation might change. If all you're doing is following the line of the GPS, and trees, it turns out to be wrong, you'll be completely clueless about a business case study what to do next. Creative Prompts Narrative? Double or Nothing.
Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky first pointed out back in for writing case study 1979, we tend to creative writing personal narrative avoid risk when contemplating potential gains but seek risk to for writing avoid losses. For instance, if you offer people a choice between a certain loss of $1,000 and a 50-50 chance of friend english losing $2,500, the template for writing case study, majority will opt for british the riskier option, to avoid a definite financial hit. Bending the Map. Such errors of overconfidence are due to a phenomenon psychologists call confirmation bias . When trying to template for writing a business study solve a problem or troubleshoot a problem, we get fixated on services a specific option or hypothesis, explains Kring, and ignore contradictory evidence and template for writing, other information that could help us make a better decision. Heuristics and Biases in Military Decision Making ( local copy ), by Williams, in phd thesis Military Review , Sep-Oct 2010 Fortunately, some have come to see the shortcomings of the classical MDMP process. It is illsuited for template for writing case the analysis of translation thesis problems exhibiting high volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. When combining hindsight bias and retrievability biases, we potentially fail to guard against an event popularized euphemistically as a black swan . Case Study? Instead of the usual striving toward a “best practices” methodology, which is also full of potential heuristic biases, reflective practice calls for “valuing the processes that challenge assimilative knowledge (i.e. Translation Services? continuous truth seeking) and by template for writing a business case study embracing the inevitable conflict associated with truth seeking.” Ben Goldacre: Battling bad science, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) Every day there are news reports of new health advice, but how can you know if they're right? Doctor and epidemiologist Ben Goldacre shows us, at new york essay high speed, the ways evidence can be distorted, from the blindingly obvious nutrition claims to template for writing the very subtle tricks of the pharmaceutical industry. Curing Analytic Pathologies: Pathways to Improved Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Cooper, CIA Center for the Study of Intelligence, Dec 2005 The Analytic Pathologies framework yields four insights that are crucial both to accurate diagnosis and to new york developing effective remedies.
First, the framework enables analysts to identify individual analytic impediments and for writing a business study, determine their sources. Second, it prompts analysts to detect the oral test essay, systemic pathologies that result from closely-coupled networks and to find the linkages among the individual impediments. Case Study? Third, it demonstrates that each of these networks, and trip, thus each systemic pathology, usually spans multiple levels within the hierarchy of the Intelligence Community. Fourth, the framework highlights the need to template a business case study treat both the oral test essay, systemic pathologies and the individual impediments by focusing effective remedial measures on the right target and at template case study the appropriate level. -- very good examination of many elements of critical thinking, with examples ( PDF version ) Check out Part III - Cognitive Biases.
Countering Terrorism: Integration of Practice and Theory ( local copy ), overview of conference at FBI Academy, Feb 2002 from Appendix 8: Psychology of Bias These investigators found that there is a general bias, based on translation thesis both innate predispositions and experience, in animals and humans, to give greater weight to negative events or attributes . This is evident in four ways: (a) negative potency (negative entities are stronger than the equivalent positive entities), (b) steeper negative gradients (the negativity of template a business case negative events grows more rapidly with approach to british them in space or time than does the positivity of template for writing a business case study positive events), (c) negativity dominance (combinations of negative and positive entities yield evaluations that are more negative than the algebraic sum of individual subjective evaluations would predict), and. (d) negative differentiation (negative entities are more varied, yield more complex conceptual representations, and engage a wider response repertoire). The authors review this taxonomy, with emphasis on negativity dominance, including literary, historical, religious, and cultural sources, as well as the psychological literatures on learning, attention, impression formation, contagion, moral judgment, development, and memory. They suggest that one feature of negative events that make them dominant is that negative entities are more “contagious” than positive entities. Tali Sharot: The optimism bias - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on trip essay YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Are we born to be optimistic, rather than realistic?
Tali Sharot shares new research that suggests our brains are wired to look on the bright side -- and template study, how that can be both dangerous and beneficial. Daniel Kahneman: The riddle of experience vs. memory - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Using examples from vacations to colonoscopies, Nobel laureate and founder of behavioral economics Daniel Kahneman reveals how our experiencing selves and our remembering selves perceive happiness differently. This new insight has profound implications for economics, public policy -- and our own self-awareness. Widely regarded as the world's most influential living psychologist, Daniel Kahneman won the Nobel in essay english Economics for his pioneering work in behavioral economics -- exploring the irrational ways we make decisions about risk. Sensemaking David Moore Sensemaking: A Structure for an Intelligence Revolution ( local copy ), by Moore, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC), March 2011 Mindfulness, wicked problems, paradigm shifts, intuitive thinking, validation, intelligence rigor, limitations, and more Sensemaking, whereby intelligence professionals would work with executive decisionmakers to explain data that are “sparse, noisy, and for writing case, uncertain,” requires an interpreter and experienced champion to bring about british a practicable understanding and acceptance of the template for writing a business, concept among intelligence practitioners. David Moore has accomplished that feat. Further, he, along with collaborators in chapters 5 and oral test essay, 7, demonstrate how sensemaking can be accomplished as a collaborative enterprise.
Critical Thinking and Intelligence Analysis ( local copy, 1.4 Mb low res ), by template case Moore, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC) occasional paper no. 14, March 2007 ( local copy, 12.1 Mb high res ) - includes generic and inter, intel-specific discussion, as well as an appendix which is the case, NSA's Critical Thinking and translation thesis, Structured Analysis Class Syllabus NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus - incudes plans for 10 classes, as well as a template for summarizing articles/readings. Failure Being Wrong - Why They Work This was the pivotal insight of the Scientific Revolution: that the template for writing a business study, advancement of new york essay knowledge depends on current theories collapsing in the face of new insights and template a business case, discoveries. In this model of progress, errors do not lead us away from the truth. Instead, they edge us incrementally toward it. — Kathryn Schulz, in Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error. Leaders can let you fail and yet not let you be a failure. --- General Stanley McChrystal.
Science is always wrong. It never solves a problem without creating 10 more. --- George Bernard Shaw. Only those who will risk going too far can possibly find out how far one can go. The chief trick to making good mistakes is not to hide them — especially not from yourself. Instead of oral test essay turning away in denial when you make a mistake, you should become a connoisseur of your own mistakes, turning them over in template a business case study your mind as if they were works of art, which in essay trees friend english a way they are. … The trick is to take advantage of the particular details of the for writing, mess you’ve made, so that your next attempt will be informed by it and not just another blind stab in the dark. — Daniel Dennett, in Intuition Pumps and Other Tools for Thinking.
Kathryn Schulz: On being wrong - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Most of us will do anything to essay english avoid being wrong. But what if we're wrong about that? Wrongologist Kathryn Schulz makes a compelling case for not just admitting but embracing our fallibility. Tim Harford: Trial, error and the God complex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Economics writer Tim Harford studies complex systems -- and finds a surprising link among the template for writing a business study, successful ones: they were built through trial and error. In this sparkling talk from TEDGlobal 2011, he asks us to embrace our randomness and start making better mistakes. Adapt: Why success always starts with failure, video by Tim Harford (book by the same title is on the Air Force Chief of Staff's 2012 Reading List) Tim's Principles of essay Failure: #1 - Be willing to fail . a lot.
#2 - Fail on template a business a survivable scale. Eddie Obeng: Smart failure for a fast-changing world - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) The world is changing much more rapidly than most people realize, says business educator Eddie Obeng -- and creative output cannot keep up. In this spirited talk, he highlights three important changes we should understand for better productivity, and trip essay, calls for template for writing a business case study a stronger culture of “smart failure. Seth Godin on inter search essay Failing Until You Succeed, video of an interview for entrepreneur.com taking risks, challenging status quo, starting a business. Ignorance - a valuable resource Thoroughly conscious ignorance is the prelude to template a business every real advance in science. --- James Clerk Maxwell. In an honest search for knowledge, you quite often have to abide by ignorance for an indefinite period. Stuart Firestein: The pursuit of ignorance - a TED talk (you may need to new york essay watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) What does real scientific work look like? As neuroscientist Stuart Firestein jokes: It looks a lot less like the scientific method and template for writing a business case study, a lot more like farting around . in the dark.
In this witty talk, Firestein gets to the heart of science as it is really practiced and suggests that we should value what we don't know -- or high-quality ignorance -- just as much as what we know. Red Teams, Red Teaming, Red Team Thinking. University of Foreign Military and oral test essay, Cultural Studies (UFMCS) The University of Foreign Military and template for writing case study, Cultural Studies (UFMCS) at Fort Leavenworth is an oral test essay, Army-directed education, research, and training initiative for Army organizations, joint organizations, and other government agencies. Red Teaming is a structured, iterative process, executed by highly trained, educated, and for writing study, practiced team members that provides commanders an oral test essay, independent capability to fully explore alternatives to plans, operations, concepts, organizations, and capabilities in the context of the operational environment and from our partners’ and adversaries’ perspectives. A Business Case? UFMCS educates Red Team Leaders, Members, and Practitioners; researches best practices for Red Teaming tactics, techniques, and procedures; and develops a reach-back capability to provide commanders and staffs alternative perspectives. Graduates of Leader and Member courses receive an additional skill identifier (ASI). UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. 8.1, Sep 2016 ( local copy ) We educate people to oral test essay develop a disposition of curiosity, and help them become aware of biases and behavior that prevent them from real positive change in the ways they seek solutions and template study, engage others. UFMCS Liberating Structures Handbook ( local copy ) Liberating structures are frameworks that make it possible for people and organizations to create, to do new things, to be innovative. These are processes or rules that can be put in place to oral test essay encourage people to be free, creative, and for writing a business study, get results, rather than find themselves oppressed, constrained, confined, or powerless. For things to really change, structural elements need to change, too.
Otherwise change is short-lived. Liberating structures are the forms that make it easy for people to be generative together and make a significant impact with their creativity. UFMCS Group Think Mitigation Guide ( local copy ) Our education involves more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. We borrow techniques, methods, frameworks, and best practices from several sources and disciplines to create an education and oral test essay, practical application method that we find to be the best safeguard against individual and organizational tendencies toward biases, errors in for writing a business case cognition, and groupthink. UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the oral test essay, Red Team Handbook), v. Template For Writing? 7.0, Jan 2015 ( local copy ) Our methods and education involve more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. We believe that good decision processes are essential to good outcomes. To that end, our curriculum is rich in divergent processes, red teaming tools, and liberating structures, all aimed at decision support. UFMCS Red Team Handbook, Apr 2012 ( local copy ) Much of the material directly applies to critical thinking and becoming better at it. Each section can almost stand alone, and Section XI – Structured Analytic Techniques – has a large variety of tools/techniques for overcoming “mind-sets” – including “9 Step Cultural Methodology” and phd thesis, “String of for writing a business Pearls” tool and british, “Analysis of Competing Hypotheses” and template for writing, a passel of others. Seeing Red: Creating a Red-Team Capability for the Blue Force ( local copy ), by Fontenot, Military Review , Sep-Oct 2005 - includes list of Red Team best practices, and a list of why Red Teams sometimes fail. Critical Thinking You want to have a mind that’s open enough to essay trees friend accept radical new ideas, but not so open that your brains fall out.
— Michael Shermer, editor of Skeptic Magazine. Minds are like parachutes. They only template for writing a business study function when they are open. Imagination is trip new york essay, more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited to all we now know and study, understand, while imagination embraces the oral test essay, entire world, and all there ever will be to know and understand. Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted. Trying to get people to reason in a way that is for writing study, not natural for them. is like trying to trees our best friend english teach a pig to sing. You don't accomplish anything and you annoy the pig. — E. Jeffrey Conklin William Weil.
Men believe what they prefer. If a man will begin with certainties, he shall end in doubts. But if he will be content to begin with doubts he shall end in certainties. My story is proud. The entry of truth with chalk to mark those minds which are capable to lodge and harbour it. For myself, I found that I was fitted for nothing so well as for the study of study truth; as having a Mind nimble and versatile enough to catch the Resemblances of inter search Things (which is the chief point) and at the same time steady enough to a business fix and distinguish their Subtler Differences; as being gifted by Nature with Desire to oral test essay seek, patience to Doubt, fondness to Meditate, slowness to assert, readiness to consider, carefulness to dispose and case, set in british order; and as being a man that neither affects what is new nor admires what is old, and that hates every kind of Imposture. So I thought my Nature had a kind of for writing case study familiarity and Relationship with Truth. — Francis Bacon, On the Interpretation of Nature , 1603. See red team thinking , especially the creative personal, UFMCS Red Team Handbook.
Improve Your Critical Thinking, resources at Coping.us - includes summaries/lists of for writing a business study many methods and theories Overview of Critical Thinking Critical Thinking Model of Problem Solving Watch out for Common Fallacies Online Resources for Improving Critical Thinking. A Way to Teach Critical Thinking Skills so Learners Will Continue Using Them in oral test essay Operations ( local copy ), by Griffin and for writing case study, McClary, in Military Review , Nov-Dec 2015 However, despite both instructors and students enjoying the oral test essay, critical thinking classes, many graduates were failing to think critically where it mattered most—on the job. The first key is to establish an effective talent management program at the earliest possible opportunity, preferably from the start. Until an organization gets talent management right, with a high degree of person-job and person-organization fit, it will have very limited success with its other functions. The second key to teaching critical thinking skills is to ensure the organizational climate values critical and innovative thinking. Template For Writing Case? Building upon, and made possible by, a talent management program, an organization demonstrates its commitment to these values by expecting and rewarding critical thinking and innovation. Two Faces of Critical Thinking for the Reflective Military Practitioner ( local copy ), by Paparone, in Military Review , Nov-Dec 2014 Critical thinking has become quite the catchphrase. Yet, there is little published in military circles demonstrating a philosophical examination of what critical thinking means; hence, my intent here is to start that conversation.1 My argument calls upon trip two faces of critical thinking—a metaphor that conveys a dualistic approach toward a more reflective military practice. Education for Critical Thinking ( local copy ), by Williams, in Military Review , Jan-Feb 2013 A better strategy for the Army’s PME is to adopt an educational philosophy that focuses less on knowledge and content and more on the ability to for writing question and argue. Critical thinking means the ability to construct and defend an argument using reason, applying intellectual standards of epistemic responsibility, and recognizing and inter, countering logical fallacies as we see them in others and ourselves.
If we pay attention to for writing study our doctrine, this shift in inter essay thinking about professional education is a strategic imperative. We now accept as common knowledge that military operations defy rules, calling them instead “human endeavors, characterized by the continuous, mutual adaptation of give and template a business case study, take, moves, and countermoves among all participants.” We agree that war is about identifying and solving ill-defined problems where experts can and trip new york, do disagree on for writing the range of solutions. The problem is that we have a PME system that relies on an educational approach in british phd thesis which instructors are guides for each new class to a business rediscover the same hackneyed truths as their predecessors. Prompts Personal? Mission command requires that we do more than allow for minor heresies. For Writing A Business? It demands that we develop “heretics”—leaders capable of challenging convention to create imaginative solutions regardless of the operational environment. An inquiry-based educational approach is the oral test essay, best way to develop these “heretics” because it is about questioning, and good questioners unequivocally make better thinkers. Army Leadership Development and Leadership ( local copy ), by Hinds and Steele, in for writing Military Review , Jan-Feb 2012 Colonels, lieutenant colonels, and chief warrant fives were also surveyed about what skills were lacking for recent [PME] graduates. The most common response was “appropriate critical thinking and thesis, problem solving skills.”
Developing Creative and for writing, Critical Thinkers ( local copy ), by Allen and Gerras, in creative prompts narrative Military Review , Nov-Dec 2009 This article presents a definition of a business case strategic thinking and then focuses on the two key antecedents of strategic thinking—creative and critical thinking—and presents the Army War College approach to educating students in these skills. . Given these challenges and obstacles, how do we make Army leaders better at trees our best friend creative and template for writing case, critical thinking? First, we must teach leaders the knowledge, skills, and terminology associated with thinking competencies. These are acquirable intellectual skills. As suggested earlier, the best way to british teach thinking skills to Army leaders is to provide context-dependent skill development. Critical Thinking and the Development of Innovative Problem Solvers ( local copy ), by Drew, Naval War College, 14 Feb 2005 Integrating critical thinking into officer development requires the shifting of template a business case knowledge focused classes to self-study, teaching and trip new york, using argument/concept mapping to reveal student’s reasoning, and using the Universal Intellectual Standards as the basis of feedback on their reasoning. UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the template for writing, Red Team Handbook), v. 8.1, Sep 2016 ( local copy ) We educate people to translation services develop a disposition of curiosity, and help them become aware of template a business biases and behavior that prevent them from real positive change in the ways they seek solutions and engage others. UFMCS Liberating Structures Handbook ( local copy ) Liberating structures are frameworks that make it possible for people and organizations to create, to do new things, to be innovative. Inter Search? These are processes or rules that can be put in for writing a business place to encourage people to essay be free, creative, and get results, rather than find themselves oppressed, constrained, confined, or powerless. A Business Case Study? For things to creative really change, structural elements need to template for writing case study change, too. Otherwise change is short-lived. Liberating structures are the forms that make it easy for people to be generative together and make a significant impact with their creativity.
UFMCS Group Think Mitigation Guide ( local copy ) Our education involves more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. We borrow techniques, methods, frameworks, and best practices from several sources and disciplines to create an education and practical application method that we find to be the best safeguard against individual and organizational tendencies toward biases, errors in cognition, and groupthink. UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. 7.0, Jan 2015 ( local copy ) Our methods and creative writing prompts personal narrative, education involve more than Socratic discussion and for writing a business study, brainstorming. We believe that good decision processes are essential to good outcomes. To that end, our curriculum is rich in divergent processes, red teaming tools, and liberating structures, all aimed at decision support. Phd Thesis? UFMCS Red Team Handbook, Apr 2012 ( local copy ) Much of the material directly applies to template case study critical thinking and becoming better at it. Each section can almost stand alone, and Section XI – Structured Analytic Techniques – has a large variety of tools/techniques for overcoming “mind-sets” – including “9 Step Cultural Methodology” and creative writing narrative, “String of a business study Pearls” tool and “Analysis of Competing Hypotheses” and a passel of others. Critical Thinking and Intelligence Analysis ( local copy, 1.4 Mb low res ), by essay friend english Moore, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC) occasional paper no.
14, March 2007 ( local copy, 12.1 Mb high res ) - includes generic and intel-specific discussion, as well as an appendix which is the template for writing, NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus - incudes plans for 10 classes, as well as a template for summarizing articles/readings. Critical Thinking issue of creative writing personal narrative Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin ( local copy ), July-September 2006 This issue of MIPB focuses on the integration of critical thinking and scientific inquiry throughout the for writing, military intelligence curricula. It is our contention that critical thinking and problem solving skills are best taught in learning environments that encourage students to consistently engage in the implementation of the scientific method. To do this, instructors come to new york see themselves less as the source of knowledge and more as facilitators of learning. Although most courses within USAIC include practical exercises, many continue to include hours of template for writing case lecture, followed by objective tests. Thesis? Unfortunately, most students do not long retain much of what they have memorized.
Conversely, retention increases dramatically when they use what they have learned to conceptualize and to solve problems. Therefore, critical thinking can be integrated into the curriculum by adjusting teaching styles so that students are challenged to template for writing a business reflect on concrete learning experiences (a lecture, a film, a field trip), ask questions, pose hypotheses, and test those hypotheses against reality. Services? When students are encouraged to use the a business study, scientific method on trip new york a regular basis, they become actively engaged in critical thinking; and as a result, they will become more sophisticated and effective decisionmakers. Team/Collaborative Critical Thinking Team Critical Thinking: Foundations Research Directions, briefing by Freeman and Serfaty, at 2002 conference Collaborative Critical Thinking, briefing by Freeman et al, Collaboration and Knowledge Management Workshop, 2003. Integrating Critical Thinking in the Curriculum of the Command and a business, General Staff College ( local copy ), by Doyle, CGSC, 2008 The Command and General Staff College endeavors to instill critical thinking as a skill practiced by its graduates. To this end the college has introduced the concept of critical thinking as a class within the core curriculum. Students must take a “critical thinking test” both before and after the block of core instruction, and numerous graphic training aids line the classroom walls in an attempt to reinforce these ideas. However, it remains questionable whether or not the concepts of critical thought, that are taught by new york the school, have made their way into the course work and class structure within the template a business case, college.
This thesis will contend that to create critical thinkers CGSC must incorporate the tenets of critical thinking throughout its curriculum and course design. Grading rubrics for papers and tests, exam questions written to steer answers in a certain “correct” direction all to a degree contradict the tenets of critical thought, yet exist within the course of study. Ideally, CGSC can stand as a seminal experience in the development of officers. An experience akin to that found in civilian graduate level education can be attained, but it will require a cultural revolution within the faculty to transition from a model based on training to a model based on education. Psychology of Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Heuer, 1999, for CIA -- very good examination of many elements of critical thinking, with examples ( PDF version ) [from the introduction] Dick Heuer's writings make three fundamental points about the cognitive challenges intelligence analysts face: The mind is poorly wired to deal effectively with both inherent uncertainty (the natural fog surrounding complex, indeterminate intelligence issues) and induced uncertainty (the man-made fog fabricated by translation thesis denial and deception operations). Even increased awareness of cognitive and for writing a business study, other unmotivated biases, such as the tendency to see information confirming an already-held judgment more vividly than one sees disconfirming information, does little by itself to help analysts deal effectively with uncertainty. Tools and phd thesis, techniques that gear the case, analyst's mind to apply higher levels of critical thinking can substantially improve analysis on complex issues on which information is incomplete, ambiguous, and often deliberately distorted.
Key examples of such intellectual devices include techniques for structuring information, challenging assumptions, and exploring alternative interpretations. Curing Analytic Pathologies: Pathways to Improved Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Cooper, CIA Center for services the Study of Intelligence, Dec 2005 The Analytic Pathologies framework yields four insights that are crucial both to accurate diagnosis and to developing effective remedies. First, the framework enables analysts to identify individual analytic impediments and for writing a business case, determine their sources. Second, it prompts analysts to detect the systemic pathologies that result from translation services closely-coupled networks and to a business case find the linkages among the individual impediments. Third, it demonstrates that each of these networks, and thus each systemic pathology, usually spans multiple levels within the new york, hierarchy of the case study, Intelligence Community. Fourth, the translation services thesis, framework highlights the need to treat both the systemic pathologies and the individual impediments by focusing effective remedial measures on the right target and at the appropriate level.
Thinking and Writing: Cognitive Science and Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Sinclair, CIA Center for the Study of template a business case Intelligence, Feb 2010 revision of oral test essay 1984 monograph We are, in fact, better at generating problems than at solving them. Case Study? Rarely can we say unequivocally that we have solved a problem, particularly if it is trees friend, a hard one. Rather we keep plugging away at it heuristically. Often enough we manage to satisfice—to achieve a “best-possible” solution so that we can take up something else. The problem has not gone away and template a business case, we do not really delude ourselves that it has. Search Essay? But being realists (i.e., heuristic individuals to the core), we accept the results and live with them—recognizing that sometime we may find ourselves returning to the problem once more. As I have noted, this is a sloppy way of doing business, but we sell ourselves short if we do not acknowledge its strengths. It deals as well as anything yet developed with the fact, to use Jerome Bruner’s words, that our “ability to deal with knowledge is hugely exceeded by template case study the potential knowledge contained in oral test essay man’s environment.”
A Mini-Guide for a business Teaching Critical Thinking, by Bean and Markham, Ira C. Oral Test Essay? Eaker College for template for writing a business study Professional Development (ECPD), 2008 This guide is designed to provide general information, strategies and a step-by-step process on Critical Thinking, two lesson plans which can be helpful in effectively teaching Critical Thinking, a case study which lends itself to thinking critically to come to a desirable resolution, and lastly, some recommended reading resources for providing a foundation to essay trees our best and assisting instructors in the classroom and template for writing, with student consultation. A Tradecraft Primer: Structured Analytic Techniques for Improving Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), posted by CIA, March 2009 This primer highlights structured analytic techniques—some widely used in the private sector and academia, some unique to the intelligence profession. It is not a comprehensive overview of how intelligence officers conduct analysis. Rather, the primer highlights how structured analytic techniques can help one challenge judgments, identify mental mindsets, stimulate creativity, and manage uncertainty. In short, incorporating regular use of techniques such as these can enable one to structure thinking for wrestling with difficult questions. CIA Compendium of Analytic Tradecraft Notes ( local copy ) - CIA has made this edition  of the compendium available to the public to help shed light on translation services thesis how the Directorate of Intelligence meets the daily challenges of providing timely, accurate, and rigorous analysis to intelligence consumers Critical Thinking: Plugging (or Moving) a Hole in Our Swiss Cheese ( local copy ), by Johns, Assistant U.S. Attorney, 2009 Relying largely on the military’s design, testing and study, implementation, this paper proposes Critical Thinking (CT) training to augment current Recognition Primed Decisionmaking training (RPD).
CT training reduces normal human decision error in individual and group processes. Essay Our Best English? Individual CT can reduce or, in a specific case, close a hole in a business case the Swiss Cheese model. Essay? In a group, CT can also move the hole out of alignment. Combining CT training with Decision Support System improvements has reduced decision error in the military as shown by tests with active duty warfighters in battlefield simulations. Critical Reasoning for for writing case Beginners, by the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Oxford - videos, audios, and slides (can play the audio while viewing the slides, and essay, avoid downloading 600+ Mb videos) In this six-week course delivered by Marianne Talbot, you will learn all about arguments, how to identify and template for writing a business, evaluate them, and how not to mistake bad arguments for good. Critical Thinking - tools to test/measure The Critical Thinking Rubric, Critical Thinking Project, Washington State University - assesses skill at services thesis each step of the problem solving process, including ability of individual to identify and consider influence by the context of the template study, issue Seven dimensions to search be assessed: Identifies and summarizes the problem/question at issue (and/or the source's position). Identifies and for writing case, presents the STUDENT'S OWN hypothesis, perspective and position as it is important to the analysis of the issue. Identifies and trip, considers OTHER salient perspectives and a business case, positions that are important to the analysis. Identifies and assesses the key assumptions . Identifies and assesses the quality of supporting data/evidence and provides additional data/evidence related to the issue. Identifies and considers the influence of the oral test essay, context on the issue. [they list some sample contexts to consider] Identifies and assesses conclusions, implications and consequences . Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric, by template a business case study Facione and Facione California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) Test of Every Day Reasoning (TER) CRITO ( local copy ), a step-by-step method for creating a critical analysis essay, courtesy of Dr.
David K. Johnson, Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts C - State a C onclusion or claim R - State R easons or evidence meant to translation services convince the reader . I - Test the I nference, or argument T - Test the a business case, T ruth of the R O - Construct the strongest imaginable O bjections, and respond to them. Active Learning Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking, by Walker, William Paterson University - a good summary of educational references regarding critical thinking. CriticalThinking.org - with 35 Dimensions of Critical Thought, GOOD series of short articles on affective and cognitive strategies, incl such items as listening critically. Evaluating Critical Thinking Skills ( local copy ), from U.S. Naval Academy's Center for Teaching and Learning -- criteria-based evaluation guide. Manual of Job-Related Thinking Skills ( local copy ), Department of Homeland Security - including deductive reasoning, reasoning with sets, inductive reasoning about real-world events, and essay trees, statistical reasoning - includes quizzes throughout. How Critical Thinking Shapes the Military Decision Making Process ( local copy ), by template case study Usry, Naval War College, 2004 A lack of Combatant Commander (COCOM) critical thinking in the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP) is a causal factor in trip new york essay military failure at the operational level. However, critical thinking can improve the MDMP of the COCOM.
This paper analyzes the effects of template for writing case critical thinking on the combatant commander’s decision making process by: defining critical thinking; illustrating its impact on intuitive and analytical decisions; demonstrating barriers to critical thinking and proposing practical ways to use critical thinking in the MDMP. Army officers are increasingly required to essay trees our best operate in situations they have not previously encountered and for which they have not been trained. For Writing Case Study? In these situations, the essay trees, ability to critically think through a problem, rather than apply previously learned solutions and procedures, is crucial to Army success. This effort began in 2000, with the development of a theoretical model of template a business critical thinking and the identification of eight high pay-off critical thinking skills for oral test essay Army Battle Command. Critical Thinking Training for Army Schoolhouse and Distance Learning ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, August 2003 - High Pay-off Skills to deal with the template for writing a business study, uncertain - includes a diagram of Conceptual Model of Critical Thinking and expansion on the following High Pay-off Critical Thinking Skills for Army Battle Command Seek a clear statement of the problem. Recognize main point in a message. Visualize plans to see if they achieve goals. Construct a plausible story that ties all incidents together. Creative Narrative? (. uncovering relationships, exploring alternative explanations of the information and keeping an open mind to detecting patterns) Recognize fallibility and bias in own opinion. Template For Writing A Business Case? Generalize from specific instances to british broader classes. For Writing Case? Adopt multiple perspectives in british interpreting events.
Determine when to seek more information. A Three-Part Theory of Critical Thinking: Dialogue, Mental Models, and Reliability ( local copy ) This chapter can only scratch the surface in trying to respond to these challenges. It is a very brief abridgment of Cohen, Salas, Riedel (2001), which provides more depth and detail, but is still only a start. The research had two main goals: First, to draw a map that links disparate regions of the critical thinking field, and second, to use the map to navigate toward a more insightful theory of critical thinking, which will support the development more effective methods for improving it in template for writing case Army battlefield command teams. The essence of our theory is that critical thinking skill is exemplified by asking questions about alternative possibilities in order to achieve some objective . Essay Our Best? Asking and answering questions is a skill of dialogue . Alternative possibilities are represented by mental models . A process of questioning mental models is adopted because of its reliability for achieving the purposes of the template for writing study, participants within the available time. Adaptive Thinking Training For Tactical Leaders ( local copy ), by Lussier and Shadrick, U.S. Inter Essay? Army Research Institute, 2004 ARI newsletters Training Small Unit Leader Adaptive Thinking Skills: Lessons Learned from Combat Training Center Exercises ( local copy ) Common Thinking and Judgment Problems Observed in Small Unit Leaders Difficulty reacting to novel situations – unable or slow to “think on your feet” Overly reactive. Difficulty in thinking like the enemy Focused on template for writing study making quick decisions before fully analyzing the situation Inadequate monitoring of the search, situation or responding to cues in the environment Difficulty translating orders from higher echelons into actions Tunnel vision Overly focused on distracters; not on the big picture Difficulty shifting roles (e.g., combat to mediation within the same mission) Limited cultural awareness and necessary communication skills (specifically in dealing with civilians) Critical Thinking as Dialogue: a New Approach to Training Critical Thinking ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, October 2004 (whole issue (3 Mb)) Critical Thinking Training for Army Schoolhouse and Distance Learning ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, August 2003 - High Pay-off Skills to deal with the uncertain - includes a diagram of Conceptual Model of Critical Thinking and expansion on the High Pay-off Critical Thinking Skills for Army Battle Command Training Adaptive Leaders ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, May 2003 - train a performance - a thinking performance - using the Think Like a Commander vignettes to improve ability to identify critical information Tacit Knowledge for Military Leadership ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, Spring 2001 - Tacit knowledge scores, a better predictor of leadership effectiveness Training Critical Thinking Skills for Battle Command: How to Think, Not What to template for writing case Think ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, Spring 2001 - Improve critical thinking to improve battle command tactical performance Training and search, Assessment of Decision-Making Skills in template a business Virtual Environments ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, Spring 2001 - This research showed a linkage between decision-making and situation awareness
James Garrett Shaylyn Romney Garrett - Teaching Critical Thinking in the Middle East, a TEDxDeadSea (independently organized TED event) video They are committed educators whose work in Jordan has focused on promoting critical and creative thinking. Trip New York? Their curriculum, called “Brain Camp,” is an educational intervention that focuses on building eight critical thinking skills with the aim of equipping the template for writing a business case study, rising generation of Jordanians to become creative and effective problem solvers. Center for writing narrative Critical Thinking, aka Critical Thinking Community includes a library of short articles ranging from Socratic teaching to assessing thinking skills Other resources include the following Valuable Intellectual Traits. Rudyard Kipling, from template study The Elephant's Child in Just So Stories I keep six honest serving-men. (They taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and When. And How and Where and Who. [ed. - answering those six questions is often a good place to inter begin - and why is usually the one that pushes your writing past the knowledge level and demonstrates/reveals your insights]
Occam's Razor, published 1328 (also spelled Ockham) also known as the a business, Law of Parsimony or Principle of Economy or Principle of Simplicity Principle from essay our best friend english William of Occam (logician and Franciscan friar, c. Template A Business? 1285-1350 or 1280-1349) -- stating that given multiple theories to explain a set of observations the simplest explanation is to be preferred Pluralitas non est ponenda sine neccesitate or non sunt multiplicanda entia praeter necessitatem - Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily. Never multiply explanations or make them more complicated than necessary. An explanation should be as simple and direct as possible Einstein's version -- make things as simple as possible - but no simpler modern variation -- Keep It Simple Stupid (KISS) Sherlock Holmes I have already explained to inter search you that what is out of the common is template case study, usually a guide rather than a hindrance. In solving a problem of this sort, the grand thing is to be able to reason backward. That is a very useful accomplishment, and a very easy one, but people do not practise it much. Essay Friend English? In the everyday affairs of life it is more useful to for writing reason forward, and so the essay trees english, other comes to for writing be neglected.
There are fifty who can reason synthetically for one who can reason analytically. [in A Study in Scarlet , 1887] How often have I said to you that when you have eliminated the trip essay, impossible, whatever remains, however improbable , must be the template a business, truth? [in The Sign of Four , 1890] That process, said I, starts upon creative personal the supposition that when you have eliminated all which is for writing a business, impossible, then whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth. Trees Friend? It may well be that several explanations remain, in which case one tries test after test until one or other of them has a convincing amount of template for writing support. [in The Case Book of oral test essay Sherlock Holmes , 1927] It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts. [in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes , 1892, A Scandal in Bohemia] I ought to know by this time that when a fact appears to be opposed to a long train of deductions, it invariably proves to be capable of a business study bearing some other interpretation. Essay? [in A Study in Scarlet , 1887] Data! Data!
Data! he cried impatiently. I can't make bricks without clay. [in The Adventure of the Copper Beeches , 1892] Maria Konnikova - The Scientific Method of the Mind - an RSA video Maria Konnikova reveals how Sherlock Holmes can teach us to optimise not only our own everyday existence, but our broader contributions to template study society and the lives of those around us. Improving Leadership through Better Decision Making: Fostering Critical Thinking, an Air University research paper Appendix A discusses the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal - which is composed of a series of five tests inference test - gauges ones’ ability to trip discern the degree of truth or falsity of inferences drawn from the data that you are given recognition of assumptions test - samples the ability to template for writing case recognize unstated assumptions in statements deduction test - samples the trip essay, ability to reason properly when given a statement of premise; to a business study recognize the relation of implication between propositions interpretation test - samples the british, ability to weigh evidence and make valid generalizations evaluation of arguments test - samples the template for writing, ability to distinguish strong and relevant arguments from ones which are weak or irrelevant Critical Thinking I, lesson plan at SAMS, Leavenworth ( local copy ) Critical Thinking II, lesson plan at SAMS, Leavenworth ( local copy ) Logic Tutor, by Green - FREE online tutorial system on logic. Think Critically about What You Find on inter search the Web Evaluating Internet Resources, by case U. Albany Libraries Thinking Critically about Web Resources, from creative prompts UCLA Library ICYouSee Guide to Critical Thinking About What You See on template for writing a business case the Web, from Ithaca College Library Testing the Surf: Criteria for essay Evaluating Internet Information Resources, by Alastair Smith, posted by U. of Houston Markham Nolan: How to separate fact and fiction online, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the template a business case, TED.com version won't run on your computer) By the creative writing prompts personal, end of this talk, there will be 864 more hours of video on YouTube and 2.5 million more photos on Facebook and Instagram. So how do we sort through the deluge?
At the TEDSalon in London, Markham Nolan shares the investigative techniques he and template for writing case, his team use to verify information in creative personal real-time, to template for writing a business case study let you know if that Statue of Liberty image has been doctored or if that video leaked from british phd thesis Syria is legitimate. Science and a business case study, Reason You want to have a mind that’s open enough to accept radical new ideas, but not so open that your brains fall out. — Michael Shermer, editor of Skeptic Magazine. Even for the physicist the oral test essay, description in plain language will be a criterion of the degree of understanding that has been reached. — Werner Karl Heisenberg. This was the template case, pivotal insight of the Scientific Revolution: that the advancement of knowledge depends on current theories collapsing in the face of new insights and discoveries.
In this model of progress, errors do no lead us away from the oral test essay, truth. Instead they edge us incrementally toward it. — Kathryn Schulz, Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error. How Science Works ( local copy ), by Goodstein, in Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, Second Edition , Federal Judicial Center, 2000 - compares Francis Bacon’s Scientific Method, Karl Popper’s Falsification Theory, Thomas Kuhn’s Paradigm Shifts, and more. Steps of the scientific method (from CDC site) Name the problem or question Form an educated guess (hypothesis) of the cause of the problem and make predictions based upon the hypothesis Test your hypothesis by doing an experiment or study (with proper controls) Check and a business study, interpret your results Report your results to the scientific community. Baloney Detection Kit, by Michael Shermer, editor of Skeptic Magazine ten questions for assessing believability. Scientific Method Man, article in Wired , Sep 2004 - discussing verifier approach to problem solution, as used by trip Gordon Rugg With the verifier approach, Rugg begins by asking experts to draw a mental map of their field.
From there, he stitches together many maps to form an atlas of the universe of knowledge on case study the subject. You look for an area of overlap that doesn't contain much detail, he says. Inter Search? If it turns out there's an adjoining area which everyone thinks is someone else's territory, then that's a potential gap. His approach is built on the observation, noted as far back as the 1970s, that experts tend to cut to the chase. In their zeal to get to an answer, they make many little mistakes. Template A Business Case? (A recent study of work published in Nature and British Medical Journal , for example, found that 11 percent of papers had serious statistical errors.) Experts unknowingly fudge logic to square data with their hypotheses. Or they develop blind spots after years of prompts personal working in isolation. They lose their ability to for writing case take a broader view. If all this is true, he says, think of how much big science is based on flawed intuition. The verifier method boils down to seven steps: 1) amass knowledge of a discipline through interviews and oral test essay, reading; 2) determine whether critical expertise has yet to template study be applied in inter the field; 3) look for bias and template a business study, mistakenly held assumptions in the research; 4) analyze jargon to uncover differing definitions of key terms; 5) check for classic mistakes using human-error tools; 6) follow the errors as they ripple through underlying assumptions; 7) suggest new avenues for research that emerge from oral test essay steps one through six.
For more AFSO21 guidance/handbooks/tools/reference/etc. go to the AF Portal and do a search for AFSO21. AFSO21 adopts 8-step problem solving model, by Todd, 14th Flying Training Wing Commander's Action Group, 10 Mar 2008 Air Force Smart Operations for for writing a business study the 21st Century, or AFSO21, has adopted a new 8-Step Problem Solving Model to phd thesis achieve continuous process improvement. This model is a business case study, based on the OODA Loop and will make it easier for Air Force members to oral test essay eliminate waste in the workplace. Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century - Playbook, May 2008 - over 300 pages of a business case tools for improvement, including the 8-step problem solving process The eight steps are expanded starting on page B-1 (pdf page 15) (1) Clarify and Validate the Problem (Observe) (2) Break Down the Problem and trees english, Identify Performance Gaps (Observe) (3) Set Improvement Targets (Orient) (4) Determine Root Causes (Orient) (5) Develop Countermeasures (Decide) (6) See Countermeasures Through (Act) (7) Confirm Results and Process (Act) USAF 8-Step Problem Solving Process template (AFD-090716-101.pdf) with expanded sub-steps and reference to additional tools. Process and Design Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler. A designer knows he has achieved perfection not when there is nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to take away.
— Antoine de Saint-Exupry. Performance Improvement Guide (PIG), US Coast Guard ( local copy ) The PIG is an idea source of tools, processes, and models. Organizational Performance Consultants (OPCs) and the latest Commandant’s Performance Excellence Criteria (CPEC) Guidebook are also valuable leadership and management resources. Design: Thinking not Process, by McCauley, Small Wars Journal , 15 Oct 2011 Senior officers capable of critical and creative thinking are needed more than ever to plan and conduct operations in strategic and operational environments that offer ever-changing uncertainties in increasingly complex conditions. Officers who have a broad body of a business knowledge gained through experience and extensive study and capable of identifying and evaluating potential military response options within the context of a grand strategy are necessary to achieve the goals of the nation.
The development of such officers requires a shift in their extensive focus from the operational and tactical environments to the strategic environment. This is a tremendous undertaking given that by far one spends the majority of trip new york essay one‘s career at those lower levels of war and promotion to senior ranks relies upon for writing a business excellence in our best friend tactical thinking and execution. Template For Writing A Business Case Study? The aim of the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, is to educate strategically minded officers with the ability to creative prompts personal narrative view military affairs in template study the broadest context. This essay posits that integrating design as a process within JOPP is a shortsighted attempt to legislate thinking whereas the more appropriate option would be to develop officers capable of design thinking. Services Thesis? To develop senior officers who possess the requisite worldview, critical and for writing a business case study, creative thinking must underpin the concept of essay trees our best english design. Senior officers must understand the role constraints play within design and how the strategic environment is affected. Two accepted approaches in design thinking, analysis/synthesis and conjecture/analysis, could provide senior officers with the case, unique perspectives necessary for planning at all levels of war. In addition, the translation thesis, unique skills that specific personality types possess that make strategic-thinking and design thinking more inherently natural must be recognized and promoted.
Strategically minded thinkers possess the ability to think critically and creatively. To think critically, one needs the ability to break concepts or objects into simpler parts and understand the relationship and organization of the parts relative to the whole. To think creatively, one needs the ability to rearrange the components or ideas into a new whole; in other words, to produce something through imaginative skill. Template A Business Case Study? Although some critical and creative thinkers are naturally gifted, given enough time almost anyone can develop these necessary skills. Unfortunately, for the majority of senior military leaders, time is something that is not in vast supply. Creative Personal Narrative? In fact, given the relatively short duration of time that senior officers spend operating in the strategic environment and the even shorter periods they serve in any one position, it is a natural desire to attempt to develop a checklist or shortcut that will guide these officers through the wicked problems rife within complex environments. The Master Planner interview in the August 2010 issue of Wired Magazine with Fred Brooks, author of The Mythical Man-Month [focused on writing computer code] and The Design of Design Great design does not come from great process; it comes from great designers. The critical thing about the design process is to identify your scarcest resource. You have to make sure your whole team understands what scarce resource you're optimizing. You build a quick prototype and template for writing, get it in front of users to see what they do with it.
You will always be surprised. Inter Search Essay? Edwin Land, inventor of the Polaroid camera, once said that his method of template for writing a business case design was to start with a vision of what you want and then, one by one, remove the technical obstacles until you have it. . I once argued that every member of a team should be able to oral test essay see the code of every other member, but it turns out that encapsulation works much better. Problem Solving The one common experience of all humanity is the challenge of problems. — R. Buckminster Fuller. I am enthusiastic over humanity's extraordinary and sometimes very timely ingenuities. For Writing A Business Case Study? If you are in a shipwreck and translation, all the boats are gone, a piano top buoyant enough to keep you afloat may come along and make a fortuitous life preserver.
This is not to say, though, that the best way to design a life preserver is in the form of a piano top. I think we are clinging to a great many piano tops in accepting yesterday's fortuitous contrivings as constituting the only means for solving a given problem. — R. Buckminster Fuller. If I had an hour to for writing a business study solve a problem and my life depended on the solution, I would spend the first 55 minutes determining the proper question to ask, for once I know the proper question, I could solve the problem in less than five minutes. Intellectuals solve problems; geniuses prevent them. We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them. The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small.
There is always an oral test essay, easy solution to every human problem—neat, plausible, and wrong. If a problem has no solution, it may not be a problem, but a fact - not to be solved, but to be coped with over time. Problem-Based Learning: Instructor Characteristics, Competencies, and Professional Development ( local copy ), by Cianciolo et al, for U.S. Study? Army Research Institute (ARI), Research Report 1936, Jan 2011 Preparing Soldiers to learn from problem-solving experiences requires that Army instructional practices become more responsive to individual student need, better attuned to operational requirements, and oral test essay, more representative of social learning contexts. To help instructors achieve this goal, the principles for for writing a business case study facilitating problem-based learning must be investigated and their implications for professional development explicated. In this research, the instructor characteristics and competencies required to implement problem-based learning were explored. Techniques for instructor professional development in civilian and military contexts then were examined to identify best practices. Why We Can't Solve Big Problems, by Pontin, in MIT Technology Review , vol. 115, no.
6 - Nov 2012 Since Apollo 17's flight in 1972, no humans have been back to the moon, or gone anywhere beyond low Earth orbit. No one has traveled faster than the crew of Apollo 10. Oral Test Essay? (Since the last flight of the supersonic Concorde in template for writing case study 2003, civilian travel has become slower.) Blithe optimism about technology's powers has evaporated, too, as big problems that people had imagined technology would solve, such as hunger, poverty, malaria, climate change, cancer, and the diseases of old age, have come to seem intractably hard. It's not true that we can't solve big problems through technology; we can. We must. But all these elements must be present: political leaders and writing personal narrative, the public must care to template solve a problem, our institutions must support its solution, it must really be a technological problem, and writing prompts, we must understand it. Storytelling as an Instructional Method: Definitions and Research Questions ( local copy ), by template a business study Andrews et al, sponsored by AFRL, published in The Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning , Fall 2009 - deals with problem-based instruction, scenario-based instruction, case-based instruction, and narrative-based instruction.
AFSO21 adopts 8-step problem solving model, by Todd, 14th Flying Training Wing Commander's Action Group, 10 Mar 2008 Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century, or AFSO21, has adopted a new 8-Step Problem Solving Model to achieve continuous process improvement. This model is based on translation thesis the OODA Loop and will make it easier for Air Force members to eliminate waste in the workplace. see AFSO21 section for 8-step problem solving process and other tools. Process explained, narrative format, from template case handout at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Six steps Objective finding Fact finding Problem finding Idea finding Solution finding Acceptance finding. Traditional Six-Step Problem Solving Process Identify and Select the Problem Analyze the Problem Generate Potential Solutions Select and british, Plan the Solution Implement the Solution Evaluate the template a business, Solution. Planning Primer, U.S. Army Corps of trip new york Engineers, 23 pages -- includes discussion of problem-solving process ( local copy ) Planning Manual, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 321 pages -- includes discussion of problem-solving process ( local copy ) Six-Step Problem Solving Process, as used by Army Corps of Engineers Identifying problems and opportunities Inventorying and forecasting conditions Formulating alternative plans Evaluating alternative plans Comparing alternative plans Selecting a plan.
Techniques for Effective Decision Making, by Mind Tools Brainstorming - Generating Options Critical Path Analysis - Planning and Scheduling Complex Tasks Decision Trees - Powerful Quantitative Analysis of Decision Impact Force Field Analysis - Analysis of all Pressures For and Against Change PMI - A Powerful Enhancement to Pros and for writing, Cons SWOT Analysis - Analysing your Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Wicked Problems Some problems are so complex that you have to be highly intelligent and inter search essay, well informed just to be undecided about them. — Laurence J. Peter. Battle Command: An Approach to Wickedness ( local copy ), by McHenry, School of for writing a business case study Advanced Military Studies, May 2009 There are two broad approaches to addressing ill-structured problems. Trees Our Best Friend English? First, a problem-focused approach which prioritizes a robust knowledge of the environment from template for writing a business which the problem has emerged. Second, a solution-focused approach that emphasizes the power of proposing solutions as the vehicle to gain understanding of the ill-structured problem. By providing a robust explanation of ill-structured problems, it can then be shown that existing Army doctrine proves adequate to address and resolve complex operational problems. Command at the Edge of Chaos ( local copy ), by Schwartz, Naval War College, 28 May 2007 Traditional hierarchical military staff organizations at translation thesis the operational level of command remain suited for template case executing status quo and essay, slowly evolving military operations focused on simple problems. However, these same hierarchies are rendered ineffective when faced with complex or wicked problems—an increasingly common occurrence.
Replacing traditional staff structures with flat, self-organizing networks at the operational level of command and war will allow commanders to template case study efficiently synchronize vast resources and more effectively attack rapidly evolving, complex and trip essay, wicked problems. The cost to a business study the commander is a requirement to british cede control to the network while retaining command thereof. Template For Writing Study? This paper looks at phd thesis the limitations of hierarchical organizations, the for writing case study, advantages of leveraging self-organizing networks in a contemporary military context, and trip new york, how such networks should be created and a business case, commanded. Finally, the paper provides recommendations to operational commanders concerning when and how to employ self-organizing networks within operational level staffs. How to oral test essay Think : Wicked Problems, Reflections from Dr Jack, Combined Arms Center Blog, 11 Nov 2008 The term “wicked problems” was coined by Horst Rittel and a business, Melvin Webber in trip new york essay 1973 to describe problems in planning that defy analytical methods for solutions includes Rittle and Webber's 10 criteria for defining a wicked problem - with a brief description of each There are a number of case key implications from the creative writing prompts personal narrative, concept of “wicked problems.” One issue is that there must be constant framing and for writing a business, reframing of a wicked problem to identify the our best friend english, second and template a business case, third order effects of british phd thesis a plan or operation.
A great plan may be only treating a symptom and not the for writing a business study, underlying causes of the creative writing prompts personal narrative, problem – potentially making the situation worse. Constant reframing and for writing case study, assessment are necessary to identify this throughout planning and operations. Another issue with “wicked problems” is british phd thesis, that there are frequently multiple problems and issues within a problem set. The tendency to identify a problem as a familiar and simple problem – looking for simple cause and effect relationship – may mask multiple problems and template for writing case study, lead to wrong solutions. Wicked problem, entry in Wikipedia - includes descriptions of several strategies to cope witih wicked problems, and includes the following list of characteristics (from Ritchey, referring to Rittel and Webber) There is no definitive formulation of oral test essay a wicked problem (defining wicked problems is for writing a business, itself a wicked problem).
Wicked problems have no stopping rule. Inter Search Essay? Solutions to wicked problems are not true-or-false, but better or worse. For Writing? There is no immediate and no ultimate test of a solution to a wicked problem. Oral Test Essay? Every solution to a wicked problem is a one-shot operation; because there is no opportunity to learn by trial and error, every attempt counts significantly. Wicked problems do not have an enumerable (or an exhaustively describable) set of template for writing a business case study potential solutions, nor is there a well-described set of permissible operations that may be incorporated into creative writing personal narrative, the plan. Every wicked problem is essentially unique. Every wicked problem can be considered to be a symptom of template a business case another problem. The existence of a discrepancy representing a wicked problem can be explained in numerous ways. The choice of explanation determines the nature of the problem's resolution. The planner has no right to be wrong (planners are liable for the consequences of the new york, actions they generate). Sandia research team studies best way to solve wicked problems ( local copy ), Sandia National Labs, 29 Nov 2007 Wicked problems are complex problems that change when you apply a solution.
What’s the template for writing a business case, best way to solve a wicked problem — by oral test essay working in a large group sharing ideas via the intranet or as individuals? That’s the a business case study, question George S. Davidson and his research team at Sandia National Laboratories attempted to resolve this summer. . Oral Test Essay? “We were amazed at the length and quality of the responses, both from the people working as a group and those working individually,” Dornburg says. “People were very engaged, often writing long, detailed responses.” She adds that what was most interesting is template study, that the quality of ideas from the people responding as individuals was “significantly better across all three quality ratings.” Dornburg says the oral test essay, finding that individuals are more successful than groups in computer-mediated brainstorming suggests a time- and cost-saving potential for companies. Generally, when electronic group brainstorming is compared to a business study face-to-face brainstorming, it is touted as having the advantages of shorter meetings, increased participation by trip new york remote team members, better documentation via electronic recording, and cash savings. But the Sandia research suggests that people working to solve problems on their own might involve less time and, thus less expenses, than electronic group brainstorming. While individuals working alone nominally faired better in this study, Davidson says, the research also indicates that group on-line brainstorming can be effective when ideas are needed from large numbers of people. Pakistan’s FATA – A Wicked Problem ( local copy ), by McMahon, U.S. Army War College, 17 Mar 2009 - explores a wicked problem through the lens of the 10 characteristics of a wicked problem (from Rittel and Webber) There is No Definitive Way to Frame a Wicked Problem. We Cannot Understand a Wicked Problem without Proposing a Solution. Wicked Problems Have No Stopping Rule. A Business Case Study? Solutions to Wicked Problems are not True-or-False, but Good-or-Bad.
There Is No Immediate and No Ultimate Test of inter search essay a Solution to a Wicked Problem. Every solution to a Wicked Problem is a “One-Shot Operation.” Wicked Problems Do Not Have an Exhaustible Set of Definable Solutions. Template Case? Every Wicked Problem is Essentially Unique. Essay? Every Wicked Problem is a Symptom of Another Problem. The Cause of a Wicked Problem can be Explained in Numerous Ways. What Are Wicked Problems? ( local copy ), from Ask the Academy at NASA Academy, 8 Feb 2006 What is a wicked problem? Conklin draws his definition from the work of the late urban planner Horst Rittel, who coined the term over thirty years ago: You don't understand the template for writing a business case, problem until you have developed a solution.
Wicked problems have no stopping rule. You simply run out of time or money. Solutions to wicked problems are not right or wrong. Trip New York Essay? They are better, worse, good enough, or not good enough. Every wicked problem is essentially unique and novel. Template For Writing? Every solution to a wicked problem is essay our best friend english, a one-shot operation. Wicked problems have no given alternative solutions. So where does that leave the template for writing study, project manager?
The short answer — what Conklin calls the Holy Grail of effective collaboration — lies in creating shared understanding about the problem, and shared commitment to oral test essay the possible solutions. Decision Making and Analysis When you get to the fork in the road, take it. Short term thinking drives out template case long term strategy, every time. — Nobel Prize-winning economist Herbert Simon. See also tactical decision games contrasting intuitive and analytic approaches. See also combat leadership , including key historical decisions. U.S. Army War College Strategic Decision Making Paradigms: A Primer for Senior Leaders ( local copy ), by Allen and new york essay, Coates and Woods, U.S. Army War College, 2010 Decision-making frameworks for policy levels are important for strategic leaders to appreciate how they can best influence decisions in a business study their external environment. This article’s purpose is to present some models or frameworks for understanding how strategic leaders can make decisions as well as recognizing how to creative writing prompts personal influence decisions that affect their organizations or institutions.
The following models presented in this article are drawn from the social psychology, organizational behavior, sociology, and public administration literature. Models discussed: Rational Decision Making Model The Behavioral Model (Bounded Rationality) Bargaining Model Participative Decision Making Model Incremental Model Punctuated Equilibrium Theory Polis Model Garbage Can Model (Multiple or Three Streams Model) Strategic Decision Making Paradigms: A Primer for Senior Leaders ( local copy ), by Allen and Coates, U.S. Army War College, July 2009 'Strategic decisions entail “ill-structured,” “messy” or “wicked problems” that do not have quick, easy solutions.' How to Make a High-Stakes Decision, by Gallo, on Harvard Business Review Blog Network, 11 May 2011. 21st Century Small Unit Leaders: Developing the Ultimate Smart Power Weapon ( local copy ), by template for writing a business study Gideons, paper at creative writing Joint Forces Staff College, Joint Advanced Warfighting School (JAWS), 17 June 2011 Globalization and the information age have created an environment in template for writing which small unit leaders have operational and creative writing, strategic importance. The demands of the template for writing a business case study, Irregular Warfare require small unit leaders within the search, General Purpose Forces to be more culturally aware; intellectually adaptable; seasoned in their decision-making requiring fundamental changes in the way they are educated, trained, and gain experience. This paper will first address how individuals make decisions by comparing and contrasting analytical and intuitive decision-making. Second, it will address the strengths and weaknesses in current training and educational paradigms via an analysis of the Systems Approach to Training. Third will be a proposal for template the inclusion of new initiatives for oral test essay developing small unit leader intuition and adaptability in IW.
Following this are recommendations for inculcating critical thinking and decision-making skills in small unit leaders by adopting methods of instruction found in Outcomes Based Training and Education and Adaptive Leaders Methodology as well as the experiential based learning that immersive training environments provide. Maria Konnikova - The Scientific Method of the template case study, Mind - an RSA video Maria Konnikova reveals how Sherlock Holmes can teach us to optimise not only our own everyday existence, but our broader contributions to society and the lives of those around us. TED.com videos - most are 6-15 minutes Dan Gilbert: Why we make bad decisions - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Dan Gilbert presents research and data from his exploration of happiness -- sharing some surprising tests and experiments that you can also try on yourself. Watch through to the end for a sparkling QA with some familiar TED faces. Tim Harford: Trial, error and services thesis, the God complex - a TED talk (you may need to template case watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Economics writer Tim Harford studies complex systems -- and finds a surprising link among the inter search essay, successful ones: they were built through trial and error. In this sparkling talk from TEDGlobal 2011, he asks us to embrace our randomness and start making better mistakes. Margaret Heffernan: Dare to disagree - a TED talk (you may need to template for writing a business case study watch it on creative narrative YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Most people instinctively avoid conflict, but as Margaret Heffernan shows us, good disagreement is central to case study progress. She illustrates (sometimes counterintuitively) how the best partners aren’t echo chambers -- and how great research teams, relationships and british phd thesis, businesses allow people to deeply disagree.
The former CEO of five businesses, Margaret Heffernan explores the all-too-human thought patterns -- like conflict avoidance and selective blindness -- that lead managers and organizations astray. Sheena Iyengar on the art of case choosing - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on trip new york YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Sheena Iyengar studies how we make choices -- and for writing a business, how we feel about the choices we make. At TEDGlobal, she talks about both trivial choices (Coke v. Search? Pepsi) and for writing a business study, profound ones, and shares her groundbreaking research that has uncovered some surprising attitudes about our decisions. Kathryn Schulz: On being wrong - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on search YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Most of for writing study us will do anything to avoid being wrong. But what if we're wrong about that? Wrongologist Kathryn Schulz makes a compelling case for not just admitting but embracing our fallibility. Malcolm Gladwell on trip essay What we can learn from spaghetti sauce - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on template a business YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Tipping Point author Malcolm Gladwell gets inside the food industry's pursuit of the perfect spaghetti sauce -- and makes a larger argument about the nature of choice and happiness. Noreena Hertz: How to use experts - and when not to - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on british phd thesis YouTube if TED videos are blocked) We make important decisions every day -- and for writing a business case study, we often rely on inter search essay experts to help us decide. But, says economist Noreena Hertz, relying too much on experts can be limiting and template for writing, even dangerous.
She calls for essay us to start democratizing expertise -- to listen not only to surgeons and CEOs, but also to shop staff. Barry Schwartz on the paradox of choice - a TED talk (you may need to template for writing a business study watch it on trip new york essay YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Psychologist Barry Schwartz takes aim at a central tenet of for writing a business western societies: freedom of choice. In Schwartz's estimation, choice has made us not freer but more paralyzed, not happier but more dissatisfied. Barry Schwartz: Using our practical wisdom - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In an intimate talk, Barry Schwartz dives into the question How do we do the right thing? With help from collaborator Kenneth Sharpe, he shares stories that illustrate the difference between following the rules and truly choosing wisely. Inter Search Essay? Eric Berlow: How complexity leads to simplicity - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Ecologist Eric Berlow doesn't feel overwhelmed when faced with complex systems. He knows that more information can lead to a better, simpler solution. Template For Writing A Business Case Study? Illustrating the tips and tricks for breaking down big issues, he distills an overwhelming infographic on U.S. strategy in Afghanistan to a few elementary points. George Whitesides: Toward a science of simplicity - a TED talk (you may need to inter watch it on a business case YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Simplicity: We know it when we see it -- but what is it, exactly?
In this funny, philosophical talk, George Whitesides chisels out an answer. James Geary, metaphorically speaking - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Aphorism enthusiast and author James Geary waxes on a fascinating fixture of human language: the metaphor. Friend of scribes from Aristotle to Elvis, metaphor can subtly influence the decisions we make, Geary says. Dan Ariely asks, Are we in control of our own decisions? - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Behavioral economist Dan Ariely, the author of Predictably Irrational, uses classic visual illusions and his own counterintuitive (and sometimes shocking) research findings to show how we're not as rational as we think when we make decisions. New York Essay? Dan Ariely: Beware conflicts of interest - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In this short talk, psychologist Dan Ariely tells two personal stories that explore scientific conflict of interest: How the pursuit of knowledge and insight can be affected, consciously or not, by template case shortsighted personal goals.
When we're thinking about the big questions, he reminds us, let's be aware of our all-too-human brains. Renata Saleci video on (the tyranny of) Choice In this RSAnimate, Professor Renata Salecl explores the paralysing anxiety and dissatisfaction surrounding limitless choice. Does the freedom to be the architects of our own lives actually hinder rather than help us? Does our preoccupation with choosing and phd thesis, consuming actually obstruct social change? Jonah Lehrer - The Decisive Moment, video of 30 min. lecture, plus 15 minutes QA, given at the RSA Jonah Lehrer draws on the latest tools of neuroscience to template for writing a business study ask, how does the mind make decisions? And how can we make those decisions better?
Improving Analysis: Dealing with Information Processing Errors ( local copy ), by Rodgers, Warfighter Interface Division, Cognitive Systems Branch, AFRL, Nov 2006 Although humans restrict information in inter search a variety of ways, the focus here is on three specific forms that affect human information processing: (a) the tendency to a business case see patterns where none exist, (b) the tendency to seek confirmatory evidence, and (c) the translation services, use of preconceived biases. Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman presented three heuristics, i.e., factors or conditions that humans use to aid decisionmaking: representativeness, availability, and template case study, anchoring. They serve to simplify decisionmaking, making it more efficient; but use of these heuristics also can result in inaccurate decisions. Analysis Paralysis: A Case of Terminological Inexactitude ( local copy ), by Roberts, Defense ATL , Jan-Feb 2010 In the remainder of this article, I will examine three problematic conditions that are often attributed to analysis paralysis. These are depicted in the figure on the right as overlapping circles, symbolic of the fact that one condition can feed off of oral test essay another. In the spirit of Churchill, I have also concocted somewhat grandiose but descriptive labels for a business case study the three conditions: Analysis Process Paralysis, Risk Uncertainty Paralysis, and Decision Precision Paralysis. Critical Thinking: Plugging (or Moving) a Hole in trip new york essay Our Swiss Cheese ( local copy ), by Johns, Assistant U.S. Attorney, 2009 Relying largely on the military’s design, testing and implementation, this paper proposes Critical Thinking (CT) training to augment current Recognition Primed Decisionmaking training (RPD). Template Case? CT training reduces normal human decision error in individual and phd thesis, group processes. Individual CT can reduce or, in a specific case, close a hole in the Swiss Cheese model.
In a group, CT can also move the hole out of alignment. Combining CT training with Decision Support System improvements has reduced decision error in the military as shown by tests with active duty warfighters in battlefield simulations. From Tactical Planning to Operational Design ( local copy ), by Davison, Military Review , Sep-Oct 2008 The three military decision-making models reflect a parallel progression in the evolution of systems thinking. Initially, rational military decisionmaking supported solving well-structured problems such as those found in a mechanistic system. Decision-making primed by recognition subsequently evolved to address problems occurring in natural settings with which the decision-maker had experience.
An intuitive decision-making process then emerged to cope with those situations for which decision-makers had no previous experience. Recognition-Primed Decision (RPD) Model The Recogition-Primed Decision Model: an Alternative to the MDMP for template for writing a business study GWOT ( local copy ), by Bushey and essay trees friend english, Forsyth, in Field Artillery , Jan-Feb 2006 The Recogition-Primed Decision Model ( local copy ), by Ross et al, in Military Review , Jul-Aug 2004 Klein, S. Wolf, Laura G. Militellio, and Carolyn E.Zsambok show that skilled decisionmakers usually generate a good COA [course of action] on a business case study their first try. Trees Friend English? J.G. Template For Writing A Business Study? Johnson and M. Raab replicated this finding, extending it to show that when skilled decisionmakers abandon their initial COA in favor of a later one, the subsequent COA’s quality is significantly lower than the first one. Decision Making and the Levels of oral test essay War ( local copy ), by Killion, in Military Review , Nov-Dec 2000 Recognition-Primed Decision Strategies: First-Year Interim Report ( local copy ), by template a business case study Klein and Crandall, ARI Research Note 90-91, 1990. Heuristics and Biases in Military Decision Making ( local copy ), by Williams, Military Review , Sep-Oct 2010 The Army values MDMP as the sanctioned approach for solving problems and making decisions.
This stolid template is comforting; we are familiar with it. Essay Trees Our Best? However, what do we do when our enemy does not conform to our assumptions embedded in for writing a business case the process? We discovered early in Iraq that our opponents fought differently than we expected. Fortunately, some have come to see the shortcomings of the classical MDMP process. It is illsuited for the analysis of creative writing personal narrative problems exhibiting high volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. The Army’s nascent answer, called “Design,” looks promising. As outlined in the new version of FM 5-0, Operations Process, Chapter 3, Design is defined as “a methodology for applying critical and creative thinking to understand, visualize, and describe complex, ill-structured problems and develop approaches to template a business study solve them.” Instead of a universal process to solve all types of problems (MDMP), the Design approach acknowledges that military commanders must first appreciate the situation and recognize that any solution will be unique. With Design, the most important task is framing a problem and then reframing it when conditions change. In this article, we will survey three important heuristics to new york military decision making: availability, representativeness, and anchoring. When combining hindsight bias and retrievability biases, we potentially fail to template case study guard against an event popularized euphemistically as a black swan . Essay? Instead of the template for writing case, usual striving toward a “best practices” methodology, which is thesis, also full of potential heuristic biases, reflective practice calls for “valuing the processes that challenge assimilative knowledge (i.e. For Writing A Business Study? continuous truth seeking) and by embracing the inevitable conflict associated with truth seeking.”
Battle-Wise: Gaining Advantage in services Networked Warfare ( local copy ), by Gompert et al, Center for Technology and National Security Policy, National Defense University, Jan 2005 Battle-Wise: Seeking Time-Information Superiority in Networked Warfare ( local copy ), by template for writing a business Gompert et al, Center for Technology and National Security Policy, National Defense University, July 2006 Chapter One - From Firepower to Information Power to Brainpower Chapter Two - Cognitive Demands of Networked Warfare Chapter Four - Defeating Networked Adversaries Chapter Five - Integrating Intuition and Reasoning in Action Chapter Six - From Networking Power to essay trees our best friend Cognitive Power. Net Assessment: A Practical Guide, by Bracken, in Parameters , Spring 2006 Net assessment is one of the template a business case, principal frameworks for analyzing the national security strategy of the United States. It has been used by oral test essay the Department of Defense for many years. Understanding net assessment—what it is and a business study, what it can do—is important for two reasons. First, it has general application to many military issues.
Military planners always need to be on the lookout for approaches that can help them do their jobs better. Net assessment should be in that tool kit. Shaping the Next One Hundred Years: New Methods for Quantitative, Long-Term Policy Analysis, by Lempert, Popper, and Bankes; RAND report, 2003 A sophisticated reader ought to view with great skepticism the prospect of answering questions about the long-term future. The checkered history of predicting the british, future — from the for writing case study, famous declarations that humans would never fly to the Limits to Growth study to claims about the “New Economy” — has dissuaded policymakers from considering the effects of their decisions more than a few months or years ahead. Translation Services Thesis? However, today’s choices will significantly influence the course of the twenty-first century. New analytic methods, enabled by for writing case study modern computers, may transform our ability to reason systematically about the long term. This report reviews traditional methods of grappling with the oral test essay, morrow, from narratives to template a business study scenario analysis, which fail to address the multiplicity of plausible long-term futures. The authors demonstrate a quantitative approach to long-term policy analysis (LTPA). Services? Robust decision methods enable decisionmakers to examine a vast range of plausible futures and design near-term, often adaptive, strategies to be robust across them. Reframing the a business, question “What will the long-term future bring?” as “How can we choose actions today that will be consistent with our long-term interests?” these methods provide powerful analytic support to inter search humans’ innate capacity for “what-if-ing.” Theory of template a business Effectiveness Measurement ( local copy ), by thesis Bullock, AFIT dissertation, Sep 2006 Effectiveness measures provide decision makers feedback on case the impact of deliberate actions and affect critical issues such as allocation of scarce resources, as well as whether to maintain or change existing strategy.
Currently, however, there is trip essay, no formal foundation for formulating effectiveness measures. This research presents a new framework for effectiveness measurement from both a theoretical and practical view. . Template Study? Finally, the writing, pragmatic nature of the approach is illustrated by template for writing study measuring the effectiveness of british phd thesis a notional, security force response strategy in a scenario involving a terrorist attack on a United States Air Force base. Cultural Differences Cultural Factors in Complex Decision Making, by Strohschneider, in Online Readings in Psychology and Culture , Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington USA, 2002 Decision Making in a business study Individualistic and services thesis, Collectivistic Cultures, by Gss, in Online Readings in Psychology and Culture , Center for template case Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington USA, 2002. Custer in Cyberspace ( local copy ), by Gompert and Kugler, Defense Horizons number 51, Feb 2006 One of the consequences of the network revolution and corresponding distribution of authority is that many more persons up and down the ranks will be making combat decisions than compared to oral test essay the days of centralized command and control. Power is migrating from headquarters “to the edge.” Therefore, it is essential to template a business foster battle-wisdom not just for senior officers but also for the junior officers and noncommissioned officers leading units in the field. Gladwell, Malcolm. Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking . New York: Little, Brown, 2005 Book review of Gladwell's Blink ( local copy ), by Norton, in Naval War College Review , Winter 2006. Future Warfare and the Decline of thesis Human Decisionmaking, by a business case study Adams, in Parameters , Winter 2001 In short, the military systems (including weapons) now on essay trees our best friend the horizon will be too fast, too small, too numerous, and a business, will create an prompts personal narrative, environment too complex for humans to direct.
Furthermore, the proliferation of information-based systems will produce a data overload that will make it difficult or impossible for humans to directly intervene in template a business case study decisionmaking. This is not a consideration for essay the remote science-fiction future. Weapons and other military systems already under development will function at increasingly higher levels of complexity and responsibility--and increasingly without meaningful human intervention. Extending Naturalistic Decision Making to Complex Organizations: A Dynamic Model of Situated Cognition, by Shattuck and for writing, Miller, Naval Postgraduate School, 2006 Naturalistic decision making (NDM) has become established as a methodological and theoretical perspective. It describes how practitioners actually make decisions in complex domains. However, NDM theories tend to focus on the human agents in the system. We extend the NDM perspective to include the technological agents in complex systems and introduce the our best, dynamic model of situated cognition. A Literature Review of Analytical and Naturalistic Decision Making ( local copy ), by Zsambok, Beach, and Klein, for Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center, Dec 1992 - examines many decision models/strategies.
Experts, expertise, and experience ( local copy ), course module from NOAA What do experts do so well that others don't? Recognize patterns Detect anomalies Keep the big picture (situation awareness) Understand the template for writing a business case study, way things work Observe opportunities, able to improvise Relate past, present, and future events Pick up on very subtle differences Address their own limitations What is an expert? Novice - Lives in the moment. Search? Can’t recognize complex relationships. For Writing? Produces limited options. Routine Expert - Great at everyday stuff, strong procedural knowledge. Runs into services thesis, trouble when problems are ill-structured or novel. Adaptive Expert - Has a deep comprehension of conceptual structure of the problem domain. 25 hours of for writing a business study well done simulations can achieve the same effect as 2 years of experience (or much more) NASA's ASK Talks with Dr. Gary Klein - use of storytelling, even internally, to improve decision making and problem solving and development/use of expertise.
Military Decisionmaking Process (MDMP) Implications of Modern Decision Science for search essay Military Decision-Support Systems, by Davis, Kulick, and Egner, RAND, 2005 Military Decision-Making Process (MDMP) ( local copy ), chapter 5 of FM 101-5 Staff Organization and Operations Is It Time to Abandon the template a business case, Military Decisionmaking Process ( local copy ), by McLamb, in Military Review , Mar-Apr 2002 US Army Decisionmaking: Past, Present, and Future ( local copy ), by Paparone, in Military Review , Jul-Aug 2001 How Critical Thinking Shapes the oral test essay, Military Decision Making Process ( local copy ), by Usry, Naval War College, 2004 A lack of Combatant Commander (COCOM) critical thinking in the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP) is a causal factor in military failure at the operational level. However, critical thinking can improve the MDMP of the COCOM. This paper analyzes the effects of critical thinking on the combatant commander’s decision making process by: defining critical thinking; illustrating its impact on intuitive and analytical decisions; demonstrating barriers to critical thinking and proposing practical ways to use critical thinking in the MDMP. Descriptive Models of Military Decision Making ( local copy ), by study Klein et al, ARI Research Note 90-93, 1990. Combined Forces Command-Afghanistan Management Decision Model ( local copy ), DoD IG, July 2005 Considering the request for assistance and the proposed application of the writing, MDM, the template a business, DoD IG Team created a “universal” model that can be used to assess the capability and capacity of any organization founded on creative writing prompts democratic principles and a business case study, the “Rule of Law.” For the purposes of oral test essay this model, the definition of “organization” includes the full spectrum of organizational structures—from a nation-state to any type of government-, military-, or business-related entity.
Consequently, the DoD IG Team built the attached model and template a business case study, identified the high-level elements common to most organizations that should be considered to establish a viable, stable, and selfsustaining institution. Translation Services? This document, therefore, includes the Management Decision Model, instructions on how to use the model, and template, a comprehensive description of the various elements embedded in the model’s architecture. Applying Dialectic to Acquisition Strategy ( local copy ), by british Peeler, in template a business Acquisition Review Quarterly , Spring 1997 - includes discussion of Kant's Hierarchy of inter essay Reason Hegel's Dialectic Karl Popper Simultaneous Antitheses. General Robert E. Lee and for writing a business, Modern Decision Theory, by creative writing prompts narrative Gilster, in AU Review , Mar-Apr 1972, including discussion of battle of Chancellorsville, and brief discussion of Lanchester Equations Bayes’ Theorem Von Neumann-Morgenstern Utility Theorem. Decision Sciences Institute (DSI), multidisciplinary international association dedicated to advancing knowledge and improving instruction in all business and related disciplines. Are You a Good Decision Maker? ( local copy ), from SBA -- includes Ten Steps to Wise Decision-Making and Common Decision-Making Mistakes The Human Side of template a business Decision Making ( local copy ), from FAA -- brief examination of the human traits that interfere with decision-making.
Ladder of Inference ( local copy ), from NIH - a model that describes an individual's mental process of observing situations, drawing conclusions and taking action War in the Pits: Marine-Futures Traders Wargame ( local copy ), NDU Strategic Forum 61, by West Marine generals and colonels vs futures traders in decisionmaking wargame The traders' OODA loop, executed at much higher speed, is ISAA: Information, Sort by Priority, Act, Assess Virtual Stress ( local copy ), in Marines Online , senior Marines vs futures traders in decision making wargame. The Collapse of creative writing narrative Decisionmaking and Organizational Structure on Storm King Mountain ( local copy ), by Putnam, USDA Forest Service, 1995 Numerous studies show no matter how many factors are important, the human mind normally can handle only about seven factors (e.g., seven-digit telephone numbers). People are not always aware of which factors dominate their decision process. Template A Business Case? Although we say “safety first,” this doesn’t mean it’s necessarily first in actual decisions. Also, people are seldom aware of the few factors they actually are processing so tend to be overconfident in their decisionmaking ability. Studies also show that our linear thinking tends to underestimate hazards, particularly if the hazard is increasing at a logarithmic or exponential rate as can happen on the fireline.
An example would be estimating rates of fire spread. A computer would give the better decision in a heartbeat. People would tend to underestimate the rate of oral test essay spread and a business study, have difficulty deciding on an appropriate course of action. And so it is important to understand the essay trees our best friend, limits of how we process information and common types of errors that can occur. Revisiting the Abilene Paradox - Is Management of Agreement Still an Issue?, by for writing Deiss - brief discussion of the mismanagement of agreement, where nobody in a group wants to do an trip essay, activity, but the study, group does it because each member thinks all the oral test essay, others want to do it.
Intuition: an template for writing a business, Imperative of trip new york Command ( local copy ), by Rogers, in Military Review - examines relevance of intuition to decision making in for writing case study the context of warfighting on the modern battlefield. Decisionmaking Theory ( local copy ), Marine Corps Doctrine Publication 6 the intuitive approach is writing, more appropriate for the vast majority of typical tactical or operational decisions-decisions made in the fluid, rapidly changing conditions of war when time and uncertainty are critical factors, and creativity is for writing case, a desirable trait Note 18. Intuitive decisionmaking more appropriate for the vast majority of oral test essay tactical/operational decisions: A 1989 study by for writing study Gary A. Klein (based on 1985 observations) estimated that decision makers in a variety of disciplines use intuitive methods 87 percent of the trees our best english, time and analytical methods 13 percent of the time. Evidence now suggests that this study was actually biased in template case favor of analysis . More recent studies estimate the inter, breakdown at more nearly 95 percent intuitive to 5 percent analytical.
G. A. Klein, Recognition-Primed Decisions in William B. Rouse (ed.), Advances in Man-Machine System Research (Greenwich, CT: Jai Press, 1989); G. L. Kaempf, S. Wolf, M. A Business? L. British? Thordsen, and G. Klein, Decision Making in the Aegis Combat Information Center (Fairborn, OH: Klein Associates, 1992); R. Pascual and S. Template For Writing? Henderson, Evidence of Naturalistic Decision Making in Command and Control in C. Zsambok and writing personal narrative, G. Klein (eds.), Naturalistic Decision Making , forthcoming publication (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates); Kathleen Louise Mosier, Decision Making in the Air Transport Flight Deck: Process and Product , unpublished dissertation (Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1990). Decision Making Theory ( local copy ), Naval Doctrine Publication 6, Naval Command and Control The intuitive approach is clearly more appropriate for for writing case the fluid, rapidly changing environment of trees friend english combat, when time and uncertainty are critical factors. Naturalistic Decision Making ( local copy ), an attempt to template a business case study understand how humans actually make decisions in complex real-world settings, by Klein and Klinger, 4 pages, in Human Systems IAC Gateway , vol XI, nbr 3 -- article contrasts naturalistic with recognition-primed decision (RPD) model. A Framework for british phd thesis Military Decision Making under Risks ( abstract ) ( full copy ), by Schultz, School of template a business Advanced Airpower Studies (SAAS) - includes discussion of Eisenhower's decision regarding Operation Market Garden - see especially Chapter 2, Military Decision Making and Prospect Theory - Command Decisions, collection of essays on the key decisions by both sides in british phd thesis both theaters of WW II. Some Commercial Tools Influence Net Modeling tools from SAIC, combining subjective with objective Definitive Software, with tools re: scenarios, risk analysis, decision-making Decisioneering software, with tools for study optimizing decisions in creative writing personal narrative complex situations Reason!Able, software for template for writing a business case organizing thoughts, analyzing arguments, and building decision skills Rationale ™ , argument mapping software. Decision-Making, by Kent, in AU Review , May-June 1971 - addressing the problems and use of analysis More On Decision-Making, by Blythe, in AU Review , Jan-Feb 1972 - follow-on and response to above article. Gaming and Decision Theory Coevolution: Studying the Dynamics of essay Competition, and Gauss: Scenario Translation ( local copy ), by McDonald, of SAIC, at Project Albert International Workshop 5, posted by USMC Warfighting Lab - includes out-thinking, out-doing, reflexive control, OODA loop, recursive anticipation, co-adaptation, adaptive mental model, and for writing a business case study, more.
Game Theory.net, a resource for educators and creative personal narrative, students of for writing case study game theory Stability Modeling and Game-Theoretic Considerations, Los Alamos National Labs ( local copy ) Decision-Theory for Crisis Management, Final Report, ARPA ( local copy ) A Framework for Military Decision Making under Risks ( abstract ) ( full copy ), by Schultz, School of Advanced Airpower Studies (SAAS) -- see especially Chapter 2, Military Decision Making and Prospect Theory. Paradox of Choice Sheena Iyengar on the art of choosing - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on oral test essay YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Sheena Iyengar studies how we make choices -- and how we feel about the template for writing a business case, choices we make. At TEDGlobal, she talks about both trivial choices (Coke v. Pepsi) and profound ones, and shares her groundbreaking research that has uncovered some surprising attitudes about our decisions. Barry Schwartz on the paradox of choice - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Psychologist Barry Schwartz takes aim at narrative a central tenet of western societies: freedom of choice. In Schwartz's estimation, choice has made us not freer but more paralyzed, not happier but more dissatisfied. Renata Salecl - The Paradox of Choice - an for writing case study, RSA video Fusing sociology, psychoanalysis and philosophy, Professor Renata Salecl shows that individual choice is trip new york essay, rarely based on a simple rational decision with a predictable outcome. Baba Shiv: Sometimes it's good to give up the template for writing study, driver's seat - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Over the years, research has shown a counterintuitive fact about new york human nature: That sometimes, having too much choice makes us less happy. This may even be true when it comes to medical treatment. Baba Shiv shares a fascinating study that measures why choice opens the door to a business case study doubt, and suggests that ceding control -- especially on life-or-death decisions -- may be the best thing for us. Game Theory .net - a resource for educators and students of game theory - with online interactive materials, syllabi, etc. Courses at Sloan School of Management, available online as part of MIT OpenCourseWare Project - includes syllabi and course materials includes Game Theory for Managers.
Game Theory, from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Risk intelligence: How to live with uncertainty, RSA video by Evans Risk intelligence expert Dylan Evans outlines a powerful form of thinking; one where the same intuition seen in the best poker players can be effectively transferred to business, politics and everyday life. Daniel Kahneman: The riddle of inter search essay experience vs. memory - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Using examples from vacations to template for writing a business case study colonoscopies, Nobel laureate and founder of behavioral economics Daniel Kahneman reveals how our experiencing selves and our remembering selves perceive happiness differently. This new insight has profound implications for new york economics, public policy -- and our own self-awareness. Widely regarded as the world's most influential living psychologist, Daniel Kahneman won the template study, Nobel in Economics for his pioneering work in behavioral economics -- exploring the irrational ways we make decisions about risk. Decisionmaking Theory ( local copy ), Marine Corps Doctrine Publication 6 the intuitive approach is new york, more appropriate for the vast majority of typical tactical or operational decisions-decisions made in the fluid, rapidly changing conditions of war when time and uncertainty are critical factors, and creativity is a desirable trait Improving CIA Analytic Performance: Strategic Warning ( local copy ), by for writing study Davis, occasional paper for CIA's Improving CIA Analytic Performance: Strategic Warning - includes discussion of trip Substantive Uncertainty and a business case study, Strategic Warning and essay trees friend english, Analytic Tradecraft for Managing Substantive Uncertainty and for writing a business case, Averting Strategic Surprise through Alternative Analysis
Expecting the Unexpected ( local copy ), by Frasqueri-Molina, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 43, Summer 2011 - creating a mitigation plan to deal with unexpected risks The author developed a risk-mitigation plan to reestablish order from inter chaos. Remain calm. Halt the entire project or just the affected work momentarily and let everyone take a break. Immediately gather the resolution team, which consists of the project manager and any of the people who can offer solutions; meet privately. Template For Writing A Business Study? Assess risk impact. Brainstorm solutions. Trees Our Best Friend? Choose a solution. Template For Writing? Obtain project sponsor approval.
Communicate the solution to oral test essay the entire team, resume project, resolve risk. A Framework for Military Decision Making under Risks ( abstract ) ( full copy ), by Schultz, School of Advanced Airpower Studies (SAAS) - includes discussion of Eisenhower's decision regarding Operation Market Garden - see especially Chapter 2, Military Decision Making and Prospect Theory - Complex vs. Complicated Eric Berlow: Simplifying complexity - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Ecologist Eric Berlow doesn't feel overwhelmed when faced with complex systems. Template For Writing A Business Case? He knows that more information can lead to a better, simpler solution. Illustrating the tips and tricks for breaking down big issues, he distills an essay trees english, overwhelming infographic on for writing case study U.S. strategy in Afghanistan to a few elementary points. Systemic Operational Design: Learning and creative personal, Adapting in Complex Missions ( local copy ), by de Czege, Military Review , Jan-Feb 2009 Nearly all missions this century will be complex, and the kind of thinking we have called “operational art” is for writing a business study, often now required at battalion level. Fundamentally, operational art requires balancing design and planning while remaining open to learning and adapting quickly to change. Design is not a new idea. Command has always entailed responsibility for designing operations while penetrating complexity and framing problems that planners have to solve.
Individual ability to learn effectively, adapt rapidly and essay, appropriately, and to solve problems has always been self-evidently valuable to commanders. Yet, collectively, a command’s overall quality of design, learning, and adaptation is what determines results. A Business Case? Military leaders may value individual creativity, critical thinking, continuous learning, and adaptability in their staffs and subordinate commanders, but individual traits do not necessarily add up to collective abilities needed for the best outcomes. Complicated versus complex systems. Merely complicated systems are composed of numerous parts and structures, all logically separable from their environment. An example would be the system for deploying units on a time table for an operation like D-day. Such a schedule could be accurately analyzed in essay the abstract. Complex systems are made up of a business case study dynamic, interactive, and adaptive elements that cannot be separated from interaction with their environments.
The significant elements of complex systems are human beings and their relationships. An example would be the action-reaction interplay of the various actors in cooperation and contention on D-day. Analysis could never predict the relationships that were the most important part of the flow of events. Where merely complicated systems require mostly deduction and analysis (formal logic of oral test essay breaking into parts), complexity requires inductive and abductive reasoning for diagnostics and synthesis (the informal logic of making new wholes of a business parts). Because the elements of new york essay complex systems we care most about are human ones, making sense of relationships requires hypothetical synthesis in the form of maps or narratives. Such maps and narratives evolve as informal products that reflect a dimly perceived truth at template for writing a business case study a moment of understanding in british phd thesis time. Template A Business Case? To make the best sense of creative writing prompts human relationships, interactions, trends, and propensities, military commands have to adopt a habitually skeptical approach to template case such non-deductive conclusions. Such habituation implies a new intellectual culture that balances design and planning while evincing an appreciation for the dynamic flow of human factors and a bias toward perpetual learning and adapting. Adding to the Toolkit: Three Conceptual Tradeoffs ( local copy ), by Austin, SAMS paper, AY10 This monograph shows how understanding three conceptual tradeoffs of complex versus complicated, complexity at large-scale versus fine-scale, and exploration of potential problems versus exploitation of known solutions can help the military practitioner better learn, anticipate and oral test essay, adapt to difficult problems.
It does so by template for writing a business case defining the three conceptual tradeoffs and then applying them to Operation Iraqi Freedom for the United States in 2003 and the Israeli incursion into Southern Lebanon by oral test essay the Israeli Defense Forces in 2006. These difficult operations involved conventional, guerilla, counterinsurgency and irregular operations that provide two relevant examples to study help the military practitioner better prepare for 21st century operations. Being a complicated or complex problem does not imply that one is easier or harder to inter search manage than the template for writing a business case study, other. They are just different. Complicated problems are problems that can be reduced and then reassembled into a whole based solely on their parts. They are understandable, controllable and more predictable than complex problems. Creative Writing Prompts Narrative? Organizations do best with complicated problems when they focus on internal efficiency and optimization. Complex problems are not as predictable due to interdependencies and template for writing, feedback. Organizations that learn, evolve, and adapt with distributed command and personal, control manage them best. Although the ends may be the same, the ways and means to solve complex versus complicated problems are different. To help understand how organizations orient towards complex problems, the template for writing case, scientist William Ross Ashby created a useful concept called the Law of Requisite Variety.
It states that a problem can only be controlled if the variety of the controller matches the variety of the search essay, situation to be controlled. Put another way, the for writing a business, complexity of a task must be matched by translation the complexity of a system trying to perform the task effectively. Much as hierarchically controlled organizations are able to for writing a business case study focus on efficiency and optimization, the more distributed the essay trees our best, command and a business case, control of an british, organization, the for writing case, less efficient it becomes, despite its potential ability to manage more complexity. Hierarchical and distributed command and control systems therefore involve important tradeoffs, each bringing its own unique strengths and weaknesses. TED videos Eric Berlow: Simplifying complexity - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on inter YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Ecologist Eric Berlow doesn't feel overwhelmed when faced with complex systems. He knows that more information can lead to a better, simpler solution.
Illustrating the tips and tricks for breaking down big issues, he distills an overwhelming infographic on case study U.S. strategy in Afghanistan to a few elementary points. George Whitesides: Toward a science of simplicity - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on british phd thesis YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Simplicity: We know it when we see it -- but what is for writing study, it, exactly? In this funny, philosophical talk, George Whitesides chisels out an answer. Tim Harford: Trial, error and the God complex - a TED talk (you may need to oral test essay watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Economics writer Tim Harford studies complex systems -- and for writing study, finds a surprising link among the successful ones: they were built through trial and trip new york, error. In this sparkling talk from TEDGlobal 2011, he asks us to embrace our randomness and template for writing a business study, start making better mistakes.
The Decision-Making Process for Complex Situations in a Complex Environment, by Benner and Benner, First chapter in Burstein, F. and Holsapple, C.W. (Eds). Handbook on trip new york essay Decision Support Systems. New York: Springer-Verlag (2008) While all decisions are a guess about the template for writing case, future, as complexity builds upon complexity decision-makers must increasingly rely on their intuition and judgment. This chapter explores the decision-making process for complex situations in a complex environment (complex adaptive messes) in oral test essay terms of: laying the groundwork for case study decision-making, understanding and exploring complex situations, discussing human additive factors, preparing for the decision process and mechanisms for influencing complex situations. Trip New York? Laying the groundwork introduces the concepts of emergence, the butterfly effect, the tipping point, feedback loops and power laws. Mechanisms for influencing complex situations include structural adaptation, boundary management, absorption, optimum complexity, simplification, sense and respond, amplification, and seeding. The authors forward that decision-makers may be able to construct a strategy that guides problem resolution through a sequence of for writing a business study decisions and actions leading toward an acceptable solution. Leading Complex Projects in the DoD ( local copy ), by oral test essay Meier, in Defense AT L , May-June 2013 [AT L = Acquisition, Technology Logistics] There is a quote from Albert Einstein that is for writing study, very relevant to complex projects: “Any intelligent fool can make things bigger and more complex. . It takes a touch of new york essay genius—and a lot of courage—to move in the opposite direction.” In many cases, it is organizations, agencies, and senior committees that make projects bigger and more complex than they need to be. My hope is template for writing case, that this article will provide leaders of complex projects with the data and the courage to reduce complexity and deliver complex projects within scope, cost, and schedule. Leadership and Systems Thinking ( local copy ), by oral test essay Reed, in Defense AT L , May-June 2006 [AT L = Acquisition, Technology Logistics] The Department of Defense is a large and for writing case study, complex social system with many interrelated parts. Essay Friend English? As with any system of this type, when changes are made to one part, many others are affected in template study a cascading and often unpredictable manner.
Thus, organizational decisions are fraught with second- and third-order effects that result in unintended consequences. “Fire and new york, forget” approaches are rarely sufficient and are sometimes downright harmful. Peter Senge submits, in a business The Fifth Discipline , that systems thinking provides just the type of discipline and toolset needed to encourage the seeing of “interrelationships rather than things, for seeing patterns of change rather than static ‘snapshots.’” Senge argues that this shift of search essay mind is necessary to deal with the complexities of dynamic social systems. Peirce, Pragmatism, and for writing, The Right Way of Thinking ( local copy ), by Campbell, Sandia National Labs, Aug 2011 Peirce is known as the founder of the oral test essay, philosophy of pragmatism and these lectures, given near the end of his life, represent his mature thoughts on the philosophy. Template A Business Study? Peirce’s decomposition of thinking into abduction, deduction, and induction is among the important points in the lectures. Adaptive Peircean Decision Aid Project Summary Assessments ( local copy ), by Senglaub, Sandia National Laboratories, Dec 2006 Abstract - This effort's objective was to identify and creative narrative, hybridize a suite of template technologies enabling the development of predictive decision aids for use principally in services combat environments but also in any complex information terrain.
The technologies required included formal concept analysis for knowledge representation and information operations, Peircean reasoning to support hypothesis generation, Mill’s canons to begin defining information operators that support the first two technologies and template for writing a business case, co-evolutionary game theory to provide the environment / domain to assess predictions from the oral test essay, reasoning engines. The intended application domain is the IED problem because of its inherent evolutionary nature. While a fully functioning integrated algorithm was not achieved the hybridization and demonstration of the technologies was accomplished and demonstration of utility provided for a number of for writing case study ancillary queries. Figure 1 [on PDF page 5] shows a decision making paradigm The reasoning engine is based on C.S. Peirce’s model of scientific inquiry. Translation Services Thesis? This philosophical construct provides the for writing a business, foundation for inter how we as humans reason about situations new to us. Template A Business Study? This model consists of three reasoning capabilities; Abduction, deduction and induction. A crude way of looking at this suite of logic is services thesis, abduction provides plausible hypotheses to template case study explain an observation, deduction provides a basis for essay trees our best english selecting from case study that set of hypotheses, and induction is the thesis, means to template study validate the hypothesis selected. Bringing Intelligence About: Practitioners Reflect on translation Best Practices ( local copy ), ed. by Swenson, Joint Military Intelligence College, 2003 Reasoning: The ability to reason is for writing case study, what permits humans to process information and formulate explanations, to assign meaning to observed phenomena.
It is by reasoning that analysts transform information into intelligence, in these three ways: 1. Induction: Inductive reasoning combines separate fragments of information, or specific answers to problems, to our best friend english form general rules or conclusions. Template Case Study? For example, using induction, a child learns to associate the translation, color red with heat and for writing case, heat with pain, and then to our best friend english generalize these associations to new situations. Rigorous induction depends upon template for writing case demonstrating the validity of inter essay causal relationships between observed phenomena, not merely associating them with each other. 2. Deduction: Deductive reasoning applies general rules to template for writing a business study specific problems to arrive at conclusions. Analysts begin with a set of rules and friend, use them as a basis for template a business interpreting information. For example, an analyst who follows the nuclear weapons program of a country might notice that a characteristic series of events preceded the last nuclear weapons test. Upon seeing evidence that those same events are occurring again, the analyst might deduce that a second nuclear test is imminent. However, this conclusion would be made cautiously, since deduction works best in closed systems such as mathematics, making it of limited use in oral test essay forecasting human behavior. 3. Abduction: Abductive reasoning describes the thought process that accompanies “insight” or intuition. When the information does not match that expected, the a business, analyst asks “why?,” thereby generating novel hypotheses to explain given evidence that does not readily suggest a familiar explanation.
For example, given two shipping manifests, one showing oranges and prompts narrative, lemons being shipped from Venezuela to Florida, and the other showing carnations being shipped from Delaware to template study Colombia, abductive reasoning is what enables the analyst to take an analytic leap and translation services, ask, “Why is template for writing case study, citrus fruit being sent to the worldwide capital of citrus farming, while carnations are being sent to the world’s primary exporter of essay that product? What is really going on here?” Thus, abduction relies on the analyst’s preparation and experience to suggest possible explanations that must then be tested. Abduction generates new research questions rather than solutions. Manual of Job-Related Thinking Skills ( local copy ), Department of Homeland Security - including deductive reasoning, reasoning with sets, inductive reasoning about real-world events, and statistical reasoning - includes quizzes throughout. Statistics and Trace Evidence: The Tyranny of for writing a business Numbers ( local copy ), by Houck, in Forensic Science Communications , FBI - discusses induction and deduction and their application in establishing evidence - see especially the section How Do We Know All Ravens Are Black? quick definitions at an NIH site listing desired job skills Deductive Reasoning - Able to apply general rules to specific problems to come up with logical answers, including deciding whether an answer makes sense. Inductive Reasoning - Able to combine separate pieces of creative personal narrative information, or specific answers to problems, to form general rules or conclusions. This includes coming up with a logical explanation for why seemingly unrelated events occur together.
Janusian Thinking and Acting ( local copy ), by Paparone and Crupi, in template for writing Military Review , Jan-Feb 2002 The authors maintain that the current U.S. approach to essay military operations-strategic, operational, and tactical-is too linear for today's contemporary operating environment. They argue that future warfighters must move beyond linear thought and action to a realm of thinking and acting that recognizes and accepts paired yet opposite template a business study, ideas and actions Instead of ruling out alternative hypotheses, Janusian thinking calls on essay us to for writing a business case study embrace contradictions as naturally occurring phenomena. When we create insights for thinking and acting from the Janusian framework, we achieve remarkable explanatory power over phd thesis the nature of a business case study human information processing. The seats of reason? An imaging study of deductive and inductive reasoning, by Goel et al, Dept of Psychology, York U., North York, Ontario, CA -- abstract posted by National Library of trip new york Medicine. We carried out a neuroimaging study to test the neurophysiological predictions made by different cognitive models of reasoning. Ten normal volunteers performed deductive and inductive reasoning tasks while their regional cerebral blood flow pattern was recorded using [15O]H2O PET imaging. Template For Writing A Business? In the prompts narrative, control condition subjects semantically comprehended sets of three sentences. In the deductive reasoning condition subjects determined whether the third sentence was entailed by the first two sentences.
In the for writing a business, inductive reasoning condition subjects reported whether the third sentence was plausible given the first two sentences. The deduction condition resulted in activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 45, 47). The induction condition resulted in activation of a large area comprised of the trip, left medial frontal gyrus, the left cingulate gyrus, and a business case, the left superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 8, 9, 24, 32). Induction was distinguished from deduction by the involvement of the medial aspect of the creative writing prompts narrative, left superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 8, 9). These results are consistent with cognitive models of reasoning that postulate different mechanisms for inductive and deductive reasoning and view deduction as a formal rule-based process. PMID: 9175134 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Deductive Logic, by for writing study St. George Stock, posted by Project Gutenberg. Counterfactual Reasoning Counterfactual Reasoning: A Basic Guide for Analysts, Strategists, and oral test essay, Decision Makers ( local copy ), by Hendrickson, The Proteus Monograph Series , Oct 2008 Counterfactual reasoning is the process of evaluating conditional claims about alternate possibilities and case, their consequences (i.e., “What If” statements). Oral Test Essay? These alternatives can be either past possibilities (e.g., “If the United States had not abolished the template for writing, Iraqi army in 2003, then the Iraqi insurgency would have been significantly smaller in oral test essay 2005”) or future possibilities (e.g., “If Iran had nuclear weapons, then it would provide this technology to Hezbollah”). Counterfactuals are essential to intelligence analysis because they are implicit in for writing case study all strategic assessments.
Counterfactual claims are widespread among our national security analysts, strategists, and decision makers. Translation Services Thesis? Unfortunately, this is not widely recognized. Furthermore, there is no comprehensive model of counterfactual reasoning to which anyone may turn if they do become aware of the ubiquitous nature of counterfactuals within intelligence and national security. Instead, there are several fragmented approaches in a business case philosophy, logic, history, political science, and psychology. To make matters worse, none of these approaches has been applied to the unique challenges of intelligence and security. In response, this work seeks to demonstrate both the structure and inter essay, the significance of template for writing case study counterfactual reasoning. It offers not only the new york, first complete system of case counterfactual reasoning (of which this author is aware), but the first one specifically designed to address the domain of translation intelligence analysis and national security. Furthermore, this work proposes three major claims about the place of counterfactual reasoning in template for writing a business case analysis and strategy. Therefore, this work is not only essay our best intended to serve as an education in counterfactual reasoning, but also as an exhortation to counterfactual reasoning. Template For Writing A Business? First Major Proposal (The Strategic Presumption of Counterfactuals): All strategies (and analyses of essay them) are grounded in a series of counterfactual claims about alternate possibilities, their consequences, and the relationships between them.
Second Major Proposal (The Systematic Potential of Counterfactuals): Major extant methods for assessing alternate possibilities, their consequences, and the relationships between them may be viewed as ultimately not distinct, but as aspects of a single process—counterfactual reasoning. Third Major Proposal (The Structural Priority of template a business case study Counterfactuals): All assessment of alternate possibilities, their consequences, and the relationships between them should ultimately be conditional (as it is in counterfactual reasoning). Thinking, Fast and Slow , by inter essay Kahneman, 2011 Book review of Thinking, Fast and Slow , by Kahneman ( local copy ), review by a business study Babetski, in CIA Studies in Intelligence Vol. 56, No. 2 Kahneman, who won the british phd thesis, 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics for his work with Tversky on prospect theory, also highlights the best work of other researchers throughout the for writing, book.
Thinking, Fast and Slow introduces no revolutionary new material, but it is a masterpiece because of the way Kahneman weaves existing research together. System 1, or fast thinking, operates automatically and quickly with little or no effort and no sense of voluntary control. System 2, or slow thinking, allocates attention to the mental activities that demand effort, such as complex computations and conscious, reasoned choices about what to essay trees friend think and what to for writing study do. Kahneman focuses much of the book on the interactions of System 1 and System 2 and the problems inherent in those interactions. Both systems are “on” when we are awake. System 1 runs automatically and effortlessly but System 2 idles, because using it requires effort and is tiring. Essay Our Best? System 1 generates impressions and feelings, which become the a business case study, source of System 2’s explicit beliefs and british, deliberate choices. System 1, when it encounters something it cannot quickly understand and did not expect (in other words, a surprise), enlists System 2 to make sense of the for writing a business case study, anomaly. The alerted System 2 takes charge, overriding System 1’s automatic reactions. Trip Essay? System 2 always has the last word when it chooses to assert it. Daniel Kahneman: The riddle of experience vs. memory - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Using examples from vacations to colonoscopies, Nobel laureate and founder of behavioral economics Daniel Kahneman reveals how our experiencing selves and our remembering selves perceive happiness differently.
This new insight has profound implications for economics, public policy -- and our own self-awareness. Widely regarded as the world's most influential living psychologist, Daniel Kahneman won the Nobel in Economics for his pioneering work in behavioral economics -- exploring the irrational ways we make decisions about risk. Integrating Fast and a business case study, Slow Cognitive Processes ( local copy ), by translation services thesis Kennedy and Bugajska, for the Naval Research Laboratory, 2010 Human reactions appear to be controlled by two separate types of mental processes: one fast, automatic, and unconscious and template, the other slow, deliberate, and conscious. With the new york essay, attention in the literature focused on the taxonomy of the two processes, there is little discussion of how they interact. Template A Business Case Study? In this paper, we focus on modeling the slower process's ability to inhibit the fast process. We present computational cognitive models in which different strategies allow a human to consciously inhibit an undesirable fast response. Gladwell, Malcolm. Blink: The Power of trip Thinking without Thinking . New York: Little, Brown, 2005 Book review of Gladwell's Blink ( local copy ), by Norton, in Naval War College Review , Winter 2006. Intuition The intuitive mind is a sacred gift and the rational mind is a faithful servant. We have created a society that honors the template for writing case, servant and has forgotten the gift.
See tactical decision games on the Simuations page, contrasting intuitive and analytic approaches. See also - Recognition-Primed Decision Model - references in the Decision-Making section above. How We Decide ( local copy ), by british Schmitt, in Designing TDGs: A Tactical Decision. Games Workbook , Marine Corps University, 26 Apr 1996 Not surprisingly, the research revealed that proficient decision makers rarely make decisions by concurrent option comparison. Case? Instead they use their intuition to recognize the essence of translation services a given situation and to template for writing a business tell them what appropriate action to take.
In fact, separate studies by Dr. Gary Klein and others conclude that decision makers in a variety of fields use the analytical apaproach to decision making less than 10 percent of the time and employ intuitive techniques over 90 percent of the trip new york essay, time. Custer in Cyberspace ( local copy ), by Gompert and Kugler, Defense Horizons number 51, Feb 2006 When conditions are complex and dynamic, time is short, and critical information is for writing a business case study, available, the key to making good decisions is to blend intuition with reasoning—more specifically, reliable intuition with timely reasoning . From The Personal Relevance of Great Campaigns - by writing prompts personal Bird, 22 Feb 2001, Command and General Staff Officer's Course Carl Von Clausewitz explains that events in warfare are surrounded by uncertainty, and that there are few universal truths. Because of this, leaders must sort through this “fog” to find the truth, often a daunting endeavor that’s permeated by chance. The commander must sift through this information and decide what pieces are relevant and require action. Clausewitz specifically refers to the capability of the mind to discriminate information allowing quick, correct decisions. Case Study? He describes this ability as coup d’oeil, “the quick recognition of trip essay a truth that the mind would ordinarily miss or would perceive only after long study and reflection .” 2 Napoleon faced such a scenario in the battles of Jena-Auerstadt.
With limited information, he turned an entire field army in template for writing case study place to oral test essay seek decisive battle with the Prussians and template case, won the day. [ 2 Carl Von Clausewitz, On War , ed. and trans. by inter search essay Michael Howard and Peter Paret, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976), p. 100-102. ] Intuition: an Imperative of Command ( local copy ), by Rogers, in Military Review - examines relevance of intuition to decision making in the context of template a business case study warfighting on the modern battlefield. Decisionmaking Theory ( local copy ), Marine Corps Doctrine Publication 6 the intuitive approach is more appropriate for the vast majority of typical tactical or operational decisions-decisions made in the fluid, rapidly changing conditions of war when time and uncertainty are critical factors, and creativity is a desirable trait Note 18. British Phd Thesis? Intuitive decisionmaking more appropriate for the vast majority of case study tactical/operational decisions: A 1989 study by Gary A. Klein (based on british phd thesis 1985 observations) estimated that decision makers in a variety of disciplines use intuitive methods 87 percent of the template study, time and analytical methods 13 percent of the trees friend, time. Evidence now suggests that this study was actually biased in favor of analysis . More recent studies estimate the breakdown at more nearly 95 percent intuitive to for writing a business case study 5 percent analytical.
G. Phd Thesis? A. Klein, Recognition-Primed Decisions in William B. Rouse (ed.), Advances in Man-Machine System Research (Greenwich, CT: Jai Press, 1989); G. L. Kaempf, S. Template For Writing Case Study? Wolf, M. L. Thordsen, and G. Klein, Decision Making in the Aegis Combat Information Center (Fairborn, OH: Klein Associates, 1992); R. Pascual and S. Henderson, Evidence of Naturalistic Decision Making in Command and Control in C. Zsambok and G. Klein (eds.), Naturalistic Decision Making , forthcoming publication (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates); Kathleen Louise Mosier, Decision Making in translation the Air Transport Flight Deck: Process and Product , unpublished dissertation (Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1990). Decision Making Theory ( local copy ), Naval Doctrine Publication 6, Naval Command and Control The intuitive approach is clearly more appropriate for template case the fluid, rapidly changing environment of inter essay combat, when time and uncertainty are critical factors. War in the Pits: Marine-Futures Traders Wargame ( local copy ), NDU Strategic Forum 61, by West Marine generals and colonels vs futures traders in decisionmaking wargame The traders' OODA loop, executed at for writing study much higher speed, is ISAA: Information, Sort by Priority, Act, Assess Virtual Stress ( local copy ), in british Marines Online , senior Marines vs futures traders in decision making wargame. Intuitive people worse at detecting lies, by Young, NewScientist.com, 18 Mar 2002 People who think of for writing themselves as being intuitive make worse lie detectors than those who do not trust in a gut instinct, according to new research. One possible explanation is that intuitives in british fact rely on common misconceptions about template for writing how to spot a liar, he says. Situation Awareness, Situational Awareness To see, to hear, means nothing. To recognize (or not to recognize) means everything. Individual Situation Awareness ( local copy ), course module from NOAA Situation Awareness Definition (from Mica Endsley, 1988) Level 1 - Perception of the creative writing, elements in the environment within a volume of template study space Level 2 - Comprehension of their meaning Level 3 - Projection of services their status in the near future. Situation Awareness Demons: the Enemies of Situation Awareness ( local copy ), course module from NOAA Discusses the eight demons laid out by for writing study Endsley et al, in Designing for Situation Awareness Attentional Tunneling Requisite Memory Trap Workload, Anxiety, Fatigue, and Other Stressors (WAFOS) Data Overload Misplaced Salience Complexity Creep Errant Mental Models Out-of-the-Loop Syndrome. Ye Olde Brain, and Its Workings The destiny of phd thesis every human being is for writing case study, decided by what goes on inside his skull when confronted with what goes on outside his skull. I know you think you understand what you thought I said but I'm not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant.
Daniel Amen - Change your brain, change your life, a TEDx talk Change your Brain, Change your Life. Revelations based on studying 63,000 brain images across 90 countries over 20 years. How Brain imaging can change paradigms and our understanding of healthy life, no matter where we live. Steve Ramirez and Xu Liu: A mouse. A laser beam. A manipulated memory - a TED talk (you may need to oral test essay watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Can we edit the content of our memories? It’s a sci-fi-tinged question that Steve Ramirez and Xu Liu are asking in their lab at MIT.
Essentially, the pair shoot a laser beam into template for writing a business case, the brain of a living mouse to activate and manipulate its memory. British Phd Thesis? In this unexpectedly amusing talk they share not only how, but -- more importantly -- why they do this. (Filmed at TEDxBoston.) From Bench to Bunker: How a 1960s discovery in neuroscience spawned a military project, by Bardin, in The Chronicle of Higher Education , 9 July 2012 The man has a machine strapped to his head, an array of study electrodes called an electroencephalogram, or EEG, which is recording his brain activity as each image skips by. It then sends the brain-activity data wirelessly to a large computer. The computer has learned what the man's brain activity looks like when he sees one of the translation thesis, visual targets, and, based on that information, it quickly reshuffles the for writing study, images. New York Essay? When the man sorts back through the template a business, hundreds of images—most without structures, but some with—almost all the ones with buildings in them pop to the front of the pack. His brain and the computer have done good work. That display was a demonstration of a new technology being developed through a collaboration between the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the military's research arm, and a private company called Neuromatters, which was founded by a team led by the Columbia University bioengineer Paul Sajda. The hope is that, in the near future, military analysts might use the technology to eliminate worthless images in seconds, speeding up their review of oral test essay satellite images by orders of template a business case study magnitude. By the looks of it, it's working. Paolo Cardini: Forget multitasking, try monotasking, a talk from TED.com - if TED site is blocked, you may be able to watch it on oral test essay YouTube or one of the template for writing study, other sites People aren’t just cooking anymore -- they’re cooking, texting, talking on the phone, watching YouTube and uploading photos of the creative personal, awesome meal they just made.
Designer Paolo Cardini questions the a business, efficiency of our multitasking world and translation, makes the case for template study -- gasp -- monotasking. Amy Cuddy: Your body language shapes who you are, a talk from oral test essay TED.com - if TED site is blocked, you may be able to watch it on YouTube or one of the other sites Body language affects how others see us, but it may also change how we see ourselves. Social psychologist Amy Cuddy shows how “power posing” -- standing in template for writing a business study a posture of confidence, even when we don’t feel confident -- can affect testosterone and cortisol levels in the brain, and might even have an impact on our chances for success. Amy Cuddy’s research on trip new york essay body language reveals that we can change other people’s perceptions — and even our own body chemistry — simply by changing body positions. New TED Book: Brain Power, by Tiffany Shlain - announcement includes an template a business study, overview video Discusses items such as the fact that a child's brain has 10 times as many connections as the entire internet. Iain McGilchrist: The divided brain - a Best of the Web talk featured by TED Psychiatrist Iain McGilchrist describes the real differences between the left and right halves of the human brain. British? It's not simply emotion on the right, reason on template for writing case study the left, but something far more complex and interesting.
A Best of the trip, Web talk from for writing study RSA Animate. Scott Fraser: Why eyewitnesses get it wrong, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) Scott Fraser studies how humans remember crimes -- and oral test essay, bear witness to them. In this powerful talk, which focuses on a deadly shooting at sunset, he suggests that even close-up eyewitnesses to a crime can create memories they could not have seen. A Business Case Study? Why? Because the brain abhors a vacuum. Tan Le: A headset that reads your brainwaves, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) Tan Le's astonishing new computer interface reads its user's brainwaves, making it possible to control virtual objects, and even physical electronics, with mere thoughts (and a little concentration). She demos the essay, headset, and talks about its far-reaching applications. Rebecca Saxe: How we read each other's minds, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to for writing case watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) Sensing the motives and feelings of others is a natural talent for humans. But how do we do it? Here, Rebecca Saxe shares fascinating lab work that uncovers how the brain thinks about inter search other peoples' thoughts -- and judges their actions.
Kwabena Boahen on a computer that works like the brain, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on a business case your computer) Researcher Kwabena Boahen is looking for ways to mimic the oral test essay, brain's supercomputing powers in case silicon -- because the messy, redundant processes inside our heads actually make for a small, light, superfast computer. Diane Benscoter on how cults rewire the brain, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on prompts your computer) Diane Benscoter spent five years as a Moonie. She shares an insider's perspective on template for writing study the mind of british a cult member, and proposes a new way to think about today's most troubling conflicts and extremist movements. talks about viral memetic infections and compromised emotional immune systems Al Seckel says our brains are mis-wired, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) Al Seckel, a cognitive neuroscientist, explores the case, perceptual illusions that fool our brains. Loads of eye tricks help him prove that not only are we easily fooled, we kind of like it. Steven Pinker on creative personal language and thought, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) In an exclusive preview of his book The Stuff of for writing a business case study Thought, Steven Pinker looks at language and how it expresses what goes on in our minds -- and how the words we choose communicate much more than we realize.
Keith Barry does brain magic, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the translation services thesis, TED.com version won't run on your computer) First, Keith Barry shows us how our brains can fool our bodies -- in a trick that works via podcast too. Then he involves the audience in some jaw-dropping (and even a bit dangerous) feats of brain magic. The Secret Powers of Time, video by Zimbardo Professor Philip Zimbardo reveals how our individual perspective on time affects our work, health and template for writing study, well-being. Mind Reading Machine on CBS Reads Your Thoughts - (10 out of 10 at guessing what a scanned person is inter essay, thinking about) – also reading/assessing “intentions” and being able to assess if you’ve been somewhere before (for example, when you were robbing the house) and neural marketing – and brain patterns indicating various emotions. Science Nation - Mind Reading Computer System May Help People with Locked-in Syndrome Imagine living a life in which you are completely aware of the world around you but you're prevented from for writing study engaging in writing it because you are completely paralyzed.
Even speaking is impossible. For an estimated 50,000 Americans this is template a business, a harsh reality. It's called locked-in syndrome, a condition in which people with normal cognitive brain activity suffer severe paralysis, often from injuries or an illness such as Lou Gehrig's disease. Boston University neuroscientist Frank Guenther works with the National Science Foundation's Center of Excellence for Learning in Education, Science and Technology (CELEST), which is made up of personal eight private and template for writing a business study, public institutions, mostly in the Boston area. Its purpose is to synthesize the experimental modeling and technological approaches to research in order to trip understand how the brain learns as a whole system. A Business Study? In particular, Guenther's research is looking at how brain regions interact, with the hope of melding mind and machine, and ultimately making life much better for people with locked-in syndrome. Psychology of Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Heuer, 1999, for CIA -- very good examination of many elements of critical thinking and mental processes, with examples ( PDF version ) Semiotic Fundamentals of Information Processing in translation thesis Human Brain ( local copy ), by Perlovsky, Air Force Research Lab The paper discusses a mathematical nature of signs and symbols, and relates it to information processing and understanding, structure of the mind and for writing a business, brain, learning, and essay trees our best, pattern recognition. Videos for Thinking Innovating Many videos from the following sources are scattered throughout this website.
No endorsement of template a business case study ideas or opinions is trees friend english, implied for template for writing a business case study the Air Force or any US Government agency/organization. These are for your personal interests and services, education only. TED talks - over 1,200 videos, from template for writing a business study 3 minutes to 25 minutes, by leading thinkers and developers in trees friend many fields of study TED is a nonprofit devoted to Ideas Worth Spreading. For Writing A Business? It started out (in 1984) as a conference bringing together people from trip new york essay three worlds: Technology, Entertainment, Design. Since then its scope has become ever broader. if the TED website copy of the video doesn't play on your computer, cut and paste the title of the template case study, talk into a search engine to find the YouTube copy or other copy which may play. The RSA (Royal Society for translation thesis the encouragement of a business case Arts, Manufactures and Commerce) an enlightenment organisation committed to finding innovative practical solutions to today’s social challenges over 400 videos, animations, shorts, and more RSA Animate takes select speeches and adds entertaining animation effects. 99U - Insights on making ideas happen tips, articles, and oral test essay, videos At 99U, Behance's education arm, we focus on what happens after inspiration — researching the forces that truly push ideas to template study fruition.
Our profiles of proven idea makers, action-oriented tips, and annual conference are all designed to help you transform ideas from vision to reality. PopTech videos We’re a global community of innovators, working together to expand the personal, edge of change. Miscellaneous Thinking in a Foreign Language Makes Decisions More Rational, by Keim, in Wired online journal, Apr 2012 A series of experiments on more than 300 people from the U.S. and Korea found that thinking in a second language reduced deep-seated, misleading biases that unduly influence how risks and benefits are perceived. The researchers believe a second language provides a useful cognitive distance from automatic processes, promoting analytical thought and case, reducing unthinking, emotional reaction. Learning and Reasoning: The True Heart of the Mind ( local copy ), by Gunning, DARPATech2005 - mention of programs to develop cognitive systems that can reason.
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Download a Resume Template That Employers Will Love. Are your Resume and online job search profiles not yielding you the template for writing results you need to find gainful employment and finally afford to pay your bills? No doubt about it; it’s tougher to thesis, find a job now than it’s been in template a business case, decades. That doesn’t mean, however, that you can’t give yourself every fighting chance of snagging the next available job. While there is plenty to writing prompts, be said for effective interviewee skills, the absolute most important step for getting hired is writing a winning Curriculum Vitae.
Without a highly attractive C.V, you’re just one of dozens or more applicants that begin to blend together after a while. You want your most relevant skills and experience to jump off the page and grab the attention of the person responsible for reviewing the group of CVs in which yours is stacked or filed online. Direct access to resume templates advices. 1. Choose your favorite Curriculum Vitae. 2. Template. Download selected resumes on your desktop.
No front page content has been created yet. How To Write a Winning Curriculum Vitae. Understand What Makes a Great Resume. Many job applicants are under a misconception that a great Curriculum Vitae means fluffing up terms, adding lots of jobs and experience, listing as many skills as possible, and oral test essay engaging in other overkill tactics. Template Study. Excessive and irrelevant information only clutters the page and writing personal narrative makes it more difficult to find the skills and information for which your prospective employer is for writing study searching. The best resumes are those that are concise and specific to the job being sought. Essay Our Best. As such, a separate resume should be used for template for writing a business study each job if the services required skills, education, and experience are different. A Business Study. At the end of this article, we will review a few time saving tips building each specific Curriculum Vitae. First, though, let’s take a look at how to write a winning CV.
Review All Job Description Material and More (If Necessary) While some employers seem to be in essay, the habit of posting as little information as possible, others provide a great deal of valuable information relevant to not only the skills, experience, and for writing a business education of a desired employee, but also the description, expectations, and creative demands of the job itself. Acquire as much information as you can about the position. If the employer provided you with pages and pages of descriptions, read them before building your resume. If the employer posted minimal information about the for writing study job, you may find information by reviewing the search essay website or even calling and asking for details. The more you know about your prospective employers, the more power you have to template a business, show them a picture-perfect employee on creative writing narrative, paper. If you read terms you don’t really understand, see requirements for template a business case education levels you haven’t reached, or find any other indication that you’re not a good candidate for the job; don’t waste your time applying. Also, understand that it may be very difficult to find a job that matches your education or the bulk of your experience. You may have to services, begin at a business case, an entry level position in a company that seeks supervisory and translation services upper management applicants from within. If this is the case, be extremely careful about template for writing a business, divulging the extent of your education, experience, and trees our best english salary history as you may be viewed as ‘overqualified’.
However insulting or degrading it may feel, the reality is that at some point you just have to accept that options are limited and be willing to ‘dumb it down’ a bit to secure employment. Just think, though: In the next few months after you’re hired, you’ll have a chance to excel beyond expectation and increase your odds of recognition and a business promotion. Use Only Relevant Terms, Skills, and Experience. If you feel the need to add more information to your curriculum vitae than what’s absolutely relevant, make sure that the most compelling details are on the first page and friend english that it’s not crowded with words. In addition to your contact information, you should have: Relevant skills, relevant experience, and relevant education. If you have multiple jobs dating back for a business case study a number of years, try to list only the phd thesis most relevant jobs within the past 5-7 years on the first page and either make a note that a more extensive job history is available upon request or attach a separate sheet with a complete history in case the reviewer is so inclined to read it. Template For Writing A Business Study. Whatever you do, DO NOT let a full page of outdated and irrelevant details take away from the razzle and dazzle of the trip new york first page of your resume. Remember that your developed skills are more important than your experience. Yes, you need experience to demonstrate the for writing fact that you’ve had time to services thesis, hone those skills, but employers need to know the capabilities you have that are relevant to the job for which you’re applying. The Verbiage of Your Curriculum Vitae.
You want your C.V to sound professional, but it doesn’t have to sound like it came out of the template for writing a business case study Oxford Dictionary. Remember, it’s not as though you’re writing a dissertation; you’re listing bits and pieces of translation services concise and relevant information to for writing case study, present a snapshot of oral test essay what you have to offer. Refer to the job description and other material posted by your prospective employers. If they used industry-specific jargon, use the template for writing a business study same jargon wherever applicable. Review their posted list of essay required skills and job duties and use it as a guide for listing all of your valid and for writing case study applicable skills and job duties with previous employers.
If you have additional skills or job skills than are not posted on oral test essay, the job description by a business case study your prospective employer, consider leaving them out. If you feel you must include them somewhere, follow the same rule as job history: Keep them off the first page. Instead, attach them at the top of the british page containing your extensive job history. You have 2 primary goals for your curriculum vitae: Make it easy to a business case, read and make every word count. In order to accomplish this, you need to use a font of at inter search, least 10-12 and make each section of your document stand out from the next by staggering blocks of information that take up different levels of horizontal space. For example, you may place your name, physical address, phone number, and email address at the top in the center. For contrast, you would place a sentence outlining your objective; perhaps something like: To obtain consistent and long term employment with a company in which my skills and talents will be utilized and appreciated.
Because that sentence will take the entire width of the page, your next sections should be small and centered. This would be a great place to study, list your skills. If you place your employment in the next section, that would be a great contrast to your skills. Make a table with 2 columns and a few rows (just enough for inter search essay your most relevant jobs). Add your title, previous employers, and their contact information in the left column and for writing study your job duties on the right. Creative Prompts. Finally, underneath your employment history, enter your education information centered on the page. Employers may or may not be interested in speaking with your personal references. If there is any reason why your prospective employers shouldn’t speak with your previous supervisors, try to case, avoid putting their contact information on your Curriculum Vitae.
Otherwise, there should be plenty of professional references in your format for them to review. You can post a sentence on the bottom of your Curriculum Vitae either inviting your potential employer to creative personal, call contacts from your employment history and/or letting him/her know that you have a list of personal references available if requested. If you have room on the page after leaving plenty of space in between each section, increase the font size of your name. If you have adequate or advanced linguistic skills, consider writing a short cover letter (3-5 small to moderate paragraphs) introducing yourself and outlining your skills, dedication, ambition, work ethic, and a business case any other relevant piece of information that increases your appeal to creative prompts narrative, an employer but may not have a proper place on your Curriculum Vitae. Cover letters are easy to disregard if an employer isn’t interested, and they can help to set you aside from other applicants if there is an interest in learning more about you by template for writing study reading your cover letter. You can either use the outline provided in inter search essay, this article or you can create your own curriculum vitae outline containing your name, contact information, and the basic sections you will need to fill out per application. Save the outline and consistent information in a master file, and once you’ve finished preparing a Curriculum Vitae for a job, choose ‘Save as’ and template for writing a business study create a specific name for it. Phd Thesis. To find your Curriculum Vitae more quickly and conveniently, consider using the same name and template for writing case changing only the last word. For example, you may save your resume as ‘MyResumeCompany.doc’. Replace the translation services thesis word ‘Company’ with each different place to which you submit your curriculum. How to Write a Great Cover Letter.
Landing a job is undoubtedly difficult in today’s economy. Writing a great cover letter is probably the most important step you can towards landing the job of template their dreams. Why is writing a cover letter so important? It is the first thing a potential employer sees, and it will dictate whether or not the employer even looks at your resume. Even the most polished, professional resume doesn’t stand a chance against a poorly written cover letter. How do you write a cover letter that not only a potential employer to read your resume, but also gets you invited for trip new york essay an interview? Writing a winning cover letter is not difficult if you follow a few simple steps: Just like an employer won’t look at a resume that’s attached to a poorly written cover letter, the employer won’t even bother to read the cover letter if it’s a messy jumble of text. To create a professional-looking cover letter, be sure to use plenty of white space.
You should have, at a minimum, one inch margins and double spaces between paragraphs. For Writing Study. Follow the guidelines for writing a basic business letter and be sure to include a simple, text-only letterhead. Your letterhead should be the narrative same letterhead that appears on for writing case, your resume. This is your one and only chance to essay our best, name drop, so take advantage of it. Potential employers want to know how you heard about the position. For Writing A Business. You should also identify the specific position that you are seeking, and state that you are applying for this position. Yes, it’s obvious, but cover letters follow a long-established pattern, and this isn’t the time to be a rebel. Search Essay. Finally, set the tone for the rest of the letter, and briefly state what you will be discussing.. If you have more than a few years of experience in the field to which you are applying, your professional experience should be presented before your educational experience.
First, write a topic sentence that presents one unified idea. If you’ve held several jobs in this career, find the one aspect that these jobs have in common that will most impress your potential employer. You also need to link this paragraph to your educational experience. Similar to your employment paragraph, you need to develop one unified idea rather than simply presenting a list of all the schools you’ve attended and courses you’ve taken. Determine which aspect of your education is most important to the position you’re applying for and present it here. A fourth and even fifth paragraph may be added if you need to for writing a business case, present additional relevant information. Just remember to develop one idea per paragraph, and to keep the entire letter under one page. This is british phd thesis your opportunity to for writing case, tie everything together, leading the trip new york essay reader to invite you to template for writing a business study, an interview. You need to reference your resume and any other included attachments. In addition, you need to politely, yet confidently state that you wish to be invited to an interview.
Finally, state the easiest way for the employer to reach you, referring to new york essay, the phone number and e-mail address in your letterhead. For important documents like cover letters, you need to go beyond your computer’s spell check and grammar check. For Writing Case. Place the cover letter aside for a few hours, or overnight if possible, and british phd thesis look at it with fresh eyes. You might find errors that you didn’t see previously. Template. As a final step, ask someone, who you trust will do a decent job, to inter search, proofread your cover letter.
Now, you have a well-written cover letter that will hopefully lead a potential employer to read your resume and ultimately invite you to an interview. The rest is up to you! How to prepare for a winning job interview. In a competitive market for a business case study available jobs, potential candidates should put in the necessary time and effort to make a solid impact. You must simply accept that it’s a buyer’s market, the buyer, in this case is the organization. Your first job as the seller is to sell yourself.
You need to stand out from the essay trees other candidates like a house with a shiny red door in template for writing a business case study, a cookie-cutter neighborhood. Assume your resume and cover letter is in a pile on a desk with plenty of others, therefore you must find a way to rise to the top. You need to put yourself in trip new york, a stronger position, instead of you trying to template case study, chasing the job, make them convince you to take it. Your mindset dictates the demeanor you portray. Personal. If you seem too desperate, you don’t make it to the next step, however, too arrogant and doors will close. You have to put yourself in the shoes of the interviewer and determine your moves every step of the way. Spend about five hours preparing for each hour of interview, you want to investigate how you can deliver value to template, the organization. By researching and narrative probing how you can make an template a business case impact in the position, you are going beyond the canned responses of most candidates. Your resume should announce that you are qualified for prompts the position. After the for writing a business study interview, you want to leave the creative writing prompts personal impression that you can start the job tomorrow.
You want to contact somebody who does the same job at the organization or similar enterprise and ask several questions. It’s a must that you discover the current challenges for the position within the for writing a business case study organization and the industry as a whole. The next step is succeed where so many candidates fall short, you want to show initiative by suggesting ideas for the position. Hiring managers have so many job functions to perform, by proving that you not only prompts narrative, did research concerning the position, but proposed suggestions, you show tremendous potential. You would be surprised how those that have been performing the job for years have not expressed such aptitude. Be prepared to template case study, go beyond lip service, you want to demonstrate the homework you have done. Reaching out to a current employee performing the same job function puts you over the top. Don’t be shy or feel like you are intruding. Many employees have innovative ideas about how to british, perform their jobs better, tap into that information for a business case study free and translation services then add your own spin. Use the power of imagination to stand out from the crowd, everybody else is going to be following the same job interview tips that get recycled over the web.
If you want to make a lasting impression, you must put in the sweat and effort. Find someone who you can practice with until it comes out for writing a business study, natural. Landing an offer in a tough economy requires considerable effort. If you can demonstrate you can make an impact in your interview, your name will rise to the top of the pack. Copyright Curriculum-Vitae.In 2013 - Contact : webmaster curriculum-vitae.in.
All the Curriculum Vitae templates are at your disposal without any guaranty. The use of these Curriculum samples is at your sole risk.