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Trees: Our Best Friends Essay- English Essay On Importance…
Black Like Me: It’s time for a deeper conversation about race in America. Searching for the truth might be uncomfortable, but we need to trees, start looking. ON THE NIGHT of President Barack Obama’s election victory in November 2008, my dad called me from my home state of Kentucky to express a mix of disbelief and relief over was no in hindi an outcome that he, an African American from the South who had attended segregated schools as a kid, thought he’d never live to our best english, see. A black man would be the next president of the how many, United States and occupy a White House that, as first lady Michelle Obama would famously note eight years later, was built by African slaves. Though I’d grown up and worked in an integrated world, I had doubts, too. Here we were, father and son, linked by fiber-optic cables and the arc of essay trees friend American history, marveling at the triumph of the impossible. When my dad and I spoke by phone to discuss the election of inter President Donald Trump last November, by contrast, the spirit of the conversation was less “Lift Every Voice and Sing” and more “Strange Fruit.” Trump’s victory, after all, had come on the heels of an essay trees english endorsement by the official newsletter of the country’s most infamous hate group, the Ku Klux Klan, and other white nationalists who felt emboldened by Trump’s rhetoric and if there was no in hindi, rise.
Without prompting, my dad recalled the days of essay our best Jim Crow segregation, a time when to be black in paper the South, or any other region of the country, meant living with the fear of repercussion simply for not knowing your place around white people. It seemed we had overcome only to roll ourselves back. But life experience and vantage point are everything. I had to accept that the toxic racial and ethnic overtones of the essay trees friend, New York billionaire’s campaign that seemed so disqualifying to for dissertation, me didn’t register as deal-breakers for everybody, including tens of millions of white voters and even some people of trees friend color. WHO ARE WE, and inter essay, what are we really made of? Don't miss our Facebook Live chat and other appearances. Join us Tuesday, Jan. 31 at noon for a Facebook Live chat with this story's writer, Tyrone Beason, and essay trees friend english, photographer, Johnny Andrews, as they discuss their roles as both journalists and citizens in capturing this story. Additionally, Beason will discuss “Black Like Me” with interviewer Jamala Henderson on 94.9 FM KUOW’s “All Things Considered,” Jan.
27 and Jan. 28 . The interview will be available on the KUOW site after it airs. He will also appear live on Q13 FOX TV at results for dissertation, 9:20 a.m. Trees Our Best Friend English. Tuesday . How can there not be an ongoing national conversation on race when it so obviously factored into essays the presidential campaign and the way people voted when they closed the essay trees english, curtains of their voting booths? What are we not saying to each other? These questions dogged me on Nov. 10, as I watched the amazing spectacle of then-President-elect Trump — who made his name in politics by doubting the first black president’s citizenship status — awkwardly meeting Obama for the first time at the White House.
In footage of the meeting, a bust of Martin Luther King Jr., the other most iconic black man in our history, gazes over Trump’s shoulder like a silent witness. If There Was No Sun Essay In Hindi. The sense that Trump and Obama were inches from each other yet living in unbridgeable racial realities made me think of the 1961 book “Black Like Me,” by journalist John Howard Griffin. Trees Friend. In the book, Griffin recounts a dramatic social experiment in which he artificially darkened his skin to pass as a black man, so he could experience racism and white supremacy in the South quite literally from the point of view of the African Americans subjected to search, those twin evils every day. Trees Our Best. It is an astonishing example of walking in another person’s shoes, another race’s world. The next performances of “Dear White People” will be Feb. 24-25 at Theatre Off Jackson, 409 Seventh Ave. S., Seattle. For more information, call 206-340-1049 or go to theatreoffjackson.org . Essay On Independence Day Of Pakistan. Griffin dons the mask of blackness, but he ends up showing us that his own whiteness is a kind of guise, a racial signifier that grants him rights and english, privileges, and a level of peace of pakistan in urdu mind that blacks and other brown-skinned people in this country could only dream about. The past is always present, and Griffin’s experiment likely would reveal painful truths today about trees, how we live, talk about race in private and term paper how many words, treat each other in public.
But we need not travel far, or go to the extremes that Griffin did, to make our own journey of racial discovery. SEATTLE IS CELEBRATED for its open embrace of all types of people. Friend English. It’s not uncommon to term paper how many, see a “Black Lives Matter” march with mostly white demonstrators. But when they happen, conversations about race — across racial lines — can be disappointingly stilted and trees our best, unproductive. And it is often people of color who wind up dominating those conversations while whites hang back. Seattle-based scholar and consultant Robin DiAngelo, who has a doctorate in multicultural education and specializes in discography antithesis whiteness studies, often gives lectures on “white fragility,” the reluctance of many whites to engage in discussions about race for fear of essay friend getting scuffed up emotionally in how many words the process or, worse yet, accused of being a racist. “The word ‘racist’ is like the N-word for essay trees our best friend english, white people,” says DiAngelo, a white 60-year-old who grew up in results section for dissertation a low-income household in San Jose, Calif. “White people are very wily when it comes to race,” she says. Trees Friend English. “We will do everything that we can to get out from under the idea of race.” At the same time, she says, “White consciousness is deeply anti-black, and that’s for progressives and conservatives.” In her own work, DiAngelo tends to essay on independence pakistan, focus on racial bigotry among white progressives, whom she calls her most difficult audience “because of the degree to which we think we’re good to go.” “Even if you marched in the ’60s, you are not certified racism-free for the rest of essay our best english your life,” she says.
For many whites, DiAngelo says, “Being a good moral person and antithesis, being complicit with racism are mutually exclusive.” DiAngelo considers white fragility a form of bullying that effectively shuts down conversations about race and racism before the first layers of opinion and essay our best, prejudice have been peeled back. “It’s an everyday form of white racial control — acting as if you cannot tolerate any association with racism,” DiAngelo says. Younger whites, contrary to conventional wisdom, are no more willing to dive into the topic from their own perspective than their parents or grandparents, DiAngelo says. That’s because the vast majority of whites still grow up in exclusively white settings with mainly white friends and associates throughout life and therefore never have to on independence pakistan, think about what their skin tone projects to others — or what people of color have to endure because of their skin color. “It’s a refusal to know,” she says. Essay Our Best. “We don’t want to see.” IN THE WORLD of burlesque, the term how many, performer sheds layers piece by tantalizing piece, stringing the viewer along with a slow-burn seductiveness. It is the art of essay our best friend uncovering. In the end, the viewer’s fantasies and term words, desires are laid as bare as the performer’s body, and essay our best english, the honesty of that connection can be as empowering as it is entertaining.
Burlesque might seem like an unlikely medium through which to explore the heady topic of race, but well-known Seattle performer Jessica Rosa, who goes by the stage name Boom Boom L’Roux, is doing just that with her occasional burlesque and variety show “Dear White People.” Over two hours, fellow burlesque artists, dancers, singers, poets and sun essay, other stage acts tackle race, culture, gender, body image and sexuality in an intensely personal, sometimes-funny, often-confessional series of essay our best short performances. The show is a fever dream of identity art, the sort of term how many words Off, Off, Off Broadway production that could happen only in trees our best friend an iconoclastic arts community like Seattle’s. Unlike most shows featuring burlesque in term how many words Seattle, “Dear White People” is a showcase for performers of color of all shapes, sizes and gender identities. Rosa, the show’s producer, wanted to create a space for black and essay, brown burlesque artists in particular to share of themselves in a way that’s often not possible, or even desired, in more mainstream venues. Essay. When she first staged the event in early 2016, all the performers she recruited called her crying at some point, worried that the material they were considering would go too far. They weren’t just going to display their bodies and voices. Their life stories, insecurities, anxieties and frustrations would be brought on trees stage, too. “This is the stuff you’re hiding from when you’re creating other acts — I didn’t anticipate the magnitude of the emotional work involved,” says Rosa, who has Puerto Rican heritage and recently challenged herself by performing for the first time with her hair naturally thick, rather than straightened. At the show I attended in essays November at Theatre Off Jackson, which also hosts the monthly, all-people-of-color burlesque show “The Sunday Night Shuga Shaq,” performers worked hard both to entertain and to shake up the essay english, racially mixed audience. In Hindi. Sometimes artists would linger in a nearly naked pose, and you had no choice but to just take it in, not look away. The Lady B, “Seattle’s premiere transfabulous femtastic draglesquing sass-mouthing Negro,” comes out dressed in the hues of a Reese’s Cup package, but quickly disrobes and goes for the jugular, pulling two white men from the our best, audience, placing watermelon halves in section their hands, then scooping out handfuls of the juicy flesh to eat like a fiend as the audience roars with cathartic laughter and cheers. Just like that, an African American literally and figuratively devours the age-old stereotype of essay our best friend blacks craving watermelon.
The singer Caela Bailey, who’s white, tells the audience that as a little girl, her identification with black culture came naturally because she had lots of African-American friends whose families welcomed her into their lives. But when she was 11 or 12, an African-American elder who was like a grandmother to discography, her issued a loving but stern warning: You may feel black on the outside, but as a white person, you can’t fully understand what it’s like to live in a black person’s skin. The burlesque artist Ms. Briq House caps a sexy and moving performance with a shout-out to African Americans who have been killed by police, while holding a “Black Lives Matter” sign above her bare body. The piece ends as a solemn vigil. Essay Trees Our Best Friend. “Making people look at you — to be unapologetic, like, ‘No; we are having this moment’ — that is so brave,” Rosa says.
In typical burlesque, there’s a lot of rpi required makeup, coifed hair and glamorous costumes to essay trees friend english, be removed over was no sun essay in hindi time. “Dear White People” has its glamour but is stripped down in another sense. There’s nothing hidden beneath the surface. English. THE REGION’S HIGHEST-PROFILE black men also spend much of their time in a guise — in this case, football helmets and numbered jerseys. But it is also true that the majority-black Seahawks are one of the term paper how many, NFL’s most outspoken teams on essay trees english issues such as police violence involving African Americans. The black athlete as activist has become a major cultural phenomenon for if there was no sun essay, the first time since the 1960s, when Muhammad Ali refused to fight in Vietnam, and Tommie Smith and John Carlos raised leather-gloved, black-power salutes in 1968 during a medal ceremony at the Mexico City Olympics. The past is on defensive end Cliff Avril’s mind when I sit down with him at the Seahawks’ practice facility in Renton.
He wants African Americans like himself to know more of it and draw inspiration from it to make change from within the black community. “That’s the problem with us black folks,” he says. “We don’t know our history.” Avril has been researching his own Haitian heritage. He says he doesn’t get wrapped up in the hype of being a highly paid, Super Bowl-winning player, and essay our best friend, he doesn’t let the adoration of essays Seahawks fans go to his head. “People love me because I’m (No.) 56, and I get after quarterbacks,” Avril says. “When I leave here, I see the difference #8230; I’m just another guy, a big black man.” When Avril thinks about all the innocent African-American motorists who’ve been shot by police in recent years, it sobers him. “I could easily be one of those guys,” he says. Avril says he’s plotted exactly what to do if he gets pulled over: get his ID ready and visible, roll down the trees english, window and rpi required, place his hands on our best friend the steering wheel so the officer can see them. Antithesis. Avril says he recently went to a mall jewelry store to our best, shop for a watch for his mom and asked to section for dissertation, see a watch in a display counter by the shop’s entrance. The clerk, however, kept urging him to trees our best friend, come to the back of the store to see the watch. Results Section. Avril felt he was being profiled because he’s black, and essay trees our best, he complained. This wasn’t the most earth-shattering offense for him, but it serves as a cautionary tale for anyone who thinks they’re beyond race in a society that has never dealt with the pakistan in urdu, subject in a comprehensive way, and where trust across racial lines can be elusive. Avril’s good friend, defensive end Michael Bennett, says black athletes are starting to come into their own, with more of them expressing who they are and how they feel behind the jerseys and away from the roaring crowds. “I’m always going to be a black man, and that’s something people need to understand,” Bennett tells me. “As much as people want to say race isn’t a thing, it’s a thing,” he adds. Known as a free spirit, Bennett realizes African-American athletes can’t be obsessed with their mainstream marketability if they’re going to trees friend, act or speak out in a bold way, such as when Bennett dons the “Black Lives Matter” slogan on a piece of clothing.
He says athletes cannot stand on the sidelines and do nothing in search essay the current social and political climate. “We have so much power” to raise awareness, he says. Friend. Receiver Doug Baldwin is sanguine about his dual role as beloved Seahawk and vocal African American. As a young man, he straddled the results, black world that raised him in Gulf Breeze, Fla., and trees english, the mostly white community that surrounded him where he ran track and played football, in search nearby Pensacola. He didn’t feel as if he fit into either world. In Pensacola, he stuck out for being black (he’s also one-quarter Filipino). In Gulf Breeze, he was teased for attending a white high school. “It gave me a perspective that I don’t think a lot of people have,” Baldwin tells me. “I had to commune with both worlds. “When I looked at myself in the mirror, I saw a human being,” he says. Even for the most confident and self-possessed African American, though, the issue is how other people see you. Baldwin has taken his fair share of off-base remarks about his intelligence by people who assume jocks aren’t smart, even though the essay our best english, Stanford graduate happens to rpi required, be both introspective and a thoughtful writer on the subjects of racial injustice and economic inequality. Essay Trees. And, like Avril, there’s the problem of essay when he takes off the helmet and No.
89 jersey and leaves the sheltered, close-knit world of friend english pro-sports stars. Baldwin recounts an incident before training camp in 2011, when he first arrived in Seattle. He and cornerback Richard Sherman, also black and a newly arrived Seahawk, were staying at a hotel in in hindi Bellevue when they decided to get something to eat. They set off on our best friend english foot. A woman walking down the search, street near them started to trees our best friend english, act suspicious, clutching her purse. As black men, both had experienced encounters like this in other parts of the country.
But in the liberal Seattle area? Still, Baldwin says, he has a unique opportunity to build bridges as a black activist-athlete. Among other things, he’s spoken out about improving relations between police and the black community. “It’s important to do it in a tactful way; you can very easily lose your audience,” says Baldwin, the for dissertation, son of a police officer. Baldwin also helped organize a show of unity for the cause of “social justice, love peace for all,” in which players locked arms during the home opener against Miami at CenturyLink Field on Sept. 11. “I want people to trees our best friend, listen.” Ten days prior, Seahawks cornerback Jeremy Lane took a different approach by following 49ers quarterback Colin Kaepernick’s example and sitting during the anthem at an exhibition game at Oakland.
BALDWIN SAYS LATELY he has been working to understand why so many voters chose Trump. Essay. “It’s easy for me to essay trees our best friend, have my opinion,” he says. But, “I’ve had to be a little more empathetic. Rpi Required. It’s forced me to essay trees our best english, listen more.” A practicing Christian, Baldwin shares with me a line from scripture that seems like good advice for the rest of us, too: “Lean not on your own understanding.” As we shift into paper the Trump era, the question is: Will we all heed this lesson and start to share and our best english, listen and brave the discomfort of other people’s truths? Or will the term, more reticent among us continue to hide behind the curtains? Editor#8217;s note : The commenting window for essay trees, this article has closed.
Join us at noon Tuesday, Jan. 31, for rpi required essays, a Facebook Live chat with the story#8217;s writer, Tyrone Beason, and photographer, Johnny Andrews, as they discuss their roles both as journalists and as citizens in capturing this story. The opinions expressed in our best reader comments are those of the author only, and do not reflect the opinions of The Seattle Times.
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How to Write a Bibliography – Examples in essay trees our best, MLA Style. Please note, all entries should be typed double-spaced. In order to keep this Web page short,single rather than double space is used here. See Bibliography Sample Page for search essay, a properly double-spaced Bibliography or Works Cited sample page. Examples cited on this page are based on the authoritative publication from MLA.
If the example you want is trees friend english, not included here, please consult the MLA Handbook, or ask the writer to inter look it up for you. Format for trees friend, entries: A single space is used after any punctuation mark. When dividing a long word or URL onto two lines, put hyphen, slash, or period at the end of the line. Do not add a hyphen to a URL that was not originally there. Never begin a new line with a punctuation mark. Double-space all lines in a bibliography entry. Do not indent the first line of on independence, a bibliography entry, indent second and subsequent lines 5 spaces, or 1/2? (1.25 cm) from the left margin. Please see Chapter 11. Guidelines on How to Write a Bibliography for details. When writing a bibliography, remember that the purpose is to communicate to the reader, in essay trees our best english, a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in pakistan in urdu, sufficient detail to be identified. If you are unable to find all the necessary information, just cite what you can find.
Click here to see a selection of Common Abbreviations used in documentation. For a complete list of Common Scholarly Abbreviations used in essay, parentheses, tables, and documentation, please go to Section 7.4 of the 6th edition of the MLA Handbook. Bell, Stewart. The Martyr’s Oath: The Apprenticeship of a Homegrown Terrorist . Mississauga, ON: Wiley, 2005. Biale, David, ed.
Cultures of the Jews: A New History . New York: Schocken, 2002. Bowker, Michael. Fatal Deception: The Untold Story of Asbestos: Why It Is Still Legal. and Still Killing Us . N.p.: Rodale, 2003. N.p. = No place of publication indicated. Capodiferro, Alessandra, ed. Wonders of the World: Masterpieces of term paper, Architecture from. 4000 BC to the Present . Vercelli: White Star, 2004. Cross, Charles R. Room Full of Mirrors: A Biography of Jimi Hendrix . New York: Maltin, Leonard, ed. Movie Video Guide 2002 Edition . New York: New American, 2001.
Meidenbauer, Jorg, ed. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times . Lisse: Rebo, 2004. Puzo, Mario. Essay Trees Friend English! The Family: A Novel . Essay Pakistan In Urdu! Completed by essay trees friend, Carol Gino. New York: Harper, 2001. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of essay pakistan in urdu, Secrets . New York: Scholastic, 1999. —. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Thorndike, ME: Thorndike, 2000.
Suskind, Ron. Essay Trees Our Best Friend English! The Price of Loyalty: George W. Bush, the White House, and the Education of. Paul O’Neill . Search! New York: Simon, 2004. If your citation is from one volume of a multivolume work and each volume has its own title, you need cite only the essay trees english actual volume you have used without reference to other volumes in the work. Example: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud comes in 5 volumes, written by Peter Gay. (Title of Vol. 1: Education of the Senses ) Gay, Peter.
Education of the Senses . New York: Norton, 1999. (Title of Vol. 2: The Tender Passion) Gay, Peter. The Tender Passion . New York: Oxford UP, 1986. (Title of how many, Vol. 3: The Cultivation of Hatred ) Gay, Peter. The Cultivation of Hatred . London: Harper, 1994.
(Title of Vol. 4: The Naked Heart ) Gay, Peter. The Naked Heart . New York: Norton, 1995. (Title of Vol. 5: Pleasure Wars ) Gay, Peter. Pleasure Wars . New York: Norton, 1998. 2. Book with two authors or editors:
Bohlman, Herbert M., and Mary Jane Dundas. The Legal, Ethical and International. Environment of essay friend english, Business . 5th ed. Cincinnati, OH: West, 2002. Bolman, Lee G., and Terrence E. Rpi Required! Deal. Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey. of Spirit . Rev. Essay Trees Our Best Friend English! ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001. Calvesi, Maurizio, and Lorenzo Canova, eds. Rejoice!
700 Years of Art for the Papal. Jubilee . New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Cohen, Andrew, and J.L. Granatstein, eds. Trudeau’s Shadow: The Life and Legacy. of Pierre Elliott Trudeau . Toronto: Random, 1998. Heath, Joseph, and Andrew Potter. Day Of! The Rebel Sell: Why the Culture Can’t Be Jammed . 2nd ed. Toronto: Harper, 2005. Llewellyn, Marc, and Lee Mylne. Frommer’s Australia 2005 . Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005.
Summers, Anthony, and Robbyn Swan. Sinatra: The Life . New York: Knopf, 2005. Book prepared for publication by two editors: Shakespeare, William. Essay Friend! The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark . Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. Search! New York: Washington. 3. Book with three authors or editors: Clancy, Tom, Carl Stiner, and Tony Koltz. Essay Our Best Friend! Shadow Warriors: Inside the Special.
Forces . New York: Putnam, 2002. Hewitt, Les, Andrew Hewitt, and Luc d’Abadie. The Power of term paper how many, Focus for College. Students . Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 2005. Larsson, Mans O., Alexander Z. Speier, and Jennifer R. Weiss, eds. Let’s Go:
Germany 1998 . Essay Our Best Friend English! New York: St. Martin’s, 1998. Palmer, R.R., Joel Colton, and inter, Lloyd Kramer. A History of the Modern World: To 1815 . 9th ed. New York: Knopf, 2002. Suzuki, David, Amanda McConnell, and Maria DeCambra. The Sacred Balance: A Visual Celebration of Our Place in Nature . Vancouver: Greystone, 2002. 4. Book with more than three authors or editors:
You have a choice of listing all of the authors or editors in trees our best friend english, the order as they appear on the title page of the book, or use “et al.” from the Latin et alii, or et aliae , meaning “and others” after the in urdu first author or editor named. Nelson, Miriam E., Kristin R. Baker, Ronenn Roubenoff, and Lawrence Lindner. Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Perigee, 2003. Nelson, Miriam E., et al. Our Best Friend English! Strong Women and Men Beat Arthritis . New York: Hogan, David J., et al., eds. The Holocaust Chronicle: A History in Words and Pictures . Lincolnwood, IL: International, 2000. Pound, Richard W., Richard Dionne, Jay Myers, and James Musson, eds. Was No Sun Essay! Canadian. Facts and Dates . 3rd ed.
Markham, ON: Fitzhenry, 2005. Pound, Richard W., et al., eds. Canadian Facts and Dates . 3rd ed. Markham, ON: Rogerson, Holly Deemer, et al. Words for Students of English: A Vocabulary.
Series for ESL . Vol. 6. Advanced Level ESL. Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1989. 5. Essay English! Book with compilers, or compilers and editors: McClay, John B., and Wendy L. Essays! Matthews, comps. and eds. Corpus Juris Humorous: A Compilation of Outrageous, Unusual, Infamous and Witty Judicial Opinions. from 1256 A.D. to the Present . New York: Barnes, 1994. O’Reilly, James, Larry Habegger, and essay trees our best friend english, Sean O’Reilly, comps. and eds.
Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. Teresa, Mother. The Joy in Loving: A Guide to Daily Living with Mother Teresa . Comp. Jaya Chaliha and Edward Le Joly. New York: Viking, 1997. Note abbreviation: comp. = compiler or compiled by. 6. Book with no author or editor stated: Maclean’s Canada’s Century: An Illustrated History of the People and Events. That Shaped Our Identity . Toronto: Key, 1999. Microsoft PowerPoint Version 2002 Step by Step . Redmond, WA: Perspection, 2001.
The Movie Book . London: Phaidon, 1999. With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition 1910-1913 . Photographs of. Herbert Ponting. New York: BCL, 2004. 7. Book with one author, translated by another: Muller, Melissa. Anne Frank: The Biography . Trans. Rita and Robert Kimber.
New York: Metropolitan, 1998. 8. Work in an anthology, a collection by several authors, with one or more editors and/or compilers: Fox, Charles James. “Liberty Is Order, Liberty Is Strength.” What Is a Man? 3,000 Years of Wisdom on the Art of Manly Virtue. Ed. If There Was No In Hindi! Waller R. Newell. New York: Harper, 2001. 306-7. Wilcox, Robert K. “Flying Blind.” Danger: True Stories of Trouble and Survival . Comp. and ed. James O’Reilly, Larry Habegger, and Sean O’Reilly.
San Francisco: Travellers’ Tales, 1999. 211-22. 9. Article in an encyclopedia with no author stated: “Nazi Party.” New Encyclopaedia Britannica . Trees Friend English! 1997 ed. “Tajikistan.” World Book Encyclopedia of People and Places . Results Section For Dissertation! 2000 ed. 10. Essay Trees Our Best Friend English! Article in an encyclopedia with an author:
If the encyclopedia is well known and articles are arranged alphabetically, it is paper how many words, not necessary to indicate the volume and page numbers. If the encyclopedia is not well known, you must give full publication information including author, title of article, title of essay, encyclopedia, name of editor or edition, number of volumes in the set, place of publication, publisher and year of publication. Kibby, Michael W. “Dyslexia.” World Book Encyclopedia . 2000 ed. Midge, T. Discography! “Powwows.” Encyclopedia of North American Indians . Ed. Trees! D.L. Birchfield. 11 vols.
New York: Cavendish, 1997. 11. Article in discography antithesis, a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “100 Years of Dust and Glory.” Popular Mechanics Sept. 2001: 70-75. “Celestica to Repair Palm Handhelds.” Globe and Mail [Toronto] 29 Oct.
2002: B6. “E-Money Slips Quietly into Oblivion.” Nikkei Weekly [Tokyo] 22 Jan. 2001: 4. “McDonald’s Declines to Fund Obesity Education on Danger of essay trees english, Eating Its Food.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr. 2006: FP18. “Pot Use Doubled in Decade, Study Says: 14% Smoked Up in the Past Year.” Toronto Star.
25 Nov. 2004: A18. “Secondhand Smoke Reduces Kids’ IQs.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I6. 12. Article in a magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with one or more authors:
Use “+” for if there in hindi, pages that are not consecutive. Example: When numbering pages, use “38-45” if page numbers are consecutive. Use “A1+” if article begins on page A1, contains more than one page, but paging is not consecutive. For page numbers consisting of essay friend, more than 3 digits, use short version if it is clear to the reader, e.g. 220-268 may be written as 220-68, but 349-560 must be written in full.
Note also that there is no period after the month. The period in “Mar.” is for the abbreviation of discography, March. If there are 4 or less letters in essay, the month, e.g. May, June, and July, the months are not abbreviated. If the publication date is July 18, 2005, citation will be 18 July 2005. Where a journal or magazine is a weekly publication, “date, month, year” are required. If There Sun Essay! Where a journal or magazine is trees, a monthly publication, only “month, year” are needed. Where a newspaper title does not indicate the location of how many, publication, add the city of publication between square brackets, e.g. Daily Telegraph [London]. Square brackets are used to enclose a word (or words) not found in the original but has been added by you. An article in a scholarly journal is treated somewhat differently:
Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002): 265. The above citation shows: Author’s name, Article title, Name of scholarly journal (underlined), Volume number, Issue number, Year of publication (in parentheses), and essay trees our best english, Page number. If the article is accessed online, add Access date and URL at was no sun essay in hindi, the end, see 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources (e). Bogomolny, Laura. “Boss Your Career.” Canadian Business 13-16 Mar.
2006: 47-49. Cave, Andrew. “Microsoft and Sun Settle Java Battle.” Daily Telegraph [London] Cohen, Stephen S., and J. Bradford DeLong. “Shaken and Stirred.” Atlantic Monthly. Jan.-Feb. 2005: 112+. Coleman, Isobel. “Women, Islam, and essay trees friend, the New Iraq.” Foreign Affairs Jan.-Feb. Rpi Required! 2006: 24+.
Daly, Rita. “Bird Flu Targeting the Young.” Toronto Star 11 Mar. 2006: A1+. Dareini, Ali Akbar. Essay Our Best Friend! “Iranian President Defends Country’s Nuclear Ambitions.” Buffalo News. Hewitt, Ben. “Quick Fixes for Everyday Disasters.” Popular Mechanics Nov. 2004: 83-88. Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom.” Buffalo News. 10 Oct. 2004: A1-2. Mather, Victoria. “In Tiger Country.” Photos by results section, James Merrell. Town Country Travel. Fall 2004: 102-111.
Mohanty, Subhanjoy, and Ray Jayawardhana. Trees English! “The Mystery of Brown Dwarf Origins.” Scientific American Jan. 2006: 38-45. Petroski, Henry. “Framing Hypothesis: A Cautionary Tale.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb. Plungis, Jeff, Ed Garsten, and Mark Truby. “Caremakers’ Challenge: Green, Mean. Machines.” Detroit News and discography antithesis, Free Press Metro ed. 12 Jan. 2003: 1A+. Sachs, Jeffrey D. “A Practical Plan to End Extreme Poverty.” Buffalo News 23 Jan. 2005: I2. Saletan, William. “Junk-Food Jihad.” National Post [Toronto] 18 Apr.
2006: A18. Thomas, Cathy Booth, and Tim Padgett. “Life Among the Ruins.” Time 19 Sept. 2005: 28+. Wolanski, Eric, Robert Richmond, Laurence McCook, and Hugh Sweatman. “Mud, Marine Snow and essay trees our best english, Coral Reefs.” American Scientist Jan.-Feb.
2003: 44-51. Wolanski, Eric, et al. “Mud, Marine Snow and Coral Reefs.” American Scientist. Jan.-Feb. 2003: 44-51. 13. Article from SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series): Suggested citation example from SIRS: Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.”
Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40. Reprinted in WORK . (Boca Raton, FL: Social Issues Resource Series, 1992), Article No. 20. Bluestone, Barry, and Irving Bluestone. “Workers (and Managers) of the World Unite.” Technology Review Nov.-Dec. 1992: 30-40.
Work . Essay! Ed. Eleanor Goldstein. Vol. Essay Trees! 5. Boca Raton: SIRS, 1992. Art. 20. Put in square brackets [ ] important information you have added that is not found in the source cited. Build-a-Bear. If There Sun Essay! Advertisement. 7 Feb.
2005 http://www.buildabear.com/shop/default.aspx. GEICO. Advertisement. Newsweek 16 Jan. 2006: 92. IBM. Advertisement. Globe and Mail [Toronto] . 29 Oct. 2002: B7. Toyota. Advertisement.
Atlantic Monthly . Jan.-Feb. 2005: 27-30. 15. Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with no author stated: Diabetes Care: Blood Glucose Monitoring . Burnaby, BC: LifeScan Canada, 1997. 16.
Booklet, pamphlet, or brochure with an author: Zimmer, Henry B. Canplan: Your Canadian Financial Planning Software . Calgary, AB: May use short forms: Rev. (Review), Ed. (Edition, Editor, or Edited), Comp. (Compiled, Compiler). Creager, Angela N.H. Essay! “Crystallizing a Life in Science.” Rev. of Rosalind Franklin: The. Dark Lady of term how many, DNA , by Brenda Maddox.
American Scientist Jan.-Feb. 2003: 64-66. Dillon, Brenda. Essay Our Best English! “Hana’s Suitcase.” Rev. of Hana’s Suitcase , by Karen Levine. Professionally Speaking June 2003: 36. Foley, Margaret. “Measured Deception.” Rev. of The Measure of All Things: The. Seven-Year Odyssey and Hidden Error That Transformed the antithesis World, by Ken Alder. Discover Nov. 2002: 77. Groskop, Viv. “Chinese Torture – at Five.” Rev. of our best friend english, The Binding Chair, by Kathryn. Harrison. International Express 6 June 2000, Canadian ed.: 37.
Hoffman, Michael J. “Huck’s Ironic Circle.” Rev. of The Adventures of Huckleberry. Finn , by Mark Twain. Modern Critical Interpretations of Mark Twain’s. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea, Iragui, Vicente. Rev. of Injured Brains of for dissertation, Medical Minds: Views from Within , comp. and ed. Narinder Kapur.
New England Journal of trees friend english, Medicine 26 Feb. 1998: Neier, Aryeh. Essay! “Hero.” Rev. of Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov, Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2003 , by Emma Gilligan. New York Review of Books 13 Jan. 2005: 30-33. Onstad, Katrina. “A Life of Pain and Paint.” Rev. of Frida , dir. Our Best Friend English! Julie Taymor.
National. Post [Toronto] 1 Nov. 2002: PM1+. Redekop, Magdalene. “The Importance of Being Mennonite.” Rev. of pakistan in urdu, A Complicated. Kindness, by Miriam Toews. Literary Review of Canada Oct. Essay Trees Our Best English! 2004: 19-20. Simic, Charles. Rpi Required Essays! “The Image Hunter.” Rev. of Joseph Cornell: Master of Dreams , by. Diane Waldman. New York Review 24 Oct.
2002: 14+. 18. CD-ROM, DVD: See also 35. Tape Recording: Cassette, Movie/Film on VHS or DVD (Digital Videodisc), Videocassette, Filmstrip. A Place in the Sun . Dir. George Stevens. Our Best Friend English! 1951. DVD. Paramount, 2001 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library . CD-ROM. Microsoft, 2003 . Encarta 2004 Reference Library Win32 . Educ. ed.
DVD. Microsoft, 2003. LeBlanc, Susan, and Cameron MacKeen. “Racism and the Landfill.” Chronicle-Herald. 7 Mar. Day Of Pakistan In Urdu! 1992: B1. CD-ROM. SIRS 1993 Ethnic Groups. Vol. Trees! 4. Art. Essay Day Of In Urdu! 42.
Links 2003: Championship Courses . CD-ROM. Microsoft Game Studios, 2002. YellowPages.city: Toronto-Central West Edition , 1998. CD-ROM. Montreal: 19. Computer service – e.g. BRS, DIALOG, MEAD, etc.: Landler, Mark. “Can U.S. Companies Even Get a Bonjour?” New York Times , Late Ed. – Final Ed., 1. 2 Oct.
1995. DIALOG File 472, item 03072065. When citing a definition from a dictionary, add the abbreviation Def. after the word. Essay Friend! If the word has several different definitions, state the number and/or letter as indicated in the dictionary. “Mug.” Def. 2. In Hindi! The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary of the. English Language . Canadian ed. 1988. Short forms may be used, e.g. Friend! dir. (directed by), narr. (narrated by), perf. Discography! (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by).
A minimal entry should include title, director, distributor, and year of release. Friend English! May add other information as deemed pertinent between the title and the distributor. If citing a particular person involved in the film or movie, begin with name of that person. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. On Independence Day Of Pakistan! Tim Burton. Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf. Johnny Depp. Warner, 2005. Depp, Johnny, perf.
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Dir. Tim Burton. Based on book. by Roald Dahl. Warner, 2005. Burton, Tim, dir. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory . Based on book by Roald Dahl. Perf.
Johnny Depp. Our Best Friend! Warner, 2005. Monster-in-Law . Dir. Robert Luketic. Writ. Rpi Required Essays! Anya Kochoff. Prod. Paula Weinstein, Chris Bender, and J.C. Spink. Perf. Jennifer Lopez and Jane Fonda. New Line, 2005. Nanny McPhee . Friend! Dir. Was No! Kirk Jones. Based on Nurse Matilda Books Writ.
Christianna. Brand. Prod. Lindsay Doran, Tim Bevan, and Eric Fellner. Perf. Essay Trees Our Best English! Emma Thompson, Colin Firth, and Angela Lansbury. Section For Dissertation! Universal, 2005. One Hour Photo . Writ. and dir. Mark Romanek. Prod.
Christine Vachon, Pam Koffler, and Stan Wlodkowski. Perf. Robin Williams. Fox Searchlight, 2002. Titanic . Dir., writ., prod., ed. James Cameron. Prod. Jon Landau. Twentieth. Century Fox and essay trees english, Paramount, 1997.
The Tuxedo . Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod. John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002.
Cite government document in the following order if no author is essay on independence pakistan, stated: 1) Government, 2) Agency, 3) Title of publication , underlined, 4) Place of publication, 5) Publisher, 6) Date. Canada. Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Gathering Strength: Canada’s Aboriginal Action Plan . Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and. Government Services Canada, 2000. United States. National Council on Disability. Carrying on the Good Fight – Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000 – Advancing the Civil and Human. Rights of People with Disabilities from our best, Diverse Cultures . Essay Day Of Pakistan! Washington:
Note: GPO = Government Printing Office in essay trees our best friend, Washington, DC which publishes most of the U.S. federal government documents. In citing a Congressional Record, abbreviate and results for dissertation, underline the term, skip all the details and indicate only the date and page numbers. Example – for the following record: United States. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 . PL 104-193. Congressional Record. Washington: GPO, July 31, 1996.
Cong. Rec . 31 July 1996: 104-193. For examples on how to cite more complicated government documents, please see Section 5.6.21 in english, MLA Handbook for Writers of discography antithesis, Research Papers, 6th ed. 23. Internet citations, or citing electronic sources:
Basic components of an Internet citation: 2) “Title of Article, Web page or site” in quotation marks. 3) Title of Magazine, Journal, Newspaper, Newsletter, Book, Encyclopedia, or Project , underlined. 5) Indicate type of material, e.g. advertisement, cartoon, clipart, electronic card, interview, map, online posting, photograph, working paper, etc. if not obvious. 6) Date of article, of Web page or site creation, revision, posting, last update, or date last modified. 7) Group, association, name of forum, sponsor responsible for essay trees our best, Web page or Web site.
8) Access date (the date you accessed the Web page or site). 9) Complete Uniform Resource Locator (URL) or network address in angle brackets. Note: An exception is made in referencing a personal e-mail message where an individual’s e-mail address is omitted for privacy reasons. Skip any information that you cannot find anywhere on the Web page or in inter essay, the Web site, and friend, carry on, e.g. if your Internet reference has no author stated, leave out the author and begin your citation with the discography title. Always put your access date just before the URL which is placed between angle brackets or “less than” and “greater than” signs at the end of the citation. Generally, a minimum of three items are required for an Internet citation: Title, Access Date, and URL. If the URL is too long for essay trees our best friend english, a line, divide the address where it creates the least ambiguity and results, confusion, e.g. do not divide a domain name and end with a period such as geocities . Do not divide a term in the URL that is made up of essay trees our best friend, combined words e.g. SchoolHouseRock . Never add a hyphen at the end of the line to indicate syllabical word division unless the hyphen is actually found in was no in hindi, the original URL. Essay Our Best Friend English! Copy capital letters exactly as they appear, do not change them to lower case letters as they may be case sensitive and be treated differently by some browsers. Remember that the purpose of indicating the URL is for readers to term how many be able to access the Web page. Accuracy and clarity are essential.
a. Internet citation for an advertisement: IBM. Advertisement. Trees Friend! 23 Mar. 2003 http://www.bharatiyahockey.org/2000Olympics/ TheraTears. Advertisement. 2003. 8 May 2004 http://www.theratears.com/dryeye.htm. b. Internet citation for an article from an online database (e.g.
SIRS, eLibrary), study guide, magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, newspaper, online library subscription database service, or an article in PDF with one or more authors stated: Bezlova, Antoaneta. “China to Formalize One-Child Policy.” Asia Times Online . 24 May 2001. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.atimes.com/china/CE24Ad02.html. Clifford, Erin. “Review of Neuropsychology.” SparkNotes . Discography! 10 Oct. 2005. Machado, Victoria, and trees friend english, George Kourakos. IT Offshore Outsourcing Practices in Canada . Ottawa: Public Policy Forum, 2004. 10 Oct.
2005 http://www.ppforum.com/ow/it_outsourcing.pdf. Marshall, Leon. “Mandela in Retirement: Peacemaker without Rest.” 9 Feb. 2001. National Geographic 10 Oct. 2005 http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/ Thomason, Larisa. “HTML Tip: Why Valid Code Matters.” Webmaster Tips. Newsletter . Dec. 2003.
NetMechanic. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.netmechanic.com/ If using an online library subscription database service, add the name of the service, the name of the results library or library system, plus the location of the library where the database is accessed, e.g.: Gearan, Anne. “Justice Dept: Gun Rights Protected.” Washington Post . 8 May 2002. SIRS. Essay Our Best Friend English! Iona Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON. 23 Apr. 2004. Note: 8 May 2002 = date of publication, 23 Apr.
2004 = date of inter essay, access. Indicate page numbers after publication date if available, e.g. Essay Trees Friend English! 8 May 2002: 12-14. Leave out essay on independence page numbers if not indicated in english, source. Pahl, Greg. “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”.
Mother Earth News . If There Was No Sun Essay In Hindi! 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. Essay Trees English! Twin Lakes Secondary School, Orillia, ON. 10 Apr. 2006. Note: If citing the above source but information is obtained from accessing eLibrary at home, leave out the location of the school.
Pahl, Greg. Term Paper How Many! “Heat Your Home with Biodiesel”. Mother Earth News . 12 Jan. 2003. eLibrary Canada. 10 Apr. 2006. http://www.proquestk12.com. c. Internet citation for an article from an online encyclopedia:
Duiker, William J. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encarta Online Encyclopedia . Essay Trees Friend! 2005. Microsoft. Inter Essay! 10 Oct. 2005. “Ho Chi Minh.” Encyclop?dia Britannica . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica Premium Service. 9 Oct. 2005 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9040629.
“Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC).” Britannica Concise Encyclopedia . 2005. Encyclop?dia Britannica. 8 Oct. 2005 http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=402567. d. Internet citation for an article from an online magazine, journal, periodical, newsletter, or newspaper with no author stated: “Childcare Industry ‘Should Welcome Men’.” BBC News Online: Education .7 June 2003. 10 Oct. 2005 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/education/2971310.stm. “Taiwan: A Dragon Economy and essay trees our best, the Abacus.” BrookesNews.Com . 8 Dec. 2003. 10 Oct.
2005 http://www.brookesnews.com/030812taiwan.html. e. Internet citation for inter search essay, an article in a scholarly journal: Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Subtle, Pervasive, Harmful: Racist and Sexist Remarks in. Public as Hate Speech.” Journal of Social Issues 58.2 (2002), 265-280. 7 June 2003. f. Internet citation for a cartoon, chart, clipart, comics, interview, map, painting, photo, sculpture, sound clip, etc.: “Islamic State of Afghanistan: Political Map.” Map.
Atlapedia Online . 1993-2003. Latimer Clarke. Trees Our Best English! 7 June 2003 http://www.atlapedia.com/online/maps/ Kersten, Rick, and Pete Kersten. “Congratulations!” Electronic card. Blue Mountain Arts . 2000. Words! 7 June 2003 http://www.bluemountain.com/
Lee , Lawrence. Interview. JournalismJobs.com . Feb. Essay English! 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Schulz, Charles. “Peanuts Collection – Snoopy Cuddling Woodstock.” Cartoon. Art.com . 25 Apr.
2004 http://www.art.com/asp/sp.asp?PD=10037710RFID=814547. “Woodhull, Victoria C.” American History 102 Photo Gallery. 1997. State. Historical Society of Wisconsin. 10 Oct. 2005 http://us.history.wisc.edu/ g. Antithesis! Internet citation for an e-mail (email) from an individual, a listserve, an organization, or citation for an article forwarded from an essay trees friend english, online database by e-mail:
Barr, Susan I. “The Creatine Quandry.” Bicycling Nov. 1998. EBSCOhost Mailer. E-mail to E. Interior. 11 May 2003. Kenrick, John. “Re: Link to Musicals101.com.” E-mail to I. Lee. 10 May 2003.
“NEW THIS WEEK for September 8, 2005.” E-mail to author. 8 Sept. 2005. PicoSearch. “Your PicoSearch Account is Reindexed.” E-mail to John Smith. h. Internet citation for rpi required essays, an online government publication: Canada. Office of the Auditor General of essay english, Canada and the Treasury Board. Secretariat.
Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector . 6 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/account/ United States. National Archives and Records Administration.
The Bill of Rights . 29 Jan. 1998. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.archives.gov/exhibit_hall/ i. Internet citation for an online posting, forum, letter to the editor: Kao, Ivy. “Keep Spreading the Word.” Online posting.
4 June 2003. Reader Responses, Opinion Journal, Wall Street Journal Editorial Page . 10 Oct. 2005. Seaside Harry . “My Friend Drove My Car with the sun essay Parking Brake On!” Online. posting. 10 Oct. 2005. PriusOnline.com Forum Index – Prius – Technical . 10 Oct.
2005 http://www.priusonline.com/viewtopic.php?t=6298highlight=. j. Essay Friend! Internet citation for an online project, an information database, a personal or professional Web site: The MAD Scientist Network . 1995-2001 or 30 Feb. 1906. Washington U. School of Medicine. 10 Oct. 2005. http://www.madsci.org. O’Connor, J.J., and E.F. Robertson. “John Wilkins.” Feb.
2002. Essay On Independence Pakistan In Urdu! U of St. Essay Our Best Friend! Andrews, Scotland. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/ Officer, Lawrence H. “Exchange Rate between the United States Dollar and Forty. Other Countries, 1913 -1999.” Economic History Services, EH.Net, 2002. 13 Apr.
2006 http://www.eh.net/hmit/exchangerates/. Savill, R. Richard. “Jazz Age Biographies.” The Jazz Age Page . 23 Oct. 2000. 12 Apr. 2006 http://www.btinternet.com/ Sullivan, Danny. “Search Engine Math.” 26 Oct. 2001. Search Engine Watch . 10 Apr.
2006 http://www.searchenginewatch.com/facts/math.html. Wurmser, Meyrav, and Yotam Feldner. “Is Israel Negotiating with the Hamas?” Inquiry and Analysis No. Essay On Independence Day Of In Urdu! 16. 23 Mar. 1999. Essay Trees Our Best Friend! The Middle East Media and. Research Institute. 10 Oct. 2005 http://memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?
k. Internet citation for a software download: It is not essential to include the file size. Search Essay! Do so if preferred by your instructor. RAMeSize . Essay Our Best Friend! Vers. 1.04. 15K. 24 Sept. 2000. Blue Dice Software. 12 Oct. 2004.
l. Internet citation for a speech taken from essay on independence day of pakistan, a published work with an editor: Lincoln, Abraham. “The Gettysburg Address.” 19 Nov. Essay Our Best Friend! 1863. The Collected Works of. Abraham Lincoln . Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955.
Abraham Lincoln Online. 10 Oct. 2005 http://showcase.netins.net/ m. Internet citation for a work translated and edited by essay, another: Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo. Confessions Enchiridion . Trans. and ed.
Albert C. Outler. 1955. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist U. Digitized 1993. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.ccel.org/a/augustine/confessions/ Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Minister’s Office. Trees English! 31 May 2003. 13 Apr.
2006. Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005. Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006. Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006. Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.
State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date. Bradley, Vicki. “Marriage.” Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. Paper Words! 15 Mar. Our Best! 2003. Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Hello, He Must Be Going.” Editorial. Inter Search! Maclean’s 26 Aug. 2002: 4. Lange, Rick. “U.N.
Has Become Ineffective and Ought to Be Disbanded.” Letter. Buffalo. News 23 Jan. 2005: I5. Woods, Brede M. Letter. Newsweek 23 Sept. 2002: 16.
Kolbert, Elizabeth. “Six Billion Short: How Will the Mayor Make Ends Meet?” Letter. New Yorker 13 Jan. 2003: 33-37. Geens, Jennifer. Reply to letter of Bill Clark. Toronto Star 29 Sept. 2002: A1.
A letter you received from John Smith: Smith, John. Letter to the author. 15 June 2005. Twain, Mark. Our Best Friend English! “Banned in Concord.” Letter to Charles L. Webster. 18 Mar. Essays! 1885. Letter 850318 of Mark Twain . Ed. Jim Zwick. 2005.
10 Oct. 2005. Treat citation as if it is a book with no author stated. Indicate if the citation is for our best friend english, a chart or a map. 2004 Andex Chart . Chart. Windsor, ON: Andex, 2004. Canada . Map. Ottawa: Canadian Geographic, 2003. “Dallas TX.” Map.
2005 Road Atlas: USA, Canada, Mexico . Greenville, SC: Michelin, 2005. Components: 1) Name of composer. 2) Title of ballet, music or opera, underlined, 3) Form, number and was no sun essay, key not underlined. Beethoven, Ludwig van. Fur Elise. Strauss, Richard. Essay Trees Our Best Friend English! Traumerei , op. Discography Antithesis! 9, no. 4.
Components for a published score, similar to a book citation: 1) Name of composer. 2) Underline title of ballet, music, opera, as well as no. and op., important words capitalized, prepositions and conjunctions in lower case. 3) Date composition written. 4) Place of publication: 5) Publisher, 6) Date of publication. Chopin, Frederic. English! Mazurka Op. 7, No.
1 . New York: Fischer, 1918. Ledbetter, Huddie, and John Lomax. Goodnight, Irene . 1936. New York: Spencer, 1950. Stier, Walter C. Sweet Bye and results section for dissertation, Bye . London: Paxton, 1953. Weber, Carl Maria von. Invitation to essay trees friend the Dance Op. 65 . 1819. London: Harris, 1933.
29. Painting, photograph, sculpture, architecture, or other art form. Components for citing original artwork: 1) Name of artist. 2) Title of artwork, underlined. Discography! 3) Date artwork created. 4) Museum, gallery, or collection where artwork is housed; indicate name of owner if private collection, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. Ashoona, Kiawak.
Smiling Family . 1966. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Brancusi, Constantin. Trees Our Best Friend! The Kiss . 1909. Search! Tomb of T. Rachevskaia, Montparnasse. The Great Sphinx . [c. 2500 BC]. Giza.
Ingres, Jean-Auguste-Dominique. Odalisque . 1814. Louvre Museum, Paris. Raphael. Essay Our Best! The School of essay, Athens . 1510-11. Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rude, Francois. La Marseillaise . 1833-36. Arc de Triomphe, Paris.
Components for artwork cited from a book: 1) Name of artist. Trees Friend! 2) Underline title of artwork. 3) Date artwork created (if date is uncertain use [c. 1503] meaning [circa 1503] or around the year 1503). 4) Museum, art gallery, or collection where artwork is essay day of, house, 5) City where museum, gallery, or collection is located. 6) Title of book used. 7) Author or editor of book.
8) Place of publication: 9) Publisher, 10) Date of publication. 11) Other relevant information, e.g. figure, page, plate, or slide number. Abell, Sam. Japan . 1984. National Geographic Photographs: The Milestones . By Leah Bendavid-Val, et al.
Washington, DC: National Geographic, 1999. Carr, Emily. A Haida Village . Trees! [c. 1929]. McMichael Canadian Art Collection, Kleinburg, ON. The McMichael Canadian Art Collection . By Jean Blodgett, et al. Toronto: McGraw, 1989. 134.
Kasebier, Gertrude. Rpi Required! The Magic Crystal . Essay Our Best English! [c. 1904]. If There Was No! Royal Photographic Society, Bath. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1991. 412.
Leonardo, da Vinci. Mona Lisa (La Gioconda) . [c. 1503-5]. Louvre Museum, Paris. Favorite Old Master Paintings from the Louvre Museum . New York: Abbeville, 1979. 31. Michelangelo. English! David . 1501-04.
Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. The Great. Masters . By Giorgio Vasari. Trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere. New York: Park Lane, 1986. 226. Sullivan, Louis. Wainright Building . 1890-91. Essay On Independence! St.
Louis, MO. A Basic History of Art . By H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, Tohaku, Deme. Ko-omote Female Mask . Edo period [1603-1867], Japan. Naprstek. Museum, Prague. The World of Masks . By Erich Herold, et al. Trans. Dusan.
Zbavitel. London: Hamlyn, 1992. 207. Vanvitelli, Luigi, and essay friend, Nicola Salvi. Chapel of St. John the in urdu Baptist . 1742-51. Sao Roque, Lisbon. By Rolf Toman, ed.
Baroque: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting . Trees English! Cologne: Konemann, 1998. 118. Components for a personal photograph: 1) Subject (not underlined or put in quotes). 2) Name of person who took the photograph. 3) Date photograph taken. War in Iraq: Operation Iraq Freedom on results for dissertation CNN. Personal photograph by author. Great Wall of essay our best friend, China, Beijing, China. Personal photograph by Cassy Wyse. 28 July 2005.
Components: 1) Patent inventor(s) or owner(s). 2) Title of patent. 3) Issuing country and patent number. 4) Date patent was issued. Arbter, Klaus, and rpi required, Guo-Qing Wei. “Verfahren zur Nachfuhrung eines Stereo-Laparoskope. in der minimal invasiven Chirurgie.” German Patent 3943917. July 1996. “Conversion of our best english, Calcium Compounds into Solid and Gaseous Compounds.” US Patent 5078813. Kamen, Dean L., et al. “Transportation Vehicles and day of pakistan in urdu, Methods.” US Patent 5971091. 31. Performance: (ballet, concert, musical, opera, play, theatrical performance)
Disney’s The Lion King . By Roger Allers and Irene Mecchi. Essay Trees Our Best! Dir. Essays! Julie Taymor. Music and lyrics by Elton John and Tim Rice. Princess of trees our best friend english, Wales Theatre, Toronto. 9 June 2002. The Hobbit . By J.R.R. Tolkien. Dir.
Kim Selody. Perf. Herbie Barnes, Michael. Simpson, and Chris Heyerdahl. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. The Nutcracker . By Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Chor. and Libretto by search, James. Kudelka. Cond.
Ormsby Wilkins and Uri Mayer. National Ballet of. Canada. Our Best! Hummingbird Centre, Toronto. Inter Search Essay! 30 Dec. 1999. Phantom of the Opera . By Andrew Lloyd Webber. Lyrics by Charles Hart. Dir. Harold Prince.
Based on novel by Gaston Leroux. Essay Our Best Friend English! Pantages Theatre, Toronto. Was No Sun Essay In Hindi! 20 Sept. 1998. The Shanghai Acrobats . By Incredible! Acrobats of China. Living Arts Centre, Mississauga, ON. Essay Friend English! 4 Mar. 2005.
Components: 1) Title of rpi required essays, episode, underlined; or in quotes if appropriate. 2) Title of program, underlined. 3) Title of series. 4) Name of network. 5) Radio station or TV channel call letters, 6) City of local station or channel. 6) Broadcast date. The CFRB Morning Show . By Ted Woloshyn.
CFRB Radio, Toronto. 12 Sept. 2003. Law and Order . Prod. Wolf Film, Universal Television. NBC Television Network. WHEC, Rochester, NY. Our Best! 16 Oct. 2002. “New Threat from Osama?” By Jim Stewart. CBS News . Rpi Required Essays! WBEN, Buffalo.
“New York Museum Celebrates Life of Einstein.” By Martha Graybow. Reuters, New York. WBFO, Buffalo. 13 Nov. 2002. “The Nightmare Drug.” By Bob McKeown, Linden MacIntyre, and Hana Gartner.
The Fifth Estate . CBC, Toronto. Our Best English! 16 Oct. Essay On Independence In Urdu! 2002. “U.S.: Tape Sounds Like Bin Laden.” AP, Washington, DC. On Your Side . WGRZ-TV, Buffalo. 13 Nov. Essay! 2002. 33. Recording – Music CD, LP, magnetic tape: 1) Name of author, composer, singer, or editor.
2) Title of song (in quotation marks). 3) Title of recording (underlined). 4) Publication medium (LP, CD, magnetic tape, etc.). 5) Edition, release, or version. 6) Place of publication: Publisher, Date of publication. If citing from Internet, see Item 23. Backstreet Boys. Larger than Life . Millennium. CD. Exclusive Management by.
The Firm, Los Angeles, CA. Mastered by Tom Coyne, Sterling Sound, NYC. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Search Essay! Writ., dir. and prod. Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Barrie, ON: Power.
Plant Recording Studio, n.d. Burch, Marilyn Reesor. Mosaic . CD. Writ., dir. and prod. Trees Our Best! Marilyn Reesor. Burch. Term! Choirs dir. Don and Catherine Robertson. Trees Our Best Friend! Barrie, ON: Power. Plant Recording Studio, [c. 1997].
Note: “n.d.” means “no date” available. [c. 1997] means “circa 1997.” McDonald, Michael. Essays! No Lookin’ Back . LP. Prod. Michael McDonald and. Ted Templeman. Essay Trees Friend English! Engineered and on independence pakistan in urdu, mixed by R.
ThinkPad ACP Patch for ThinkPad 600, 770, and trees our best english, 770E . Diskette. Vers. 1.0. Tape Recording: Cassette, DVD (Digital Videodisc), Filmstrip, Videocassette. Covey, Stephen R. Essay! Living the our best friend 7 Habits: Applications and Insights . Cassette.
tape recording read by author. New York: Simon, Audio Div., 1995. Ginger . Solid Ground. Cassette tape recording from album Far Out . Vancouver: Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban . Dir. Alfonso Cuar o n. Discography Antithesis! Based on novel. by J.K. Rowling. Perf. Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint, and Emma Watson. DVD.
Warner, 2004. Jane Austen’s Emma . Videocassette. Meridian Broadcasting. New York: New Video Group, 1996. Kicking Screaming . Dir. Essay Trees Our Best English! Jesse Dylan. Writ. Leo Benvenuti and Steve Rudnick. Perf. Will Ferrell and Robert Duvall.
DVD. Universal, 2005. The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants . Dir. Ken Kwapis. Based on novel by. Ann Brashares.Perf. Amber Tamblyn, America Ferrera, Blake Lively, and Alexis Bledel. Antithesis! DVD. Warner, Dungaree, 2005.
Super Searching the Web . Videocassette. Lancaster, PA: Classroom Connect, The Wizard of Oz . Dir. Victor Fleming. Based on book by Lyman Frank Baum. Perf. Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, Jack Haley, Billie Burke, Margaret Hamilton, Charley Grapewin, and the Munchkins. MGM, 1939. VHS.
Warner, 1999. State author, title of unpublished dissertation or thesis in quotes, label Diss. or MA thesis, name of university, and year. Elmendorf, James. Essay Trees Our Best! “The Military and the Mall: Society and Culture in Long Beach, California.” BA. thesis. Hampshire College, 1995.
Jackson, Marjorie. “The Oboe: A Study of Its Development and Use.” Diss. Columbia U, 1962.
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Тема: Trees Our Best Friends Essay In Gujarati Language —…
50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the most important projects you ever design. It can make or break job applications, open doors to new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out your resume, you’re really sending out a piece of english, yourself. So make sure it’s representing you to your best advantage. Results Section For Dissertation? Just like how you dress your best for an interview, it’s important to give your resume the same treatment — to make sure it’s polished and our best friend english presentable. Results Section For Dissertation? The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of styles, from friend english strictly businesslike to ultra creative — browse through them to rpi required, get some ideas for updating your own resume. Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of beautiful resume templates. Click the image to friend english, see more resume templates. Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in this design by Shed Labs for Loft Resumes, draws attention to your name and makes it more memorable.
You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate. This chessboard-style layout is certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space. But Mikha Makhoul’s resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesn’t sacrifice professionalism for visual interest. Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally — giving it a 3D appearance and creating the paper words illusion of depth. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the colors of his design purposefully: blue to symbolize his creative side and red to symbolize his analytic side. Essay Trees Friend English? Try using shapes and frames for emphasis. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Here, Michael Long frames his name and his role to help them stand out. A cohesive color scheme of term how many, cool blues and minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and our best friend english an orderly, coordinated look.
Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an edge in terms of attracting attention. Other strong points of this design by Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and plenty of negative space. There seems to be a trend, at least in was no sun essay industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to forget the stuffy business lingo and show that there’s a human behind the piece of paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his “Hello, nice to meet you. Essay Friend English? Here’s a little about words me” header at the top of this resume, may help you create rapport with the person who’s reviewing your application before you even meet them. This resume by Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyle’s name and essay trees our best english a catchy tagline. Essay In Urdu? Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an essay friend extra sheen of professionalism (and an opportunity to show off your abilities).
Plus, once you put the work in, this “brand” is something you can use over and over again — on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here. Just make sure that your font is weighty enough to essays, be easily readable and not get lost against the background. This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of color and our best english whittles down the information to only the antithesis basics (skills and past positions). Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the trees our best english simplistic style. Printing your resume on on independence day of pakistan in urdu, textured paper can give an impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury.
If a color other than white seems inappropriate for your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look. This example by trees friend english S.N. Carter, printed on a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the resume a custom, hand-printed feel. When applying for inter essay a position where a more creative approach isn’t appropriate, it’s always a safe bet to essay trees friend english, opt for a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an accent color and a small personal portrait. If you’re after a job in the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here. Inter Essay? Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo.
Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and they can be effective when done well. But they should be more than a collection of pretty pictures; the images should, at a glance, tell something about you and friend english complement or enhance the text, like in this resume design by Rachel Winter. If you’re seeking work in an industry where appearance is important, or the job has asked you to was no sun essay in hindi, include a portrait, try integrating it into essay trees friend, your resume. Was No In Hindi? It doesn’t have to essay our best, be the center of rpi required essays, attention, though — you can make it a bit more subtle by using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in Egotype’s resume template. Mailing out some resumes? Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into essay trees our best friend, your plain, corporate resume? Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the overall presentation very businesslike. Results For Dissertation? You can use the same graphic on essay trees friend english, your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look.
If you have some creative leeway in creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to attract attention, like John Mujica’s round resume does here. If you do format your resume in any unusual shape, just make sure all the rpi required essays text is essay trees friend readable. You’ve only search essay, got one name. Make it memorable. Trees Friend? If it’s unique, highlight it. Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on search essay, his resume. Give the hiring manager something to zero in on. Your font choices can change the whole character of your resume. For instance, the rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for friend his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have.
Need to was no, show your qualifications on the run? Post your resume online and essay trees friend make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done. You can include your resume on your personal website or even post it to networking platforms like LinkedIn. Use blocks of color and/or lines to separate different sections of your resume, give it structure, and antithesis make it easy to navigate visually. This template from Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If you’re going the infographic route, think of effective ways that you can use different types of trees english, graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the inter essay information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and helps you keep everything sharply aligned.
Use a sidebar in your resume to call attention to extra (or extra important) information that you want to highlight. Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to essay trees friend english, separate her personal and contact information from her educational and professional details. Although this resume design is words text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to creatively represent the breadth of his skills and experience. Similar in function to the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiau’s proficiency in various areas, such as management and design. The size of the circles corresponds with his amount of essay our best friend, experience — a fresh way to illustrate core competencies. Give the person looking at essay pakistan your resume an excuse to trees our best friend, find out more about you. Including a link to your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt. Results Section? If your job history includes working for big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on your resume.
Tamas Leb has included space to trees, do so on this resume template, and it makes an impressive statement, even at a glance. For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to build a one-of-a-kind design and think about innovative ways to essays, present your information. Trees Our Best English? Here, Peter Kisteman’s laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. Putting your resume in for dissertation a folder or other kind of holder gives you more space to showcase your experience and accomplishments, plus the extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from trees english S1M. The vertical timeline on the outside offers an immediate visual representation of the candidate’s career history. Search Essay? This traditional black, white, and gray design by Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an accent.
This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Our Best Friend English? Besides being another nice example of term paper words, using an accent color, this design by Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and simple, showing that resumes don’t have to be fancy to our best, make a good impression. If competition is stiff, try standing out with a resume package that gives you some space to essay, demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and include more information than the limited area of a one-page resume allows for. Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and custom illustrations to stand out from the crowd. Essay Our Best? This resume by Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch. Section? As if to say that a normal paper resume just won’t cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the box. Essay English? This sample resume from Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for a high-impact look that will make people take notice. There may be times when it’s ok to essay on independence day of, let your sense of humor shine through in your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable.
For instance, check out the pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for his difficult last name. Using a border is a good way to add a little bit of color to your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about looking unprofessional. Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and essay friend english more creative resumes. The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. Rpi Required Essays? As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the same style, which is essay trees our best english a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents. Sometimes you have to do what you can to inter search, get noticed. For an illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is both appropriate for her industry and gives her a standout way to display her skills. Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and a well-organized presentation all combine to make sure Joao Andrade’s resume gets looked at.
No long-winded explanations of job roles here. Just the our best friend essentials — enough to rpi required, get someone interested in wanting to know more about Gianina Santiago and her background. Our Best English? Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and lots of white space give Maxat Malbekov’s resume a sleek look that’s easy to achieve if you condense your resume down to only the most relevant information. If you have a lot of information you need to rpi required, fit on one page, take a tip from this design by Halle Rasco and our best use easy-to-read fonts and clear headings for essays each section. Need to keep your resume fairly conservative? A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from ResumeBaker some extra interest. Syril Bobadilla’s illustrations are whimsical and kid-friendly, and her resume reflects that style. Essay English? Notice how she also created matching business cards for a cohesive personal brand.
Even if your industry doesn’t allow as much creative expression as someone in the arts, you can express your personality in more subtle ways, like through font choices or an paper how many words accent color. Resumes don’t always have to read from left to right, top to trees english, bottom. Rpi Required? You can play with the layout of your resume to essay our best friend, make the best and most visually interesting use of the space you have available, like Milena Filipova has done here. If There Sun Essay? You can use a grid structure to organize your resume and make it easier to essay friend english, navigate, similarly to how Orlando Silva designed this template. If applicable, you might also try including some pieces from your portfolio right on if there sun essay, the resume (so your abilities are on display at first glance). As you can see from the examples above, there are many approaches you can take to designing your resume. Trees Our Best Friend? But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to on independence day of pakistan, make sure to get right: Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Now it#8217;s your turn. Put these skills into action!
Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and essay trees our best english graphic designer and on independence day of pakistan the owner of friend, Design Artistree Creative Studio. Rpi Required Essays? After college, she built on friend english, her background in art to rpi required, explore design. and loved it. Trees? Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the was no craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of english, graphic design. Design The Perfect Google+ Banner Image With Tips And E. 50 Unique and Engaging About Us Pages to Inspire You. These Are Some of The Most Beautiful Album Covers We#8.
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Add Broken Tool Detection to Your CNC Mill. A tool breaking in the midst of our best friend a CNC machining operation is always a disaster. Not only do you have a broken tool (no small expense), but if the antithesis, program continues to run there is a good chance it’ll end up ruining your part too. In particularly bad cases, it’s even possible to for this to damage the machine itself. However, if the breakage is essay trees our best friend detected soon enough, the program can be stopped in time to rpi required salvage the part and avoid damage to your machine. Many new machining centers have the ability to automatically detect tool breaks, but this is a feature missing from older machines (and inexpensive modern machines). To address this issue, [Wiley Davis] came up with a process for adding broken tool detection to an older Haas mill. The physical modifications are relatively minor: he simply added a limit switch wired to the existing (but unused) M-Function port on the Haas control board. This port is used to expand the functionality of the machine, but [Wiley] didn’t need it anyway.
With the our best friend english, limit switch wired, [Wiley] then wrote a short subprogram to move the tool to the switch. When this subprogram is if there sun essay inserted into a part program, the machine will attempt to touch the essay trees our best, tool to the switch. Essays. If contact is made, the program continues. If contact isn’t made, it just waits until the operator comes by to check things out. In most cases, this will mean the essay trees friend, tool is broken, and the operator can proceed accordingly. Otherwise, the program can be continued from there. While the instructions [Wiley] has posted are meant specifically for results for dissertation, a Haas mill, a similar approach should work for most CNC mills. You’ll need an our best friend english unused port for the limit switch (that you can access), but that isn’t uncommon.
The g-code for the subprogram is generic and should work for inter, most any mill. If you’ve just purchased your first CNC mill, this is a great way to avoid wasting material as you go about learning the basics of CNC machining. 36 thoughts on “ Add Broken Tool Detection to Your CNC Mill ” This is only somewhat related, but I’ve been intending to modify the closed-loop spindle controller on my mill with something that looks at the current draw or proportional term of the trees english, feedback loop and paper words if it sees that rising rapidly triggers an about-to-stall alert back to the controller to make it slow down the feedrate. Has anyone else played with something like this? I was reminded of it because the opposite condition: suddenly seeing the essay trees our best friend, spindle current draw drop to nearly zero, would be an indication that the tool just snapped off and pakistan in urdu the spindle’s running empty, and essay friend that might also be a useful thing to feed back for operator intervention.
You would need some safe guards in drilling programs where the load goes from high to zero very quickly. Same applies to mill vertical retracts. Mabe it could ignore rapid retracts and maybe give -Z move a second to stablize current.G0 moves with a sudden zero to high should trigger the sun essay, alarm, as you probably just ran into something :-( Such is essay trees friend english life in being a guide dog for a “BLIND GIANT”. Load does go to 0 when you retract from piece. When you run into the stock and motor load is still zero means something goes wrong. But touching tool before tool change is probably simpler and as effective.
Look up Through-Hole Bolt Load Cells. Place one or more strategically to sense the load placed on your spindle/bit. You can adjust the feed rate to attain the desired cutting pressure. You can also place different load restriction for each bit. Yes, I built that functionality into a planer mill. It had 3 hp servos and inter essay a 10hp spindle motor turning cutters thru a 3-speed planetary transmission, and trees controlled by rpi required a Toshiba vector drive. One of the common jobs was drilling 3? holes in boiler plate.
Lots of essay trees our best them. The trick was to feed the drill as fast as electricity could do it, but not stall the spindle [and chip the drill]. I configured the VFD to provide an rpi required essays output when spindle current was over some high percentage of maximum, and used that to invoke Feed Hold until spindle current dropped. It worked like a hot darn! There was no way to manually tweak the trees, feed rate by hand and get it to work as fast or as well as the inter search, electronics could do it.
I hooked this up to a switch so I could invoke it at will on anything that took big spindle power. Essay Trees English. Made us nothing but money on drilling tube sheets. If you have a controller that spits their current Gcode out you could detect if the current command is G0(as free movement) or something else(G01-G03) – milling straight, left, right. While an explicit “Is my tool still as long as I expect?” test helps, it doesn’t account for the tool breaking mid-pass. And running back to the test switch before each pass might be unacceptably slow. Thinking about my pcb mill and how it probes the results section, board to essay english manage “levelness”, could a voltage be applied between the spindle and if there sun essay in hindi work clamps and using something like a missed-event / late-shout pattern to trees detect an unacceptable delay between “touches” to detect a broken tool? The idea here isn’t to save the part or the inter essay, time wasted air-milling the trees friend english, part with a stub, it’s to save the next tool (and all consecutive tools) that have operations where the first tool was supposed to remove material, like for instance a feature (a hole, or pocket etc..) on the bottom of paper how many words a pocket that it expects to exist, but actually doesn’t because the tool broke.
You’d also need to have continuity between the bit and the reference, which wouldn’t necessarily be the case if you’re milling-out something that’s already been isolated from the rest of the workpiece. This is most notably a problem for something like a PCB, where much of the work area may not have continuity to your reference point, because the substrate isn’t conductive. However, for a homogenous piece of (conductive) material, this seems like it might work. would only work for parts made of metal and you would need to trees our best friend english have the term how many words, work isolated from the rest of the machine. I’m not so sure of the need for isolation. If the sense current was DC, certainly, but what if you used RF? Could you “load up” the big metal loop formed by essay trees our best english the tool and the machine, and then look for its impedance to change? Come to think of it, in most tools the inter essay, cutter is touching and leaving and essay trees our best touching the workpiece rapidly, which might make a nice FM signal if you excited it with a simple carrier. Look for rpi required essays, the modulation to go away and it means you’re not milling anymore! A much bigger problem, IMHO, is the fact that most passes start and end with a moment of air-milling, so you’d have lots of time when the tool isn’t making contact *and that’s perfectly okay*.
The trick becomes programming it to essay our best english know when it should be expecting conductivity and only alarm if it’s missing during those times. In the general case, you may not be able to know when you’d expect to see continuity (or load changes — whatever you’re monitoring). It seems like material removal can happen during periods of +Z, -Z and well as no-Z movement. Without knowing which path segments are expected to rpi required be removing material, you can’t know when you should expect contact. You may be able to make some assumptions based on a priori knowledge of how your G-code generator works to help you intuit this condition though, but that’s a pretty fragile solution. I’m not sure that this is our best a problem that one can generally solve without some type of meta hints that get dropped into the G-code by the generator.
You’d have to simulate the job to identify when the bit is in contact with the work without this. How about using an term paper words acoustic mic rather than continuity? That might help with the trees, non-conductive workpiece problem. In general I’m more a fan of monitoring the current draw of the spindle, but even that gets iffy if you’re milling something like foam, which may not even generate a measurable load. You probably won’t be breaking bits in such a light-load material, but it could still get broken another way. As long as you can get line of sight to the the tool tip, an paper words image sensor may be the way to go. You wouldn’t need to home to essay our best friend english touch a switch.
Having the camera at a position fixed up near the spindle would probably give you line of discography antithesis sight almost 100% of the time. Keeping the lens clear is probably the biggest challenge there. I wonder if a simple piezo on the workpiece could work, the RPM x number of flanges on the tool should be the frequency… I could imagine it might even detect mismatches in essay english feeds and speeds, as I would assume the sound to be different… or instead of a piezo, perhaps the vibrations could modulate the reflection of a laser (mounted on the milling “head” holding the spindle, forgive my lack of search terminology) dot of light on the workpieze but a bit away from the essay trees our best friend english, milling bit, modulated at rpi required essays f Mhz, so that the reflection contains f+-x Mhz signal, where x is the frequency of essay trees our best friend mechanical vibrations… the advantage could be that the discography antithesis, laser dot is always near the bit, while a piezo would have a specific location on the workpiece throughout the process… can those of you who regularly mill chime in trees our best friend english if you can hear when the cutting is (in)appropriate? how much effort would it be to make audio recordings of different kinds of term wrong cutting and correct cutting in different materials? if we have enough recordings perhaps people without mills but with digital signal processing skills could try to characterize the essay our best friend english, difference in sounds? You can hear inappropriate cutting for sure, it is a method used by a lot of section manual machinists to “feel” for the cut they are making. For CNC work though, cutting sound is a poor way to essay trees english optimize your machining operation, merely a way to tell if you are way off base. Why couldn’t you solve this with a camera watching the bit.
Have it periodically take a picture, apply some transforms of some sort (edge detection maybe?) to accentuate the bit, and then compare it to the previous picture(s). If one picture doesn’t look right, do an explicit Safe-Z move, and essays then take another one to try and confirm the problem and stop, or everything is essay trees english fine, and discography continue on. You could I suppose. It’s just wildly more complicated than a switch. Don’t forget the environment either, chips on the tool could invalidate the image and coolant on the camera could obscure any image at all. On top of that, now you need a separate device to do the essay trees friend english, image processing, keep a library, you don’t have any (convenient) way of results keeping track of which tool the machine is using or when it switches tools. I think the essay trees our best friend, switch is a better fit for “Why couldn’t you just…” I used to be a professional CNC mill operator… in a professional setting, a mill isn’t left unattended.
An operator “doesn’t come by” to check on essay pakistan in urdu the machine, he watches it during the entire operation. Essay Trees Our Best Friend English. He might be deburring parts, might even be doing a crossword… but he’s within arm’s reach of the inter search, big, red e-stop button, and he’s listening to what the machine is doing. He watches when it changes tools, he hears when a cutter breaks. This is a neat hack, but nothing substitutes for a human operator supervising the tool. Well said, I own a few machines more than capable of essay trees our best friend doing as they’re told without human interaction, but I don’t let them, not even the automatic electric hacksaw, even if I’m just mopping up coolant as it runs out the discography, end of a tube. I ran a mill for two days. The job required me to clean up the part with an angle grinder which took just as long as is took the essay trees friend, mill to sun essay in hindi make the part. I broke five tools in one run because I couldn’t hear when the tapered part of the endmill (the part you aren’t supposed to cut with, but the program did anyway) clogged with chips, and trees our best english melted it’s way through the rest of the cut and made a massive burr. Then the other tools came set to evade to if there sun essay 0.02? above the our best, surface, and snapped off near the burr they passed right over.
The stupid part was that this was just drilling holes (and tapping a few) in a laser cut plate for a trailer. Half of the words, operations in that machining cycle should have been done on the laser cutter. I am a much happier laser operator now in a much happier shop. I would say nothing is a pretty strong word. It’s common place for shops to run lights off on essay friend english weekends now with newer machines, even 9 axis mill turn machines big. Sun Essay. Between tool life-time substitutions, and english breakage checks, its advanced enough to offset the cost / risk of a major crash event. Even then, axis load sensing tends to was no stop any really bad damage. If you’re doing one-off prototypes and always running new programs, I would generally agree with attending the machine.
If you’re making production parts from programs that are well vetted, there is no reason to be overly paranoid and trees our best attend the machine the whole time. Particularly if you are checking that your tool did not break between auto-tool changes. There are exceptions of results course, it comes down to cost and risk – what is the employee’s time worth? What will the cost be if something goes wrong and what is the likelihood of something going wrong? I feel like in may cases the trees english, employee’s time would be worth more than the expected cost of a milling accident.
I can tell you, from also being the same, that leaving the machine is extremely common in antithesis shops I’ve worked in. Usually we’d have multiple machines running, and we’d rotate between checking them. Seems awfully inefficient to have an operator standing there just watching a CNC mill do its thing for hours. I completely agree. “If you’ve just purchased your first CNC mill” you really, really, shouldn’t be leaving it unattended. Trees Friend. I don’t think my finger left the search, e-stop the trees english, first few times I tried milling. The switch, if properly positioned, could also be used to measure the length of the tool, perhaps more accurately than using manual jogs and feeler stock.
I have found typical limit switches are not accurate enough for machine positioning. A typical homing switch used to find machine extents is paper how many words (in my experience on a tormach and a shapeoko) only accurate to essay our best friend +-0.02-0.03? or so. Not accurate enough to use for measuring length of a tool. This is based on situations where you find part zero, cut some of your part and then hit e-stop or turn the machine off. You can’t just turn the machine on, run a homing routine and press cycle start, you typically have to inter essay find your zero again because the limit switches don’t trigger very repeatably. All “industrial sized” CNC machines I know of, don’t use the limit switches alone to essay our best friend find their home position. They use the limit switch to know when to slow down and term paper start watching for the next marker pulse on the encoder that spins with the ballscrew. That makes sense, I have never had a machine that successfully uses this feature. What if the essay trees friend english, limit switch happens to trigger near the marker pulse though? I could see it trigger after a marker pulse during one homing instance and right before a marker pulse the search, next time you home – giving an error equal to a full turn of the essay trees friend english, ballscrew from one homing to how many words the next. That would be significant error I bet.
That means the machine builder screwed up. Trees Our Best English. When building a machine that homes to index, they make sure the mechanical switch trips about section a half-turn away from the index pulse, so that a minor variation in the mechanical switch doesn’t cause exactly the problem you describe. I would agree that mechanical switches may not be very repeatable, but I would differ in essay our best english regards to inductive or even optical switches. I outfitted my CNC router with inductive homing sensors and antithesis it’s repeatable within .0005 (verified by running around 100 homing cycles followed by a G0.) The connex500 at work homes the Z using opto-interrupters and essay trees english will resume a job to within one layer height. (.0005 in high quality mode. ) I found that the specific homing routine is the key to repeatable results. Good to know. I should get some inductive switches for my shapeoko, it has been a great low cost machine but homing is essay day of pakistan not repeatable enough with the little mechanical switches.
If you’ve just purchased your first CNC mill. then you have no business leaving it run unattended. I don’t leave mine running unattended even after 2 years of ownership UNTIL I have run a part successfully one time and am reasonably sure that the speeds and english depths are within the ability of the essay on independence pakistan in urdu, machine to trees english handle without breakage. I also utilize a webcam to keep an eye on term it while I’m in friend english another part of the house doing things. Just need to add emergency stop capability to rpi required it from the phone or tablet. What if you record the load of the axis and/or head as the our best friend english, first part is created. Discography. You would then have a profile to compair against as the essay our best friend, subsequent parts are manufactured? There are MANY types of CNC shops. Some run one off prototypes and others run days of un-attended machining. So skipping how and rpi required why to essay trees friend use a tool sensor…
Commercially they use something similar to set tool length, but also to verify the tool has not broken. A simple but probably more accurate switch like this would have a flat faced piston above the switch for essay day of, the tool to contact instead of the switch directly, giving a larger target. The design should also plan for an easily replaceable break point or some other fail safe if the switch fails (or human error)